We report the annotated genome sequence of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolate from the cerebrospinal fluid of a tuberculous meningitis patient admitted to the Central India Institute of Medical Sciences, Nagpur, India.
The whole genome of a pigment-producing isolate from a lake in northern India, Pseudogulbenkiania ferrooxidans strain EGD-HP2, has been sequenced to study the spectrum of biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. The genome annotation data revealed an operon for violacein, which showed homology with the reported operon of a Chromobacterium sp., and also a quinone cofactor.
Pseudomonas putida CSV86, a soil isolate, preferentially utilizes naphthalene over glucose as a source of carbon and energy. We present the draft genome sequence, which is 6.4 Mb in size; analysis suggests the chromosomal localization of genes coding for naphthalene utilization. The operons coding for glucose and other aromatic compounds might also be annotated in another study.
The Rhizobium lupini strain HPC(L) was isolated from saline desert soil. It grows on minimal media supplemented with CaCO3 as a carbon source. It can also grow under both oligotrophic and heteroptrophic conditions. We report the annotated genome sequence of this strain in a 5.27-Mb scaffold.
Pseudomonas is a highly versatile bacterium at the species level with great ecological significance. These genetically and metabolically diverse species have undergone repeated taxonomic revisions. We propose a strategy to identify Pseudomonas up to species level, based on the unique features of their 16S rDNA (rrs) gene sequence, such as the frame work of sequences, sequence motifs and restriction endonuclease (RE) digestion patterns. A species specific phylogenetic framework composed of 31 different rrs sequences, allowed us to segregate 1,367 out of 2,985 rrs sequences of this genus, which have been classified at present only up to genus (Pseudomonas) level, as follows: P. aeruginosa (219 sequences), P. fluorescens (463 sequences), P. putida (347 sequences), P. stutzeri (197 sequences), and P. syringae (141 sequences). These segregations were validated by unique 30–50 nucleotide long motifs and RE digestion patterns in their rrs. A single gene thus provides multiple makers for identification and surveillance of Pseudomonas.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12088-013-0412-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Pseudomonas; Diversity; Evolution; Framework; Phylogeny; Restriction endonuclease
The present study was designed to investigate the utility of Quantiferon TB gold (QFT-G) and Tuberculin skin test (TST) for diagnosis of latent TB infection (LTBI) in high crowding TB endemic zone of Nagpur, India and their comparison with associated risk factors.
Out of 342 eligible participants, QFT-G and TST were performed in 162 participants.
The prevalence of LTBI observed according to QFT-G and TST was 48% and 42% respectively, with an agreement of 52.47%. QFT-G positivity was associated with age while TST positivity was associated with body mass index (BMI). Duration of exposure emerged as a key risk factor significantly associated with both the tests.
The prevalence of LTBI was quite high in the studied zone as detected by both the evaluated tests and thus, the combination of both the tests will be best predictive for LTBI in such high TB endemic regions.
Pseudomonas putida CSV86, a plasmid-free strain possessing capability to transfer the naphthalene degradation property, has been explored for its metabolic diversity through genome sequencing. The analysis of draft genome sequence of CSV86 (6.4 Mb) revealed the presence of genes involved in the degradation of naphthalene, salicylate, benzoate, benzylalcohol, p-hydroxybenzoate, phenylacetate and p-hydroxyphenylacetate on the chromosome thus ensuring the stability of the catabolic potential. Moreover, genes involved in the metabolism of phenylpropanoid and homogentisate, as well as heavy metal resistance, were additionally identified. Ability to grow on vanillin, veratraldehyde and ferulic acid, detection of inducible homogentisate dioxygenase and growth on aromatic compounds in the presence of heavy metals like copper, cadmium, cobalt and arsenic confirm in silico observations reflecting the metabolic versatility. In silico analysis revealed the arrangement of genes in the order: tRNAGly, integrase followed by nah operon, supporting earlier hypothesis of existence of a genomic island (GI) for naphthalene degradation. Deciphering the genomic architecture of CSV86 for aromatic degradation pathways and identification of elements responsible for horizontal gene transfer (HGT) suggests that genetic bioaugmentation strategies could be planned using CSV86 for effective bioremediation.
We present a draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum strain EGD-AQ4, isolated from nonalcoholic fermented bamboo shoot products of Northeast India. The size of the draft genome sequence is the largest among all the reported genome sequences of Lactobacillus plantarum, thus enabling the exploration of new gene clusters involved in various functional and probiotic attributes.
