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Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology (1)
The Journal of Headache and Pain (1)
Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders (1)
Lambru, Giorgio (3)
Matharu, Manjit S. (2)
Bini, Annamaria (1)
Castellini, Paola (1)
Evangelista, Andrea (1)
Ferrante, Tullia (1)
Manzoni, Gian Camillo (1)
Torelli, Paola (1)
Year of Publication
Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias: A review of recent diagnostic, therapeutic and pathophysiological developments
Matharu, Manjit S.
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
The trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) are a group of primary headache disorders that are characterized by strictly unilateral trigeminal distribution pain occurring in association with ipsilateral cranial autonomic symptoms. This group includes cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania and short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing. These disorders are very painful, often considered to be some of the most painful conditions known to mankind, and consequently are highly disabling. They are distinguished by the frequency of attacks of pain, the length of the attacks and very characteristic responses to medical therapy, such that the diagnosis can usually be made clinically, which is important because it dictates therapy. The management of TACs can be very rewarding for physicians and highly beneficial to patients.
Cluster headache; paroxysmal hemicrania; SUNA; SUNCT; trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias
Occipital nerve stimulation in primary headache syndromes
Matharu, Manjit S.
Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
Chronic daily headache is a major worldwide health problem that affects 3–5% of the population and results in substantial disability. Advances in the management of headache disorders have meant that a substantial proportion of patients can be effectively treated with medical treatments. However, a significant minority of these patients are intractable to conventional medical treatments. Occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) is emerging as a promising treatment for patients with medically intractable, highly disabling chronic headache disorders, including migraine, cluster headache and other less common headache syndromes. Open-label studies have suggested that this treatment modality is effective and recent controlled trial data are also encouraging. The procedure is performed using several technical variations that have been reviewed along with the complications, which are usually minor and tolerable. The mechanism of action is poorly understood, though recent data suggest that ONS could restore the balance within the impaired central pain system through slow neuromodulatory processes in the pain neuromatrix. While the available data are very encouraging, the ultimate confirmation of the utility of a new therapeutic modality should come from controlled trials before widespread use can be advocated; more controlled data are still needed to properly assess the role of ONS in the management of medically intractable headache disorders. Future studies also need to address the variables that are predictors of response, including clinical phenotypes, surgical techniques and stimulation parameters.
Neuromodulation; headache; occipital nerve stimulation; migraine; cluster headache; SUNCT; SUNA; hemicrania continua
Manzoni, Gian Camillo
The Journal of Headache and Pain
The purpose of this review was to provide a critical evaluation of medical literature on so-called “cardiac cephalgia” or “cardiac cephalalgia”. The 2004 International Classification of Headache Disorders codes cardiac cephalgia to 10.6 in the group of secondary headaches attributed to disorder of homoeostasis. This headache is hardly recognizable and is associated to an ischaemic cardiovascular event, of which it may be the only manifestation in 27% of cases. It usually occurs after exertion. Sometimes routine examinations, cardiac enzymes, ECG and even exercise stress test prove negative. In such cases, only a coronary angiogram can provide sufficient evidence for diagnosis. Cardiac cephalgia manifests itself without a specific pattern of clinical features: indeed, in this headache subtype there is a high variability of clinical manifestations between different patients and also within the same patient. It “mimics” sometimes a form of migraine either accompanied or not by autonomic symptoms, sometimes a form of tension-type headache; on other occasions, it exhibits characteristics that can hardly be interpreted as typical of primary headache. Pain location is highly variable. When the headache occurs as the only manifestation of an acute coronary event, the clues for suspicion are a) older age at onset, b) no past medical history of headache, c) presence of risk factors for vascular disorders and d) onset of headache under stress. Knowledge of cardiac cephalgia is scarce, due to its rare clinical occurrence and to the scant importance given to headache as a symptom concomitantly with an ischaemic cardiac event.
Cardiac cephalgia; Exertional headache; Secondary headache; Headache attributed to disorder of homoeostasis; Acute myocardial ischemia
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