The M-CAT binding factor transcription enhancer factor 1 (TEF-1) has been implicated in the regulation of several cardiac and skeletal muscle genes. Previously, we identified an E-box-M-CAT hybrid (EM) motif that is responsible for the basal and cyclic AMP-inducible expression of the rat cardiac alpha-myosin heavy chain (alpha-MHC) gene in cardiac myocytes. In this study, we report that two factors, TEF-1 and a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper protein, Max, bind to the alpha-MHC EM motif. We also found that Max was a part of the cardiac troponin T M-CAT-TEF-1 complex even when the DNA template did not contain an apparent E-box binding site. In the protein-protein interaction assay, a stable association of Max with TEF-1 was observed when glutathione S-transferase (GST)-TEF-1 or GST-Max was used to pull down in vitro-translated Max or TEF-1, respectively. In addition, Max was coimmunoprecipitated with TEF-1, thus documenting an in vivo TEF-1-Max interaction. In the transient transcription assay, overexpression of either Max or TEF-1 resulted a mild activation of the alpha-MHC-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene at lower concentrations and repression of this gene at higher concentrations. However, when Max and TEF-1 expression plasmids were transfected together, the repression mediated by a single expression plasmid was alleviated and a three- to fourfold transactivation of the alpha-MHC-CAT reporter gene was observed. This effect was abolished once the EM motif in the promoter-reporter construct was mutated, thus suggesting that the synergistic transactivation function of the TEF-1-Max heterotypic complex is mediated through binding of the complex to the EM motif. These results demonstrate a novel association between Max and TEF-1 and indicate a positive cooperation between these two factors in alpha-MHC gene regulation.
Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is an antibody–drug conjugate (ADC) composed of multiple molecules of the antimicrotubule agent DM1 linked to trastuzumab, a humanized anti–human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) monoclonal antibody. Pharmacokinetics data from phase I (n = 52) and phase II (n = 111) studies in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer patients show a shorter terminal half-life for T-DM1 than for total trastuzumab (TTmAb). In this work, we translated prior preclinical modeling in monkeys to develop a semi-mechanistic population pharmacokinetics model to characterize T-DM1 and TTmAb concentration profiles. A series of transit compartments with the same disposition parameters was used to describe the deconjugation process from higher to lower drug-to-antibody ratios (DARs). The structure could explain the shorter terminal half-life of T-DM1 relative to TTmab. The final model integrates prior knowledge of T-DM1 DARs from preclinical studies and could provide a platform for understanding and characterizing the pharmacokinetics of other ADC systems.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Due to a higher incidence of CRC in the western hemisphere a significant amount of research was carried out and majority of the controversies could be resolved as far as management of CRC is concerned. Recently a number of significant advances were made in the field of CRC related to surgery, systemic therapy and radiotherapy. During the last decade we have witnessed introduction of minimally invasive surgery, incorporation of more effective newer chemotherapeutic regimes and targeted therapies and refinements in radiotherapy protocols. The demographics and clinical picture of CRC seems to be different in developing countries and there is paucity of CRC related studies from developing countries. In-order to update the practicing surgeons a review of conventional controversies of CRC surgery was performed and an update on the recent developments in the field of CRC was also presented in this article.
Colorectal cancer; Controversies; Management; Total mesorectal excision
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with an activated B-cell (ABC) gene-expression profile has been shown to have a poorer prognosis compared with tumors with a germinal center B-cell type. ABC cell lines have constitutive activation of STAT3; however, the mechanisms regulating STAT3 signaling in lymphoma are unknown. In studies of class-I histone deacetylase (HDAC) expression, we found overexpression of HDAC3 in phospho STAT3-positive DLBCL and the HDAC3 was found to be complexed with STAT3. Inhibition of HDAC activity by panobinostat (LBH589) increased p300-mediated STAT3Lys685 acetylation with increased nuclear export of STAT3 to the cytoplasm. HDAC inhibition abolished STAT3Tyr705 phosphorylation with minimal effect on STAT3Ser727 and JAK2 tyrosine activity. pSTAT3Tyr705-positive DLBCLs were more sensitive to HDAC inhibition with LBH589 compared with pSTAT3Tyr705-negative DLBCLs. This cytotoxicity was associated with downregulation of the direct STAT3 target Mcl-1. HDAC3 knockdown upregulated STAT3Lys685 acetylation but prevented STAT3Tyr705 phosphorylation and inhibited survival of pSTAT3-positive DLBCL cells. These studies provide the rationale for targeting STAT3-positive DLBCL tumors with HDAC inhibitors.