We report the draft genome sequences of two tropical bacterial isolates capable of degrading the herbicide atrazine. Alcaligenes sp. strain EGD-AK7 and Arthrobacter sp. strain AK-YN10 were isolated from Indian agricultural soil in which sugarcane is grown, with a reported history of atrazine use. EGD-AK7 has the atzABCDEF genes and AK-YN10 has the trzN and atzBC genes for atrazine degradation.
Metagenomic libraries herald the era of magnifying the microbial world, tapping into the vast metabolic potential of uncultivated microbes, and enhancing the rate of discovery of novel genes and pathways. In this paper, we describe a method that facilitates the extraction of metagenomic DNA from activated sludge of an industrial wastewater treatment plant and its use in mining the metagenome via library construction. The efficiency of this method was demonstrated by the large representation of the bacterial genome in the constructed metagenomic libraries and by the functional clones obtained. The BAC library represented 95.6 times the bacterial genome, while, the pUC library represented 41.7 times the bacterial genome. Twelve clones in the BAC library demonstrated lipolytic activity, while four clones demonstrated dioxygenase activity. Four clones in pUC library tested positive for cellulase activity. This method, using FTA cards, not only can be used for library construction, but can also store the metagenome at room temperature.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12088-012-0263-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Activated biomass; Cellulase; FTA elute micro card; Lipase; Metagenomic library
Arthrobacter sp. HPC1223 (Genebank Accession No. AY948280) isolated from activated biomass of effluent treatment plant was capable of utilizing 2,4,6 trinitrophenol (TNP) under aerobic condition at 30 °C and pH 7 as nitrogen source. It was observed that the isolated bacteria utilized TNP up to 70 % (1 mM) in R2A media with nitrite release. The culture growth media changed into orange-red color hydride-meisenheimer complex at 24 h as detected by HPLC. Oxygen uptake of Arthrobacter HPC1223 towards various nitro/amino substituted phenols such as dinitrophenol (1.2 nmol/min/mg cells), paranitrophenol (0.9 nmol/min/mg cells), 2-aminophenol (0.75 nmol/min/mg cells), p-aminophenol (0.4 nmol/min/mg cells), phenol (0.56 nmol/min/mg cells) and TNP (2.42 nmol/min/mg cell) was analysed, which showed its additional characteristic of broad substrate catabolic capacity. The present study thus report a novel indigenous bacteria isolated from activated sludge utilized TNP and has broad catabolic potential towards substituted phenols.
Trinitrophenol; Arthrobacter; ETP; Nitrite; Degradation
The present study was designed to investigate Rv2623 antigen, a major dormancy regulon protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in CSF of suspected latent and active tuberculous meningitis (TBM) patients. A total of 100 CSF samples from TBM (n = 31), suspected latent TBM (n = 22), and suitable noninfectious control subjects (n = 47) were collected and evaluated for Rv2623 antigen level using ELISA protocol. A significantly high (P < 0.05) mean absorbance was observed in samples of suspected latent TBM and active TBM patients as compared to non-TBM control patients. However, no significant difference in Rv2623 level was observed between suspected latent TBM and TBM patients. Our preliminary findings suggest that Rv2623 may be useful as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of the latent as well as active TBM infection. Futher evaluation of this biomarker in large number of samples is therefore needed to confirm the result.
Malnutrition is a major risk factor for the development of tuberculosis (TB). In India, Melghat is among the tribal regions which consist of highest number of malnutrition cases. Because of the paucity of TB data from these malnourished areas there is an urgent need for the development and evaluation of improved TB diagnostic tests. In the present study, three in house developed diagnostic tests namely TB-Ag(antigen) ELISA, Adenosine deaminase (ADA) estimation and IS6110 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay were investigated for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb.) infection.
For investigation, blood samples were collected from 128 study subjects from six villages of Melghat tribal area and evaluated using three in house developed assays, namely TB-Ag ELISA, ADA estimation and IS6110 PCR.
The TB-Ag ELISA method yielded 83% sensitivity and 94% specificity. The ADA and PCR assay gave a sensitivity of 61% and 49% and specificity of 62% and 98% respectively. A considerable good agreement of 82.81% (k=0.472) between TB-Ag ELISA and PCR was observed. The overall sensitivity of TB-Ag ELISA was significantly higher (p<0.05) than the ADA and PCR while PCR yielded highest specificity among all the three evaluated tests.
We concluded that the routine use of TB-Ag ELISA can be useful for screening of suspected TB patients in the malnourished population where sophisticated laboratory set up is difficult.
