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1.  Serum iron may not be linked with migraine 
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.116959
PMCID: PMC3788319  PMID: 24101855
2.  Prevalence of restless leg syndrome in subjects with depressive disorder 
Indian Journal of Psychiatry  2013;55(1):70-73.
Background:
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is known to be associated with depression. We hypothesized that RLS in depression is linked to the severity, duration, and frequency of depressive episodes.
Materials and Methods:
Subjects fulfilling DSM-IV-TR criteria of depressive disorders were included in this study after seeking informed consent. Using structured interview of MINI-Plus their demographic data and history were recorded. Severity of depression was assessed with the help of HAM-D. Insomnia was diagnosed following ICSD-2 criteria. RLS was diagnosed according to IRLSSG criteria. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, independent sample t test and MANOVA were computed with the help of SPSS v 17.0.
Results:
RLS was reported by 31.48% of sample. There was no gender difference in prevalence of RLS (X2 =0.46; P=0.33). There was no difference in the age , total duration of depressive illness and number of depressive episodes between RLS and non-RLS groups (F=0.44; P=0.77; Wilk's Lambda=0.96). The HAM-D score was higher in the non-RLS group (P=0.03). Onset of RLS symptoms was not related to onset of depressive symptoms.
Conclusion:
RLS is prevalent in depressive disorder. However, onset of RLS is unrelated to age and number or duration of depressive disorders.
doi:10.4103/0019-5545.105515
PMCID: PMC3574459  PMID: 23439849
Adults; depression; prevalance; restless leg syndrome
3.  Restlessness in right upper limb as sole presentation of restless legs syndrome 
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) rarely affects the upper limb during the initial course of disease. We present a patient who complained of symptoms suggesting RLS in the right upper limb as the sole manifestation of illness. Bilateral cervical ribs and depression were co-incidental findings. Patient responded well to dopaminergic therapy.
doi:10.4103/0976-3147.105625
PMCID: PMC3579060  PMID: 23546363
Cervical ribs; depression; restless leg syndrome
5.  Primary headaches in restless legs syndrome patients 
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology  2012;15(Suppl 1):S104-S108.
Earlier studies conducted among migraineurs have shown an association between migraine and restless legs syndrome (RLS). We chose RLS patients and looked for migraine to exclude sample bias.
Materials and Methods:
99 consecutive subjects of idiopathic RLS were recruited from the sleep clinic during four months period. Physician diagnosis of headache and depressive disorder was made with the help of ICHD-2 and DSM-IV-TR criteria, respectively. Sleep history was gathered. Severity of RLS and insomnia was measured using IRLS (Hindi version) and insomnia severity index Hindi version, respectively. Chi-square test, one way ANOVA and t-test were applied to find out the significance.
Results:
Primary headache was seen in 51.5% cases of RLS. Migraine was reported by 44.4% subjects and other types of ‘primary headaches’ were reported by 7.1% subjects. Subjects were divided into- RLS; RLS with migraine and RLS with other headache. Females outnumbered in migraine subgroup (χ2=16.46, P<0.001). Prevalence of depression (χ2=3.12, P=0.21) and family history of RLS (χ2=2.65, P=0.26) were not different among groups. Severity of RLS (P=0.22) or insomnia (P=0.43) were also similar.
Conclusion:
Migraine is frequently found in RLS patients in clinic based samples. Females with RLS are prone to develop migraine. Depression and severity of RLS or insomnia do not affect development of headache.
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.100031
PMCID: PMC3444227  PMID: 23024558
Migraine; primary headache; restless legs syndrome
6.  Translation and validation of International Restless Leg Syndrome Study Group rating scale in Hindi language 
Objectives:
The objective of this study is to translate and validate the International Restless Leg Syndrome Study Group rating scale (IRLS) in Hindi language.
Materials and Methods:
Thirty one consecutive patients diagnosed of Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS) were included in the study. Control group comprised of 31 subjects not having any symptom of RLS. The scale was procured from MAPI research trust; and, permission for the translation was sought. The translation was done according to the guidelines provided by the publisher. After translation, final version of the scale was applied in both the groups to find out the reliability and clinical validity.
Results:
RLS group had a predominance of females, and they were younger than the male counterparts (Age=36.80 ± 10.46 years vs 45.18 ± 8.34 years; t=2.28; P=0.03). There was no difference in the mean age between groups (RLS=39.77 ± 10.44 years vs Non RLS=38.29 ± 11.29 years; t=-0.53; P=0.59). IRLS scores were significantly different between both groups on all items (P<0.001). Translated version showed high reliability (Cronbach's alpha=0.86). IRLS scores were significantly different between both groups on all items (P<0.001).