lymphoma; HDAC3; LBH589; STAT3; Mcl-1
Wounding is required to be made in the walls of the green seed pod of Opium poppy prior exudation of latex. To withstand this kind of trauma plants regulate expression of some metabolites through an induced transcript level. 167 unique wound-inducible ESTs were identified by a repetitive round of cDNA subtraction after 5 hours of wounding in Papaver somniferum seedlings. Further repetitive reverse northern analysis of these ESTs revealed 80 transcripts showing more than two fold induction, validated through semi-quantitative RT-PCR & real time expression analysis. One of the major classified categories among identified ESTs belonged to benzylisoquinoline transcripts. Tissue specific metabolite analysis of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) in response to wounding revealed increased accumulation of narcotine and papaverine. Promoter analysis of seven transcripts of BIAs pathway showed the presence of W-box cis-element with the consensus sequence of TGAC, which is the proposed binding site for WRKY type transcription factors. One of the Wound inducible ‘WRKY’ EST isolated from our subtracted library was made full-length and named as ‘PsWRKY’. Bacterially expressed PsWRKY interacted with the W-box element having consensus sequence TTGACT/C present in the promoter region of BIAs biosynthetic pathway genes. PsWRKY further activated the TYDC promoter in yeast and transiently in tobacco BY2 cells. Preferential expression of PsWRKY in straw and capsule and its interaction with consensus W-box element present in BIAs pathway gene transcripts suggest its possible involvement in the wound induced regulation of BIAs pathway.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive brain disorder, is the most common cause of dementia among the elderly. Donepezil hydrochloride is a potent, reversible, and highly selective inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). It is chemically distinct from other cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors which are effective in the treatment of AD.
To evaluate the safety and efficacy of donepezil hydrochloride therapy over a 12 weeks period in patients with mild to moderate AD in Indian population.
Materials and Methods:
In this post-marketing study, patients with mild to moderate AD received oral donepezil hydrochloride 5 mg/day for 4 weeks followed by 10 mg/day for 8 weeks. Patients were assessed 4 times weekly for cognition on ‘Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) scale’, and function on ‘Activities of Daily Living (ADL) index’. Clinicians and caregivers assessment of safety and efficacy was assessed on a 5-point rating scale.
One hundred and seventy two of one hundred and eighty two patients completed 12 weeks of study period. MMSE score significantly improved (P<0.0001) from 16.72 at baseline to 19.77 after 12 weeks, and there was significant improvement (P<0.05) in ADL index in 13 of 17 domains after 12 weeks. Caregivers and clinicians rated the therapy as very good to good in >80% and >90% patients, respectively. Adverse events were consistent with the known pharmacological and safety profile of donepezil.
Donepezil is well tolerated in Indian patients with mild to moderate AD with significant improvement in cognition and function.
Alzheimer's; cognition; dementia; donepezil
To conduct a systemic evaluation of the medicinal value of seeds which include macroscopic and microscopic characterization, physiochemical evaluation, preliminary phytochemical screening and experimental antipyretic activity.
Saraca asoca seed was studied for pharmacognostical, phytochemical and other recommended methods for standardizations. Also, the acetone extract of the seeds was evaluated for acute toxicity study and antipyretic activity using Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia in Wistar rats at oral doses of 300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg.
