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1.  Latent TB Infection Diagnosis in Population Exposed to TB Subjects in Close and Poor Ventilated High TB Endemic Zone in India 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e89524.
The present study was designed to investigate the utility of Quantiferon TB gold (QFT-G) and Tuberculin skin test (TST) for diagnosis of latent TB infection (LTBI) in high crowding TB endemic zone of Nagpur, India and their comparison with associated risk factors.
Out of 342 eligible participants, QFT-G and TST were performed in 162 participants.
The prevalence of LTBI observed according to QFT-G and TST was 48% and 42% respectively, with an agreement of 52.47%. QFT-G positivity was associated with age while TST positivity was associated with body mass index (BMI). Duration of exposure emerged as a key risk factor significantly associated with both the tests.
The prevalence of LTBI was quite high in the studied zone as detected by both the evaluated tests and thus, the combination of both the tests will be best predictive for LTBI in such high TB endemic regions.
PMCID: PMC3948673  PMID: 24614179
2.  Mycobacterial Dormancy Regulon Protein Rv2623 as a Novel Biomarker for the Diagnosis of Latent and Active Tuberculous Meningitis 
Disease markers  2013;35(5):311-316.
The present study was designed to investigate Rv2623 antigen, a major dormancy regulon protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in CSF of suspected latent and active tuberculous meningitis (TBM) patients. A total of 100 CSF samples from TBM (n = 31), suspected latent TBM (n = 22), and suitable noninfectious control subjects (n = 47) were collected and evaluated for Rv2623 antigen level using ELISA protocol. A significantly high (P < 0.05) mean absorbance was observed in samples of suspected latent TBM and active TBM patients as compared to non-TBM control patients. However, no significant difference in Rv2623 level was observed between suspected latent TBM and TBM patients. Our preliminary findings suggest that Rv2623 may be useful as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of the latent as well as active TBM infection. Futher evaluation of this biomarker in large number of samples is therefore needed to confirm the result.
PMCID: PMC3787564  PMID: 24167379
3.  Laboratory Investigations on the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in the Malnourished Tribal Population of Melghat, India 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e74652.
Malnutrition is a major risk factor for the development of tuberculosis (TB). In India, Melghat is among the tribal regions which consist of highest number of malnutrition cases. Because of the paucity of TB data from these malnourished areas there is an urgent need for the development and evaluation of improved TB diagnostic tests. In the present study, three in house developed diagnostic tests namely TB-Ag(antigen) ELISA, Adenosine deaminase (ADA) estimation and IS6110 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay were investigated for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb.) infection.
For investigation, blood samples were collected from 128 study subjects from six villages of Melghat tribal area and evaluated using three in house developed assays, namely TB-Ag ELISA, ADA estimation and IS6110 PCR.
The TB-Ag ELISA method yielded 83% sensitivity and 94% specificity. The ADA and PCR assay gave a sensitivity of 61% and 49% and specificity of 62% and 98% respectively. A considerable good agreement of 82.81% (k=0.472) between TB-Ag ELISA and PCR was observed. The overall sensitivity of TB-Ag ELISA was significantly higher (p<0.05) than the ADA and PCR while PCR yielded highest specificity among all the three evaluated tests.
We concluded that the routine use of TB-Ag ELISA can be useful for screening of suspected TB patients in the malnourished population where sophisticated laboratory set up is difficult.
PMCID: PMC3772098  PMID: 24069327
4.  Time course of inflammatory cytokines in acute ischemic stroke patients and their relation to inter-alfa trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 and outcome 
Biomarker for prognosis of stroke is urgently needed for the management of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients.
To evaluate the course of inflammatory cytokines in AIS patients and its comparison with inter-alfa trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 (ITIH4) and outcome after AIS.
Materials and Methods:
A panel of 12 inflammatory cytokines and ITIH4 were estimated in serial blood samples collected at admission, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 144 h and at discharge of AIS patients (n = 5).
Out of the 12 cytokines, only interleukin (IL)-2, tumor necrosis factor-alfa (TNF-α), IL-10, IL-6, IL-1B and IL-8 were in the measurable range of the kit (10 pg/mL). We found high IL-2 at admission, which decreased (P < 0.05) in the follow-up samples. TNF-α initially increases (P < 0.05) at 24 h followed by gradual decrease (P < 0.05) after 72 h. IL-10 decreases initially (P < 0.05) till 72 h as compared with its level at admission and then increases (P < 0.05) after 144 h. Similarly, ITIH4 was down-regulated in the early 72 h followed by further increase with improvement of the patient. ITIH4 correlates with IL-10 and computed tomography scan infarct volume. Serum IL-6, IL-1B and IL-8 increased in the AIS patients, but did not show any pattern.
Serial measurement of IL-10, IL-2 and TNF-α and ITIH4 may be useful for the follow-up of clinical outcome after AIS.
PMCID: PMC3424794  PMID: 22919189
Acute ischemic stroke; cytokine; inter-alfa trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4; prognosis
5.  Prognostic significance of ischemia-modified albumin in acute ischemic stroke patients: A preliminary study 
Annals of Neurosciences  2011;18(1):5-7.
Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) is a sensitive marker of ischemic event. However, limited studies are available regarding role of IMA in acute ischemic stroke (AIS).
The aim of this study was to evaluate time course of IMA in AIS patient to validate its prognostic value.
IMA level was estimated in serum samples collected from five AIS patients at admission, 24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs, and 144hrs after admission and also from five control subjects.
There was significant (p<0.05) increase in IMA level in AIS samples at admission, 24hrs, 48hrs and 144hrs respectively when compared with control. On comparing IMA levels in follow up AIS samples with that of admission value we found that it decreased in follow-up samples till 72hrs, and significant (p<0.05) decrease was observed at 24hrs and 72hrs.
Findings shows that follow up estimation of IMA level in AIS may help in the prediction of the clinical status and outcome.
PMCID: PMC4117019  PMID: 25205910
Acute ischemic stroke; Prognosis; Ischemia modified albumin; Biomarker; Serum marker

Results 1-5 (5)