We report a draft genome sequence of Alcaligenes sp. strain HPC1271, which demonstrates antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Antibiotic production by Alcaligenes has not been frequently reported, and hence, the availability of the genome sequence should enable us to explore new antibiotic-producing gene clusters.
Biomarker for prognosis of stroke is urgently needed for the management of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients.
To evaluate the course of inflammatory cytokines in AIS patients and its comparison with inter-alfa trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 (ITIH4) and outcome after AIS.
Materials and Methods:
A panel of 12 inflammatory cytokines and ITIH4 were estimated in serial blood samples collected at admission, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 144 h and at discharge of AIS patients (n = 5).
Out of the 12 cytokines, only interleukin (IL)-2, tumor necrosis factor-alfa (TNF-α), IL-10, IL-6, IL-1B and IL-8 were in the measurable range of the kit (10 pg/mL). We found high IL-2 at admission, which decreased (P < 0.05) in the follow-up samples. TNF-α initially increases (P < 0.05) at 24 h followed by gradual decrease (P < 0.05) after 72 h. IL-10 decreases initially (P < 0.05) till 72 h as compared with its level at admission and then increases (P < 0.05) after 144 h. Similarly, ITIH4 was down-regulated in the early 72 h followed by further increase with improvement of the patient. ITIH4 correlates with IL-10 and computed tomography scan infarct volume. Serum IL-6, IL-1B and IL-8 increased in the AIS patients, but did not show any pattern.
Serial measurement of IL-10, IL-2 and TNF-α and ITIH4 may be useful for the follow-up of clinical outcome after AIS.
Acute ischemic stroke; cytokine; inter-alfa trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4; prognosis
Diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is often difficult. A reliable, simple, and rapid diagnostic test that can be performed in any standard laboratory could be helpful in TBM diagnosis. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (LAMP) was evaluated to rapidly detect and diagnose TBM infection and was compared to the performance of nested PCR. Six specific primers were used to recognize the IS6110 genomic sequence from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which included one forward outer primer, one reverse outer primer, two respective inner primers, and two loop primers. The optimum reaction temperature and time were 63°C and 60 min, respectively. Nested PCR was performed targeting the IS6110 region from M. tuberculosis using a commercial kit. The LAMP method yielded a sensitivity of 88.23% and a specificity of 80%, compared to the nested-PCR assay, which yielded a sensitivity of 52.9% and a specificity of 90% for TBM diagnosis. Comparative experiments showed that the LAMP assay is a rapid, sensitive, and specific method to detect TBM infection and that it is superior to the nested-PCR assay. LAMP is very simple, and it can be performed in any laboratory and in rural settings.
Microbial virulence and their resistance to multiple drugs have obliged researchers to look for novel drug targets. Virulence of pathogenic microbes is regulated by signal molecules such as acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) produced during a cell density dependent phenomenon of quorum sensing (QS). In contrast, certain microbes produce AHL-lactonases and -acylases to degrade QS signals, also termed as quorum quenching. Mining sequenced genome databases has revealed organisms possessing conserved domains for AHL-lactonases and –acylases: i) Streptomyces (Actinobacteria), ii) Deinococcus (Deinococcus-Thermus), iii) Hyphomonas (α-Proteobacteria), iv) Ralstonia (β-Proteobacteria), v) Photorhabdus (γ-Proteobacteria), and certain marine gamma proteobacterium. Presence of genes for both the enzymes within an organism was observed in the following: i) Deinococcus radiodurans R1, ii) Hyphomonas neptunium ATCC 15444 and iii) Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii TTO1. These observations are supported by the presence motifs for lactonase and acylase in these strains. Phylogenetic analysis and multiple sequence alignment of the gene sequences for AHL-lactonases and –acylases have revealed consensus sequences which can be used to design primers for amplifying these genes even among mixed cultures and metagenomes. Quorum quenching can be exploited to prevent food spoilage, bacterial infections and bioremediation.
Acylhomoserine lactone; Acylase; Bacillus; Lactonase; Phylogeny; Pseudomonas; Quorum sensing; Quorum quenching.
Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) is a sensitive marker of ischemic event. However, limited studies are available regarding role of IMA in acute ischemic stroke (AIS).
The aim of this study was to evaluate time course of IMA in AIS patient to validate its prognostic value.
IMA level was estimated in serum samples collected from five AIS patients at admission, 24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs, and 144hrs after admission and also from five control subjects.