After phytochemical screening, the acetone extract showed the presence of saponin, tannins and flavonoids which inhibit pyrexia. The therapeutic efficacy achieved at both the dose levels of the research drug and standard drug aspirin (100 mg/kg) showed significant (P<0.01) antipyretic activity when compared to the control group. The highly significant antipyretic effect exhibited at the dose of 500 mg/kg was also found to be sustainable in nature.
The antipyretic effect of the acetone extract showed significant results in rats at the dose of 500 mg/kg after following the standard pharmacognostical and phytochemical methods.
Antipyretic; Saraca asoca; Seed; Pharmacognosy; Acetone extract
To study the effect of intravenous magnesium sulfate infusion on clinical outcome of patients of acute stroke.
Materials and Methods:
Sixty consecutive cases of acute ischemic stroke hospitalised within 24 h of an episode of stroke were taken as subjects. All subjects underwent a computed tomography head, and those found to have evidence of bleed/space-occupying lesions were excluded from the study. The subjects taken up for the study were divided into two groups of 30 subjects each. Both the groups received the standard protocol management for acute ischemic stroke. Subjects of Group 1 additionally received intravenous magnesium sulfate as initial 4 g bolus dose over 15 min followed by 16 g as slow infusion over the next 24 h. In all the subjects of the two study groups, serum magnesium levels were estimated at the time of admission (Day 0), Day 1 and Day 2 of hospitalization using an atomic absorption spectrometer.
Statistical Analysis Used:
Scandinavian stroke scores were calculated on Day 3, day of discharge and Day 28. Paired t-test was employed for comparison of stroke scores on Day 3, day of discharge and Day 28 within the same group and the unpaired t-test was used for the intergroup comparison, i.e. comparison of stroke scores of control group with corresponding stroke scores of magnesium group.
Comparison of stroke scores on Day 3 and day of discharge, on the day of discharge and Day 28 and on Day 3 and Day 28 in the magnesium group produced a t-value of 5.000 and P <0.001, which was highly significant. However, the comparison of the mean stroke scores between the magnesium and the control groups on Day 3, day of discharge and Day 28 yielded a P-value of >0.05, which was not significant.
The study failed to document a statistical significant stroke recovery in spite of achieving a significant rise in serum magnesium level, more than that necessary for neuroprotection, with an intravenous magnesium sulfate regime.
Ischemic stroke; magnesium sulfate; neuroprotection
This article briefly outlines the proposed national epilepsy control program. The content of the article is based on four meetings held by invitation of the Ministry of Health. Invitees by ministry – Drs. D. C. Jain, M. Gourie Devi, V. Saxena, S. Jain, P. Satish. Chandra, M. Gupta, K. Bala, V. Puri, K. S. Anand, S. Gulati, S. Johri, P. S. Chandra, M. Behari, K. Radhakrishnan, D. Bachani. Presentations were made by Dr. M. Tripathi.The program will involve all neurologists across the country in teaching and training at state levels and a central monitoring committee.
Control; epilepsy; India; national; program
Our previous studies have demonstrated that naturally occurring peptide, Nisin possess antibacterial activity and did not interfere with rabbit vaginal mucosa. In this study, the reproductive toxicity of the Nisin in male rats was evaluated. Rats were fed orally with Nisin (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg/day) for 13 weeks. No treatment related mortality was observed. The body weight gain, food consumption and serum biochemical parameters were at par with the control group. Histomorphology of the selected reproductive (testis, epididymis, ventral prostate, and seminal vesicle) and nonreproductive (liver and kidney) tissues was observed to be normal. There was no treatment-related increase or decrease in the expression of testis-specific genes (c-Kit, GATA-1, and HILS-1) and the activity levels of epididymal α-glucosidase, ventral prostate alkaline phosphatase (AlP), liver alanine aminotransferase (AlAT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AAT). Fructose and lactic acid levels in the seminal vesicles also remained unchanged. These studies suggest that Nisin did not affect the normal physiology of these organs. In addition, no adverse effects were observed on the reproductive performance of Nisin-treated male rats and their offspring. In conclusion, the current studies support our earlier studies, which demonstrated suitability of Nisin as a safe and effective microbicide.
