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1.  Universal salt iodization is successful in Kashmiri population as iodine deficiency no longer exists in pregnant mothers and their neonates: Data from a tertiary care hospital in North India 
Introduction:
Normal pregnancy results in a number of important physiological and hormonal changes that alter thyroid function. In pregnancy, the thyroid gland being subjected to physiological stress undergoes several adaptations to maintain sufficient output of thyroid hormones for both mother and fetus. Consequently, pregnant women have been found to be particularly vulnerable to iodine deficiency disorders (IDD), and compromised iodine status during pregnancy has been found to affect the thyroid function and cognition in the neonates.
Objectives:
Two decades after successful universal salt iodization (USI) in the country, there is scarce data on the iodine status of the pregnant women and their neonates. This is more relevant in areas like Kashmir valley part of sub-Himalayan belt, an endemic region for IDD in the past. The objective was to estimate Urinary Iodine status in pregnant women, the most vulnerable population.
Materials and Methods:
We studied thyroid function [free T3 (FT3), T3, free T4 (FT4), T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)] and urinary iodine excretion (UIE) in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters and at early neonatal period in neonates in 81 mother–infant pairs (hypothyroid women on replacement) and compared them with 51 control mother–infant pairs (euthyroid).
Results:
Mean age of cases (29.42 + 3.56 years) was comparable to that of controls (29.87 + 3.37 years). The thyroid function evaluation done at baseline revealed the following: FT3 2.92 ± 0.76 versus 3.71 ± 0.54 pg/ml, T3 1.38 ± 0.37 versus 1.70 ± 0.35 ng/dl, FT4 1.22 ± 0.33 versus 1.52 ± 0.21 ng/dl, T4 9.54 ± 2.34 versus 13.55 ± 2.16 μg/dl, and TSH 7.92 ± 2.88 versus 4.14 ± 1.06 μIU/ml in cases versus controls (P > 0.01), respectively. The 2nd to 6th day thyroid function of neonates born to case and control mothers revealed T3 of 1.46 ± 0.44 versus 1.48 ± 0.36 ng/dl, T4 of 12.92 ± 2.57 versus 11.76 ± 1.78 μg/dl, and TSH of 3.64 ± 1.92 versus 3.82 ± 1.45 μIU/ml, respectively.
Discussion:
UIE was similar (139.12 ± 20.75 vs. 143.78 ± 17.65 μg/l; P = 0.8), but TSH values were higher in cases (7.92 ± 2.88) as compared to controls (4.14 ± 1.06). Although UIE gradually declined from 1st trimester to term, it remained in the sufficient range in both cases and controls. Thyroid function and UIE was similar in both case and control neonates.
Conclusion:
We conclude that pregnant Kashmiri women and their neonates are iodine sufficient, indicating successful salt iodization in the community. Large community-based studies on thyroid function, autoimmunity, malignancies, etc., are needed to see the long-term impact of iodization.
doi:10.4103/2230-8210.109713
PMCID: PMC3683211  PMID: 23776909
India; neonates; pregnancy; thyroid function; urinary iodine excretion
2.  Prevalence of primary headache disorders in school-going children in Kashmir Valley (North-west India) 
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology  2012;15(Suppl 1):S100-S103.
Objective:
A prospective prevalence study of primary headache disorders in school going children (8–18 years) in Srinagar district of Kashmir valley was conducted.
Materials and Methods:
The study population comprised of a randomized sample of 5000 school going children in the age group of 8–18 years from various educational institutions of Srinagar city. A self-administered pretested questionnaire was filled by the participants and the diagnosis established by following the International Headache Society criteria (IHS) 2004.
Results:
The overall prevalence of primary headache disorders was found to be 664/1000. The prevalence of tension-type headache and migraine was found to be 50.99% and 26.98%, respectively. The prevalence revealed an upward trend with increasing age with preponderance for female sex.
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.100030
PMCID: PMC3444214  PMID: 23024557
Children; headache; India; Kashmir; prevalence
3.  DEXAMETHASONE PULSE THERAPY IN PATIENTS OF SYSTEMIC SCLEROSIS: IS IT A VIABLE PROPOSITION? A STUDY FROM KASHMIR 
Indian Journal of Dermatology  2010;55(4):355-358.
Background:
Systemic sclerosis is a multisystemic autoimmune disorder. Intravenous dexamethasone pulse therapy has been used since 1998.
Aim:
The aim wasto report the beneficial effects of dexamethasone pulse in patients of systemic sclerosis vis-à-vis the side effects.
Materials and Methods:
Forty-seven patients of systemic sclerosis were included. After looking at the history and physical examination, the patients were submitted to various relevant investigations. Clinical scoring of the patient was done at baseline and 6-month interval according to Furst's organ indices score.
Results:
A total of47 patients of systemic sclerosis were included (45 females, 2 males). In majority, acrosclerosis was seen. Severe sclerosis and contractures were seen in two patients. Moderate proteinuria, restrictive lung disease, dysphagia, and valvular heart involvement were seen.A total of13 patients on dexamethasone pulse therapy developed tuberculosis. Improvement in skin scoring and decreased severity of Raynaud's phenomenon was seen. No improvement in dysphagia, severe vascular symptoms, or restrictive lung disease was seen.
Conclusion:
Thus, beneficial effects of dexamethasone pulse therapy seem to be merely cosmetic.
doi:10.4103/0019-5154.74543
PMCID: PMC3051296  PMID: 21430889
Dexamethasone pulse; Raynaud's phenomenon; systemic sclerosis

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