There was significant (p<0.05) increase in IMA level in AIS samples at admission, 24hrs, 48hrs and 144hrs respectively when compared with control. On comparing IMA levels in follow up AIS samples with that of admission value we found that it decreased in follow-up samples till 72hrs, and significant (p<0.05) decrease was observed at 24hrs and 72hrs.
Findings shows that follow up estimation of IMA level in AIS may help in the prediction of the clinical status and outcome.
Acute ischemic stroke; Prognosis; Ischemia modified albumin; Biomarker; Serum marker
The diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) ascites is problematic. Delay in the diagnosis and treatment of TB ascites are considered to be major factors that contribute to the high mortality of TB. This study identifies specific protein markers in ascitic fluid which will be useful in diagnosis of TB ascites.
We used Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, immunoblot analysis and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as a comprehensive quantitative proteomic screening system for the diagnosis of TB ascites.
The screen identified several antigens of interest: a 30-kilodalton (kDa) protein that demonstrated significant homology to the antigen 85B and 85C (Ag 85) complex; a 65-kDa protein that corresponded to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) heat shock protein 65 (65-kDa HSP), Rv0440; a 14-kDa protein and 71-kDa protein that exhibits an amino acid sequence identical to that of MTB heat shock protein 14 (14-kDa HSP), GroES; and MTB heat shock protein 71 (71-kDa HSP), Rv0350 respectively. ELISA confirmed that TB ascites patients were consistently positive for these antigens at higher rates than non-TB ascites patients.
The 65-kDa HSP, 71-kDa HSP, 14-kDa HSP and Ag 85 complex proteins may serve as very useful diagnostic markers for TB ascites.
TB ascites; heat shock proteins; M. tuberculosis antigens
During Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) epidemic in Nagpur, India, we identified some suspected Chikungunya patients with neurological complications. Early and cost-effective diagnosis of these patients remains problematic despite many new advanced diagnostic methods. A reliable diagnostic test, which could be performed in any standard pathology laboratory, would help to obtain definitive early diagnosis of CHIKV patients with neurological complications. In our laboratory, in-house ELISA protocol for viral antigen, immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG detection has been developed and assessed for the diagnosis of CHIKV patients with neurological complications.
Cerebrospinal fluid samples of forty-six patients who developed neurological symptoms within two months of CHIKV infections along with control subjects were included in the study and were analyzed for the presence of antigens and of IgM and IgG using an ELISA protocol.
The ELISA method for antigen detection yielded 80% sensitivity and 87% specificity for the diagnosis of CHIKV patients with neurological complications. The sensitivity for detection of IgM 48% or IgG 63% was significantly lower than the antigen assay (80%).
The detection of viral antigen in CSF of CHIKV patients with neurological complications by ELISA method gave a more reliable diagnosis than antibodies detection that can be used to develop an immunodiagnostic assay with increased sensitivity and specificity.
A Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak continues in India. Monitoring of the clinical features of CHIKV infection is an important component of assessing the disease process. Diagnosis is usually made by an immunoglobulin M (IgM)/IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, these assays have extremely low sensitivities for the detection of infection in the majority of CHIKV patients during the acute stage of infection (during the 1 to 4 days after infection). In our laboratory, a sensitive ELISA protocol for antigen detection has been developed for the detection of CHIKV infection in the acute stage, and in the present study we assessed the usefulness of this ELISA-based system for the detection of CHIKV infection. We performed a prospective, double-blinded study of 205 Indian patients with suspected CHIKV infection in the Nagpur District. All patients underwent a full clinical assessment, and their serum samples were analyzed for the presence of antigens and of IgM and IgG by an ELISA protocol. In patients with CHIKV infection, the sensitivity of antigen detection was 85%, which was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than that of IgM (17%) or IgG (45%) detection. The sensitivity of IgM (20%) or IgG (25%) detection was significantly lower than that of the antigen assay (95%) for patients with acute infections (i.e., from day 1 to day 5 after infection). Antigen detection not only gives a positive confirmatory result in the early phase of the disease, but it is also useful in the prodromal and subclinical stage and may be useful for field applications for the rapid detection of CHIKV infection.
Bioremediation is a process that uses microorganisms or their enzymes to remove pollutants from the environment. Generally, bioremediation technologies can be classified as in situ or ex situ. In situ bioremediation involves treating the contaminated material at the site while ex situ involves the removal of the contaminated material to be treated elsewhere. Like so much else in biology, the ease and availability of genomic data has created a new level of understanding this system. Bioremediation capabilities of the microbial population can be analyzed; not only by physiological parameters, but also by the use of genomic tools, and efficient remediation strategies can be planned. PCR and DNA- or oligonucleotide-based microarray technology is a powerful functional genomics tool that allows researchers to view the physiology of a living cell from a comprehensive and dynamic molecular perspective. This paper explores the use of such tools in bioremediation process.