The ATP-dependent ClpQY protease system in Plasmodium falciparum is a prokaryotic machinery in the parasite. In the present study, we have identified the complete ClpQY system in P. falciparum and elucidated its functional importance in survival and growth of asexual stage parasites. We characterized the interaction of P. falciparum ClpQ protease (PfClpQ) and PfClpY ATPase components, and showed that a short stretch of residues at the C terminus of PfClpY has an important role in this interaction; a synthetic peptide corresponding to this region antagonizes this interaction and interferes with the functioning of this machinery in the parasite. Disruption of ClpQY function by this peptide caused hindrance in the parasite growth and maturation of asexual stages of parasites. Detailed analyses of cellular effects in these parasites showed features of apoptosis-like cell death. The peptide-treated parasites showed mitochondrial dysfunction and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Dysfunctioning of mitochondria initiated a cascade of reactions in parasites, including activation of VAD–FMK-binding proteases and nucleases, which resulted in apoptosis-like cell death. These results show functional importance of mitochondrial proteases in the parasite and involvement of mitochondria in programmed cell death in the malaria parasites.
Plasmodium; ClpQY machinery; mitochondria; programmed cell death
The ectopic thyroid gland is a rare entity which is mostly found along the line of descent of the thyroid gland. Most of the patients present with midline swelling and usually seek medical attention. Dual ectopic thyroid gland is even rarer. The clinical examination and different imaging modalities establish its diagnosis. Radionuclide studies are highly sensitive and specific in demonstrating the functional tissues in patients with ectopic thyroid, thereby guiding further management. The authors reported a case of ectopic thyroid gland in a girl with midline neck swelling initially, subsequently lost to follow-up. She again presented with enlarged swelling after a period of three years with dual ectopic thyroid in the neck region on thyroid scan. Thyroid scintigraphy demonstrated that progression in the size of ectopic glands was due to neglect in treatment.
Dual Ectopic Thyroid; Tc-99m Pertechnetate Scan; Subclinical Hypothyroidism
A study was conducted to estimate nitrate content in commonly used fodder crops, viz., berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum), bajra (Pennisetum glaucum), maize (Zea mays), oats (Avena sativa), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) and toriya (Brassica napus), collected from the fields of different villages of Punjab and farms of the university, and to evaluate the factors associated with nitrate accumulation in these crops. The nitrate level was highest in sorghum on dry matter basis, followed by oats and toriya, berseem, maize and bajra. The nitrate content was also determined in fodder samples harvested from young and mature stages and in different parts of plants. The stem part of forages had higher content than leaves; however, concentrations were low in mature crops as compared to immature ones. The environmental and soil factors associated with it are discussed and correlated with the experimental findings.
Dairy animals; fertilizers; fodder crops; nitrate
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease that may affect various organs. Nevertheless, involvement of the trigeminal nerve is exceedingly uncommon. This report presents a rare case of isolated bilateral trigeminal neuropathy presenting with neurotrophic corneal ulcers. The patient was treated with topical chloramphenicol and lubricants, as well as botulinum toxin injection to the upper eyelid to induce ptosis. Our case illustrates the importance of recognizing that bilateral corneal ulceration might be a manifestation of sarcoidosis. Physicians should be aware of this rare association, when treating sarcoidosis patients with eye related symptoms.
sarcoidosis; trigeminal neuropathy; neurotrophic ulcers
The present study deals with the macroscpical, microscopical and preliminary phytochemical investigation on Monochoria vaginalis P. The transverse section shows in the root, the presence of cork, cortex, xylem, phloem, pith etc. The diagnostic features of the roots are the presence of fibers associated with vessels, calcium oxalates, and xylem vessel which will help in the identification and authentification process of the drug. Preliminary phytochemical work of the alcoholic extract showed the presence of glycosides, flavonoids and tannins.