Conclusion:
Hindi version of IRLS is reliable and a clinically valid tool that can be applied in Hindi speaking population.
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.91939
PMCID: PMC3271463  PMID: 22346013
Hindi translation; International Restless Leg Syndrome Study Group rating scale; Restless Leg Syndrome; translation; validation
7.  Insomnia Associated with Depressive Disorder: Primary, Secondary, or Mixed? 
Background:
Insomnia is a common problem that is known to occur during depression. However, literature still debates whether insomnia is part of depression or a separate entity.
Materials and Methods:
Subjects presenting with depressive disorder according to DSM-IV-Text Revision criteria were recruited after seeking informed consent. Clinical interview was performed with the help of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus. Their demographic data and depression related history were recorded. Depression severity was assessed by using Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Diagnosis of insomnia was made with the help of International Classification of Sleep Disorders-2 criteria. Type of insomnia, its duration, and its relationship with depressive illness were specifically asked. If any subject fulfilled criteria for more than one type of insomnia, both were recorded. Statistical analysis was done with the help of statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 17.0. χ2 test, independent sample t test, and Pearson's correlation were performed.
Results:
A total of 54 subjects were enrolled in this study. Primary insomnia was seen in 40.7% cases and secondary insomnia in 58.8% cases; 27.3% subjects did not experience insomnia along with depressive disorder. In the primary insomnia category, adjustment insomnia was most prevalent (63.6%), and in secondary insomnia group, insomnia due to depressive disorder was most frequent (59.3%). Interestingly, primary insomnia often followed an onset of depressive illness (P=0.04), while secondary insomnia preceded it (c2 =11.1; P=0.004). The presence of either type of insomnias was not influenced by duration of depressive illness, number of depressive episodes, and duration of current depressive episode. On the other hand, duration of insomnia was positively correlated with total duration of depressive illness (P=0.003), number of episodes (P=0.04), and duration of current depressive episode (P<0.001).
Conclusion:
Primary insomnia is common in subjects with depression, and it usually follows depressive illness. On the other hand, secondary insomnia often precedes the onset of depressive illness. Duration of insomnia positively correlates with duration and frequency of depressive episodes.
doi:10.4103/0253-7176.92056
PMCID: PMC3271484  PMID: 22345834
Major depressive disorder; primary insomnia; secondary insomnia
8.  Translation and Validation of the Insomnia Severity Index in Hindi Language 
Aims and Objectives:
Translation of the Insomnia Severity Index from English to Hindi and Validation of the Hindi version.
Materials and Methods:
The translation process of the Insomnia Severity Index was initiated after obtaining due permission from the author of the original version of the same. Translation was carried out by using standard translation procedures, such as combined translation, decentering, and pretest method. The final version of the Insomnia Severity Index in Hindi was finally validated. A randomly selected sample size of 65 subjects was enrolled for the purpose of validation and testing the reliability of Hindi version of the Insomnia Severity Index. Insomnia was present in 45 subjects and they constituted the insomnia group. The rest 20 subjects did not have insomnia and were included in the control group. The Hindi version of the Insomnia Severity Index was applied to both the groups.
Results:
The total sample constituted of 50.8% males and 49.2% females. The mean age in the control group was 30.8±8.3 years and that in the insomnia group was 40.3±4 years (t=3.04; P=0.001). The translated version of the Insomnia Severity Index showed a reliability of 0.91 (Cronbach's α=0.91). This was not just simple translation, but many of the words were changed to adapt it for the local population.
Conclusion:
The Hindi version of the Insomnia Severity Index is a valid and reliable tool that can be administered for the assessment of severity of insomnia.
doi:10.4103/0253-7176.92060
PMCID: PMC3271495  PMID: 22345845
Hindi; insomnia; insomnia severity index; validation
9.  Kleine-Levin Syndrome and Idiopathic Hypersomnia: Spectrum Disorders 
Kleine–Levin syndrome (KLS) and idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) are primary sleep disorders of unknown etiologies, which often run a chronic course. The common core symptoms of these syndromes are hypersomnolence and sleep drunkenness, with periodic hypersomnolence and hyperphagia being the prominent symptoms of KLS. Psychiatric manifestations are common to both and include irritability, depression, apathy, inattention and poor concentration. Both disorders are diagnosed clinically and no specific laboratory investigation is available to confirm the diagnosis. We present a case highlighting the overlapping of the symptoms of KLS and IH, producing a complex clinical picture.
doi:10.4103/0253-7176.92048
PMCID: PMC3271500  PMID: 22345850
Hyperphagia; hypersomnolence; idiopathic hypersomnia; Kleine–Levin syndrome; periodic hypersomnolence

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