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1.  Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Chronic Diseases of Youths and Access to Health Care in the United States 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:787616.
Racial/ethnic minorities are 1.5 to 2.0 times more likely than whites to have most of the major chronic diseases. Chronic diseases are also more common in the poor than the nonpoor and this association is frequently mediated by race/ethnicity. Specifically, children are disproportionately affected by racial/ethnic health disparities. Between 1960 and 2005 the percentage of children with a chronic disease in the United States almost quadrupled with racial/ethnic minority youth having higher likelihood for these diseases. The most common major chronic diseases of youth in the United States are asthma, diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension, dental disease, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, mental illness, cancers, sickle-cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, and a variety of genetic and other birth defects. This review will focus on the psychosocial rather than biological factors that play important roles in the etiology and subsequent solutions to these health disparities because they should be avoidable and they are inherently unjust. Finally, this review examines access to health services by focusing on health insurance and dental insurance coverage and access to school health services.
doi:10.1155/2013/787616
PMCID: PMC3794652  PMID: 24175301
2.  Headache symptoms and indoor environmental parameters: Results from the EPA BASE study 
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology  2012;15(Suppl 1):S95-S99.
Objective:
The objective of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of migraine and headache symptoms in a national sample of US office employees. Also, we explored the association of headache symptoms with indoor environmental parameters of the work place.
Background:
Sick building syndrome (SBS), which includes headache, is a common global phenomenon, but the underlying environmental cause is uncertain.
Materials and Methods:
We used data from the 1994–1998 US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Building Assessment and Survey Evaluation, a cross-sectional study of workers employed in 100 public and private office buildings across 25 states. The study used a self-administered questionnaire to assess headache frequency and prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosed (SRPD) migraine. Indoor environmental parameters (IEP) were collected per EPA protocol from each building over a 1-week period and included carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, temperature, relative humidity, particulate matter, volatile organic compound, illuminance, and sound level. The standards of American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers were used to categorize IEP as either within- or out-of-comfort range for human dwelling. These limits delineate whether a parameter value is safe for human dwelling. Out-of-comfort range IEPs are associated with SBS and other human diseases. SRPD migraine and headache frequency were the primary outcome measures of the study. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed for the purpose of assessing the association between the outcome variable and IEPs.
Results:
Of the 4326 participants, 66% were females and 60% were between 30 and 49 years. Headache frequency during the last 4 weeks was as follows: None in 31%, 1–3 days in 38%, 1–3 days per week in 18%, and every or almost every workday in 8%. Females had higher SRPD migraine prevalence compared to males (27% vs. 11%, P<0.001) and were more likely to report any headache in the last month compared to males (75% vs. 53%, P<0.001). Odds of SRPD migraine were higher (P<0.05) for those exposed to IEP out-of-comfort range, and odds of exposure to out-of-comfort range IEPs were higher in groups who reported higher headache frequencies.
Conclusions:
Migraine diagnosis and elevated headache frequency are associated with an uncomfortable indoor environment. Periodic assessments and adjustments of IEP may have a beneficial impact on employees who are vulnerable to SBS.
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.100029
PMCID: PMC3444215  PMID: 23024572
EPA BASE study; headache; indoor environmental parameter; migraine; sick building syndrome
3.  The Delivery of Sexuality-related Patient Education to Adolescent Patients: A Preliminary Study of Family Practice Resident Physicians 
Background:
Risky sexual behavior among adolescents is one of the leading health behaviors most associated with mortality, morbidity, and social problems. Adolescents need reliable sources of information to help them promote healthy sexual behaviors. Physicians in the United States are often seen by adolescents as a reliable and trustworthy source of accurate sexual information. However, many physicians feel uncomfortable or ill-prepared to deal with sexuality issues among their adolescent patients.
Purpose:
This study examined the impact of family resident physicians’ sexual attitudes, knowledge, and comfort, on the delivery of sexuality-related patient education to their adolescent patients.
Materials and Methods:
Pre-post-test scales were administered to 21 physicians. Data were also collected for patient (n=644) charts. Factors that determined the delivery of sexuality-related patient education were analyzed.
Results:
Results indicate that sexuality-related patient education was rarely provided to adolescent patients.
Conclusions:
Adolescent sexuality education is not a high priority for physicians. Professional medical organizations should play a leadership role in training physicians on delivering sexuality education to adolescent patients.
doi:10.4103/2249-4863.94449
PMCID: PMC3893957  PMID: 24478998
Adolescent; childhood; medical education; physicians; sexuality
4.  State of the Globe: Many Challenges of the Multifaceted Leprosy 
doi:10.4103/0974-777X.91048
PMCID: PMC3249981  PMID: 22223989

Results 1-4 (4)