To establish baseline and variability of oxygen tension (PO2) measurements in the choroid, retinal arteries, capillaries, and veins of spontaneously breathing anesthetized rats and determine the effect of a moderate surgical procedure on the chorioretinal PO2.
Our previously established optical section phosphorescence imaging technique was utilized to measure PO2 in the chorioretinal vasculatures. Imaging was performed in 29 spontaneously breathing rats under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia. In 7 rats, blood was drawn using a surgically implanted femoral arterial catheter and analyzed to determine the systemic arterial PO2. The PO2 measurements in 22 rats without surgery (group 1) and 7 surgically instrumented rats (group 2) were statistically compared. The intrasubject variability was calculated by the average standard deviation (SD) of repeated measurements.
The average systemic arterial PO2 was 52 ± 7 mm Hg (mean ± SD) in group 2. In group 1, the average PO2 measurements in the choroid, retinal arteries, capillaries, and veins were 50 ± 11, 40 ± 5, 39 ± 6, and 30 ± 5 mm Hg, respectively. No statistically significant PO2 differences in any of the chorioretinal vasculatures were found between the two groups (p > 0.4). The intrasubject variability was 3 mm Hg in the choroid, retinal arteries, capillaries, and veins.
Chorioretinal PO2 measurements in spontaneously breathing anesthetized rats have a relatively low variability, indicating that PO2 changes due to various physiological alterations can be reliably assessed.
Choroid; Oxygen; Retina
Aim: To demonstrate the ultrasound biomicroscopic features of a ciliary body melanocytoma with extrascleral extension, and a conservative approach in its management.
Method: Observational case reports. Two cases of ciliary body melanocytoma were suspected at presentation, confirmed histologically by biopsy, and subsequently monitored for change by serial ultrasound biomicroscopic imaging. The main outcome measures were anatomical and functional preservation of the eye, with avoidance of formal surgical excision.
Results: Ultrasound biomicroscopy allows clear visualisation of the tumours, and the ultrasound characteristic is of low homogeneous internal reflectivity. 5 year follow up with observation only demonstrates success with this conservative management approach. Histopathological evaluation confirmed melanocytoma.
Conclusions: Melanocytoma is a rare tumour. However if considered in the differential diagnosis at presentation and confirmed histologically, further management with use of the ultrasound biomicroscope as an accurate mode of imaging is an acceptable technique for preservation of the eye and avoids surgical excision.
ultrasound biomicroscopy; melanocytoma; ciliary body; extrascleral extension
Aim: To evaluate efficacy of verteporfin ocular photodynamic therapy (PDT) in treatment of 10 patients with a symptomatic circumscribed choroidal haemangioma.
Design: Prospective non-randomised, interventional case series and critical review of previously published studies.
Methods: 10 consecutive patients (seven primary, two failed transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT), and one failed external beam radiotherapy) with symptomatic circumscribed choroidal haemangioma were treated using verteporfin 6 mg/m2 given as an intravenous infusion over 10 minutes. Diode laser (690 nm) with an intensity of 600 mW/cm2 for 83 seconds (50 J/cm2) was applied 5 minutes after completion of infusion. Single or multiple partially overlapping spots were applied based on the tumour basal dimensions. Periodic follow up with ophthalmoscopy, ultrasonography, and angiographic studies was performed.
Results: All 10 patients showed evidence of regression with flattening of tumour, resolution of subretinal fluid, and reduction of choroidal vasculature on angiograms. The visual acuity either improved or remained stable in eight (80%) patients. Visual loss due to delayed choroidal atrophy was seen in two patients.
Conclusions: Although verteporfin PDT is an effective treatment for management of symptomatic circumscribed choroidal haemangioma, delayed treatment related effects can lead to visual loss.
photodynamic therapy; choroidal haemangioma; choroidal neoplasms