Bioremediation; Catabolic potential; Molecular tools; Metagenomics
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most prevalent cause of death due to a single pathogen. Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) is the only vaccine available for clinical use that protects against miliary TB; however, this vaccine has shown variable levels of efficacy against pulmonary TB. In India, a single dose of BCG vaccine is given and there are few countries where repeated doses of BCG are given. The incidence of TB in India is very high inspite of primary vaccination in neonatal period and therefore requires consideration for repeated immunization.
To improve BCG immunogenicity, we have evaluated specific antimycobacterial immune responses (anti-BCG IgG and IFN-γ), T cell activity-ADA, CD4 and CD8 T cell count, and CD4/CD8 ratio in a peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) model using boost immunization protocols with the BCG vaccine. PBMC were induced with a repeat dose of BCG at 24 and 72 hrs of cell culture.
At the end of the experimental time, supernatant was collected to estimate anti-BCG IgG titer, interferon γ, ADA activity, CD 4 and CD8 T cell count, and CD4/CD8 ratio. We demonstrated that PBMC induced with a repeat dose of BCG showed an increased specific anti-mycobacterial immune responses, T cell activity, and ADA activity as compared to PBMC induced with BCG alone or without BCG induction.
The repeat BCG stimulation of PBMC obtained from BCG vaccinated individuals shows enhanced immune activation with respect to increased anti-BCG titre, IFN-γ and ADA activity without concomitant increase in CD4 and CD8 cells. This study provides some basic data in future experiments in animal models with respect to repeat BCG vaccination.
Atherothrombotic diseases such as myocardial or cerebral infarction are serious consequences of the thrombus formed in blood vessels. Thrombolytic agents are used to dissolve the already formed clots in the blood vessels; however, these drugs have certain limitations which cause serious and sometimes fatal consequences. Herbal preparations have been used since ancient times for the treatment of several diseases. Herbs and their components possessing antithrombotic activity have been reported before; however, herbs that could be used for thrombolysis has not been reported so far. This study's aim was to investigate whether herbal preparations (aqueous extract) possess thrombolytic activity or not.
An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effect of six aqueous herbal extracts viz., Tinospora cordifolia, Rubia cordifolia, Hemidesmus indicus, Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn, Fagonia Arabica and Bacopa monnieri Linn along with Streptokinase as a positive control and water as a negative control.
Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, Tinospora cordifolia, Rubia cordifolia, Hemidesmus indicus, Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn, Fagonia Arabica and Bacopa monnieri Linn showed 19.3%, 14.5%, 20.3%, 17.8%, 75.6% and 41.8% clot lysis respectively . Among the herbs studied Fagonia arabica showed significant % of clot lysis (75.6%) with reference to Streptokinase (86.2%).
Through our study it was found that Dhamasa possesses thrombolytic properties that could lyse blood clots in vitro; however, in vivo clot dissolving properties and active component(s) of Dhamasa for clot lysis are yet to be discovered. Once found Dhamasa could be incorporated as a thrombolytic agent for the improvement of patients suffering from Atherothrombotic diseases.
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is one of the common clinical manifestations of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. It is difficult to diagnose due to a lack of rapid, sensitive, and specific tests. Newer methods, which are easy and reliable, are required to diagnose TBM at an early stage. Thus our aim was to evaluate the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, using primers directed against the IS6110 gene, for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the CSF, for the diagnosis of TBM patients.
An in-house IS6110 PCR method using a specific pair of primers designed to amplify the insertion sequence, IS6110, in the M. tuberculosis genome was used to analyze CSF. A total of 80 CSF samples from different groups of patients were studied (confirmed TBM n = 35, clinically suspected TBM n = 16, non-TBM infectious meningitis n = 12, non infectious neurological diseases n = 17).
PCR gave a sensitivity of 91.4% and specificity of 75.9% for the diagnosis of TBM in patients with TBM confirmed by culture. In 16 clinically diagnosed, but unconfirmed, TBM cases PCR was positive in 10 (62.5%) cases. There were seven (24.1%) PCR-positive cases among the 29 patients with non-TBM and non-infectious neurological disease.
We conclude that the performance of an in-house IS6110 PCR assay is valuable in the rapid diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis.