The increased use of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is often justified by finding alternative diagnoses explaining patients’ symptoms. However, this has not been rigorously examined.
We retrospectively reviewed CTPA done at our center over an eleven year period (2000 – 2010) in patients with suspected pulmonary embolus (PE). We then reviewed in detail the medical records of a representative sample of patients in three index years – 2000, 2005 and 2008. We determined whether CTPA revealed pulmonary pathology other than PE that was not readily identifiable from the patient’s history, physical examination and prior chest X-ray. We also assessed whether the use of pre-test probability guided diagnostic strategy for PE.
A total of 12,640 CTPA were performed at our center from year 2000 to 2010. The number of CTPA performed increased from 84 in 2000 to 2287 in 2010, a 27 fold increase. Only 7.6 percent of all CTPA and 3.2 percent of avoidable CTPAs (low or intermediate pre-test probability and negative D-dimer) revealed previously unknown findings of any clinical significance. When we compared 2008 to 2000 and 2005, more CTPAs were performed in younger patients (mean age (years) for 2000: 67, 2005: 63, and 2008: 60, (p=0.004, one–way ANOVA)). Patients were less acutely ill with fewer risk factors for PE. Assessment of pre-test probability of PE and D-dimer measurement were rarely used to select appropriate patients for CTPA (pre-test probability of PE documented in chart (% total) in year 2000: 4.1%, 2005: 1.6%, 2008: 3.1%).
Our data do not support the argument that increased CTPA use is justified by finding an alternative pulmonary pathology that could explain patients’ symptoms. CTPA is being increasingly used as the first and only test for suspected PE.
Malaria may be associated with complications which may be avoided by early diagnosis and treatment. Microscopic diagnosis showing presence of malarial parasites is needed for confirmation which at times may be unreliable and requires technical expertise. The present study was conducted to statistically analyze the haematological parameters including platelet indices which can give initial hint for malarial infection and therefore prompt the laboratory physician for active search of the parasite microscopically.
A retrospective study was conducted which included 334 cases of acute malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax, falciparum and dual infection along with 100 cases of control. Routine haematological parameters along with platelet indices (MPV and PDW) which are easily available on automated cell counter were statistically analyzed to assess their role as indicators for malaria.
Leukocyte count and platelet count were significantly lower in cases of acute malaria in comparison to controls (p value <0.001). Platelet count<150×109/l showed 87.2% sensitivity, 65% specificity, 89.3% positive predictive value and 2.49 likelihood ratio for the infection. PDW of 6–10 and MPV>8 fl had 71.9% and 61.5% sensitivity and 78.2% and 77.7% positive predictive value respectively for infection. Platelet count <150×109/l and MPV>8 fl was comparatively more sensitive indicator for vivax (88% and 70.8% respectively) than falciparum (84.8% and 50.4% respectively) and PDW 6–10 was more sensitive indicator for falciparum (82.6%) than vivax (69.5%) infection.
Thrombocytopenia (<150×109/l) and low leukocyte count (<4×109/l) may be used as probable indicator for malaria in endemic countries. Higher MPV (>8 fl) and PDW of 6–10 also show considerable sensitivity for malarial infection. In addition, thrombocytopenia (<150×109/l) and higher MPV (>8 fl) was more sensitive for vivax infection while PDW 6–10 was more sensitive for falciparum infection.
Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is an inflammatory condition of the nasal passage and paranasal sinuses characterized by Th2 biased inflammation with elevated levels of BAFF, B-lymphocytes, and immunoglobulins. Since high levels of BAFF are associated with autoimmune diseases, we assessed for evidence of autoimmunity in patients with CRS.
The objective of this study was to investigate for the presence of autoantibodies in sinonasal tissue from patients with CRS.
Standardized nasal tissue specimens were collected from patients with CRS and control subjects and assayed for immunoglobulin production, autoantibody levels, tissue distribution of immunoglobulins and binding potential of antibodies in nasal tissue using a multiplexed autoantibody microarray, ELISA and immunofluoresence.
Elevated levels of several specific autoantibodies were found in nasal polyp tissue in comparison with control tissue and inflamed tissue from non-polypoid CRS (CRSsNP) (p<0.05). In particular, nuclear-targeted autoantibodies such as anti-dsDNA IgG and IgA antibodies were found at elevated levels in nasal polyps (p<0.05) and particularly in nasal polyps from patients requiring revision surgery for recurrence. Direct immunofluorescence staining demonstrated diffuse epithelial and sub-epithelial deposition of IgG and increased numbers of IgA secreting plasma cells not seen in control nasal tissue.
Autoantibodies, particularly those against nuclear antigens, are present at locally elevated levels in nasal polyps. The presence of autoantibodies suggests that the microenvironment of a nasal polyp promotes the expansion of self-reactive B-cell clones. While the pathogenicity of these antibodies remains to be elucidated, the presence of elevated anti-dsDNA antibodies is associated with a clinically more aggressive form of CRSwNP requiring repeated surgery.
Chronic Rhinosinusitis; Sinusitis; Nasal Polyps; Autoimmunity; Autoantibodies; Biomarker
To estimate the average operative blood loss in tonsillectomy and adenotonsillectomy and the various factors affecting it. A prospective study of estimation of blood loss in 100 patients who underwent tonsillectomy and adenotonsillectomy. Data collected included the age, sex, operative indication, clotting time, Hb levels and usage of pre-operative antibiotics. Cold knife dissection method for tonsillectomy and curettage method for adenoidectomy were used. Measurement by calorimetric method of estimation being simple and accurate was used for estimation. Study undertaken at a tertiary referral hospital catering to an urban, semi-urban and rural populace. Blood loss was more in males and increases as age advances both in adenotonsillectomy and tonsillectomy. Blood loss was more in fibrosed tonsils, at lower hemoglobin levels and at higher clotting times. It was less in cases who received pre-operative antibiotics. The average blood losses in males and females during tonsillectomy were 106.91 and 96.26 ml respectively. In adenotonsillectomy, the average blood losses in males and females were 81.44 and 76.82 ml respectively. In our series we found that blood loss in tonsillectomy and adenotonsillectomy depended on various factors like age, sex, the type of tonsillitis, method of dissection, hemoglobin concentration, clotting time and the use of antibiotics. All these factors must be taken into consideration while taking up patients especially those who cannot tolerate blood loss, for surgery.
Tonsillectomy; Adenotonsillectomy; Blood loss; Cold-knife dissection; Calorimetric method
This article briefly outlines the proposed national epilepsy control program. The content of the article is based on four meetings held by invitation of the Ministry of Health. Invitees by ministry – Drs. D. C. Jain, M. Gourie Devi, V. Saxena, S. Jain, P. Satish. Chandra, M. Gupta, K. Bala, V. Puri, K. S. Anand, S. Gulati, S. Johri, P. S. Chandra, M. Behari, K. Radhakrishnan, D. Bachani. Presentations were made by Dr. M. Tripathi.The program will involve all neurologists across the country in teaching and training at state levels and a central monitoring committee.
Control; epilepsy; India; national; program
A 38-year-old woman who presented with unexplained fever and pancytopenia was subjected to a bone marrow examination. Her bone marrow aspirate smear showed no obvious pathological finding except for the presence of hemophagocytosis and mild plasmacytosis. In view of hemophagocytosis, a thorough examination of the smear was conducted and revealed the presence of histoplasmosis. She was advised to undergo evaluation of her immunological status, and she tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This case highlights that hemophagocytosis in the marrow may be an early sign of underlying disease, and that careful examination of bone marrow smears may reveal subtle infections. In addition, histoplasmosis with hemophagocytosis may be associated with pancytopenia, and hence, the HIV status of the patient should always be investigated.
Hemophagocytosis; Histoplasmosis; Bone marrow examination; Pancytopenia
To determine the clinical features, investigations, intra-operative findings, surgical approaches used and the results of the treatment for paragangliomas of the head and neck. Retrospective study of 14 cases of paragangliomas in head and neck seen over a period of 10 years including five carotid body tumors, seven glomus jugulares and two glomus tympanicums. HRCT scans and bilateral carotid angiography were done in all cases of glomus jugulare. Pre-operative embolization was done in most cases. The trans-cervical approach was used for all cases of carotid body. In three cases of Type B jugulare tumors, a post-aural tympanotomy was used. A Fisch Type A approach was done for three cases of Type D jugulare tumors. Postaural tympanotomy approach was used for both patients with glomus tympanicum. In one case of extratympanic glomus jugulare tumor with hypoglossal palsy, a neck exploration was done to isolate and excise the tumor. Five patients with carotid body tumors presented as unilateral, painless, pulsatile swelling in the upper neck. Intra-operatively, three of the tumors were classified into Shamlin’s Grade II and one each into Grade III and Grade I. A carotid blow-out occurred in one of the patients with Grade II disease, which was managed. ECA resection had to be done in one case. Seven patients were diagnosed to have glomus jugulare and two with glomus tympanicum. Six glomus jugulare tumors presented with hearing loss, ear discharge and obvious swelling. Glomus tympanicums presented with hearing loss but no bleeding from the ear. On examination, tumors presented with an aural polyp with no VII nerve deficits. Both tympanicums were classified as Fisch Type A, three of the jugulares classified as Type B, two as Type D2 and one as Type D1. Tumors were found to be supplied predominantly by the ascending pharyngeal artery. In three cases of Type B jugulare tumors, a post-aural tympanotomy was used. A Fisch Type A approach was done for three cases of Type D jugulare. The transcanal approach was used for both patients with glomus tympanicum. Paragangliomas are uncommon tumors that need accurate diagnosis and skilled operative techniques. Though the surgical approaches may appear complicated, the removal provides good cure rates with minimal morbidity and recurrence. Lateral skull base approaches should be the armamentarium of every head and neck surgeon.
Paragangliomas (PGs); Glomus jugulare; Tympanicum; Carotid body tumors (CBTs); Lateral skull base surgery; Fisch approach
Studies have compared the role of bone marrow aspirate cytology and trephine biopsy for diagnosing various hematological disorders but fewer studies have compared the relative value of imprint cytology with aspirate and trephine biopsy. The present study was conducted to compare the role of bone marrow aspirate, touch imprint and trephine biopsy to formulate an effective and rapid method for diagnosing wide spectrum of hematological diseases. The study included total 565 cases of bone marrow examination from January 2006 till May 2010. All the smears and sections were reviewed for morphological details and findings on aspirate, imprint and biopsy were compared to each other. The diagnostic accuracy of bone marrow aspirate was 77.5%, imprint cytology 83.7% and that of biopsy was of 99.2%. The study showed 78% positive correlation between aspirate and biopsy and 84.3% between imprint and biopsy; 93.3% cases of metastatic solid tumors were correctly diagnosed on imprint while only 70% cases were diagnosed on aspirate cytology. The study concludes that all the three preparations of aspirate, imprint and biopsy complement each other. The assessment of iron status by Perl's stain is most suitable on aspirate smears but trephine biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosing granulomatous inflammation and hypoplastic/ aplastic anemia. Meticulously prepared imprint smears not only provide cellular composition of marrow but may also be helpful in defining the architecture of marrow especially in cases of metastatic solid tumors. Imprint cytology smears should be standard practice for evaluating any marrow.
bone marrow aspirate; imprint cytology; trephine biopsy.
Mucoadhesive polymeric (carbopol 934) suspension of ciprofloxacin was prepared by ultrasonication and optimized with the aim of developing an oral controlled release gastro-retentive dosage form. The qualitative analysis of the formulation was performed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. FTIR (400 cm-1 to 4000 cm-1 region) and Raman (140 to 2400 cm-1 region) Spectroscopic studies were carried out and the spectra were used for interpretation. XRD data of pure drug, polymer and the formulation were obtained using a powder diffractometer scanned from a Bragg's angle (2θ) of 10° to 70°. The dispersion of the particle was observed using SEM techniques. The particle size distribution and aspect ratio of particles in the polymeric suspension were obtained from SEM image analysis. The results from FTIR and Raman spectroscopic analyses suggested that, in formulation, the carboxylic groups of ciprofloxacin and hydroxyl groups of C934 undergo a chemical interaction leading to esterification and hydrogen bonding. The XRD data suggested that the retention of crystalline nature of ciprofloxacin in the formulation would lead to increase in stability and drug loading; decrease in solubility; and delay in release of the drug from polymeric suspension with better bioavailability and penetration capacity. The SEM image analysis indicated that, in the formulation maximum particles were having aspect ratio from 2 to 4 and standard deviation was very less which provided supporting evidences for homogeneous, uniformly dispersed, stable controlled release ciprofloxacin suspension which would be pharmaceutically acceptable.
Carbopol 934; ciprofloxacin; mucoadhesive suspension
Papillary carcinoma of thyroid (PCT) is the most common type of thyroid malignancy and metastasis to cervical lymph nodes is very common . Blood borne metastases from PCT are less frequent than with the other thyroid carcinomas . Uncommon sites include lungs, bone, atrium, cerebrum, kidney, skin .
We report four cases of papillary carcinoma with uncommon sites of metastasis.
One showed tumor emboli of 2.5 cm in internal jugular vein, one had tumor deposit in metacarpal bone and lung, one had a subcutaneous tumor deposit and one was a micropapillary carcinoma with metastasis axillary nodes. All these four cases were classical PCT.
Papillary carcinoma; Metastasis; Tumor thrombi; Internal jugular vein; Bone; Lung; Skin
The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of caries detection dye on the in-vitro tensile bond strength of adhesive materials to sound and carious affected dentin.
Materials and Methods:
Forty healthy and carious human molars were ground to expose superficial sound dentin and carious affected dentin. Caries Detector dye was applied to sound and carious affected dentin and rinsed. Subsequently the dentin was etched with 37% phosphoric acid and rinsed leaving a moist dentin surface. The adhesive (Single bond) was applied in single layers and light cured. A posterior composite (Filtek Z 250) were used to prepare the bond strength specimens with a 3 mm in diameter bonding area. Control and experimental groups were made with and without application of dye respectively. Each group includes both sound and carious affected dentin. After 24 hour immersion in distilled water, tensile bond strength (MPa) was measured using an Instron testing machine.
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate the data. The tensile bond strength were significantly less in experimental subgroup than control subgroups.
The tensile bond strengths were higher in sound and carious affected dentin without application of caries detection dyes.
Caries detector dye; posterior composite; single bond; sound and carious affected dentin
The incidence of multiple primary cancers is reported to be between 0.3% and 4.3%. The second primary lesion is identified either simultaneously with the primary lesion (synchronous) or after a period of time (metachronous). Few cases of metastasis of breast carcinoma to the esophagus and vice versa have been reported in the past.
We report an extremely rare case of a 55-year-old Indian woman who had carcinomas in both the esophagus and the breast simultaneously. She was treated successfully using combined modalities of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
Cases of synchronous double malignancies can be treated by dealing with the malignancy in the two sites as independent carcinomas. We have to take into consideration the total dose of radiation to a critical organ as well as the effect of the total dose of toxic chemotherapeutic drugs on our patient.
Pancreatic tuberculosis is a rare disease even in endemic countries for tuberculosis. Here, we report a case of pancreatic tuberculosis from tuberculosis endemic zone presenting as obstructive jaundice mimicking pancreatic cancer.
A 41-year-old male presented with features of malignant obstructive jaundice. Ultrasonography and computed tomography scan showed mass in the pancreatic head and uncinate process. He underwent a pancreatoduodencetomy. Histological examination showed typical features of tuberculosis. Antitubercular drugs were started and he remains well six months after surgery.
Tuberculosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis to an obscure pancreatic mass in younger or middle aged patient residing in tuberculosis endemic zone.
To investigate cases of trauma in head and neck region; to elucidate the characteristic problems in a developing country.
Design and setting
Prospective study; 324 patients with trauma related to head and neck analysed in a tertiary care center from August 1999 to August 2005
33.6% of patients fell in 21–30 year age group. Road traffic accidents (41.4%) were the most common cause of trauma. Nasal bone fractures were the most common fractures. 72.84% presented with bleeding and 72.22% with pain. 92.9% had tenderness. Only 15% of the patients could afford a CT scan. Plain radiograph diagnosed fractures in 83.33% of cases. ORIF was the treatment of choice in cases of fractures of the zygoma, maxilla and mandible. Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) gave good long-term results with satisfactory cosmosis. Most of our patients did not have any significant sequelae. Cerebral concussion was the most common associated injury (35.48%).
In developing countries, one cannot follow the approaches used for RTAs in developed countries. Treating surgeons will have to select investigation tools and treatment options according to the socioeconomical and cultural variations, which differ from country to country, and also within different parts of the country.
Trauma; Road traffic accidents (RTA); Assault; Fractures; Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF); Closed reduction; Cosmesi
Umbilical hernias in calves commonly present to veterinary clinics, which are normally secondary to failure of the normal closure of the umbilical ring, and which result in the protrusion of abdominal contents into the overlying subcutis. The aim of this study was to compare the suitability of commonly-used herniorrhaphies for the treatment of reducible umbilical hernia in calves. Thirty-four clinical cases presenting to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chittagong, Bangladesh from July 2004 to July 2007 were subjected to comprehensive study including history, classification of hernias, size of the hernial rings, presence of adhesion with the hernial sacs, postoperative care and follow-up. They were reducible, non-painful and had no evidence of infection present on palpation. The results revealed a gender influence, with the incidence of umbilical hernia being higher in female calves than in males. Out of the 34 clinical cases, 14 were treated by open method of herniorrhaphy and 20 were treated by closed method. Complications of hernia were higher (21%) in open method-treated cases than in closed method-treated cases (5%). Hernia recurred in three calves treated with open herniorrhaphy within 2 weeks of the procedure, with swelling in situ and muscular weakness at the site of operation. Shorter operation time and excellent healing rate (80%) were found in calves treated with closed herniorrhaphy. These findings suggest that the closed herniorrhaphy is better than the commonly-used open method for the correction of reducible umbilical hernia in calves.
calves; herniorrhaphy; reducible umbilical hernia
Laryngoceles usually present as cervical masses with or without hoarseness of voice. They are mostly unilateral and may be symptomatic or asymptomatic. They are classified as internal, external or combined. They have been described to be an occupational hazard among wind instrument players or glass blowers. They also occur in association with neoplasms of the larynx.
Materials and methods
Here we report five patients with laryngoceles of whom two had bilateral laryngoceles, which are very rare. One patient had associated laryngeal malignancy for which total laryngectomy was performed. Two cases underwent excision via cervical approach. The rest were managed conservatively.
Symptomatic cases have to be managed surgically while asymptomatic ones may be managed conservatively.
Laryngocele; Bilateral; Associated malignancy; Valsalva’s maneuver
Tuberculosis affecting the anorectum is an uncommon extra-pulmonary form of the disease, and its association with malignancy is highly unusual.
A 35 year lady presented with lower gastrointestinal bleed, altered bowel habit and significant weight loss. On examination, she had nodular stricture in the lower rectum, with friable mucosa, bleeding easily on touch. With the diagnosis of carcinoma lower rectum, she underwent abdomino-perineal resection of the growth. The histopathological examination revealed carcinoma rectum with coexisting tuberculosis.
The aetiological association between the tuberculosis and anorectal cancer is a matter of debate. However, the treating surgeon should be aware of this association, to avoid confusion and delay in the management.
Many widely used botanical medicines are claimed to be immune enhancers. Clear evidence of augmentation of immune responses in vivo is lacking in most cases. To select botanicals for further study based on immune enhancing activity, we study them here mixed with antigen and injected subcutaneously (s.c.). Globo H and GD3 are cell surface carbohydrates expressed on glycolipids or glycoproteins on the cell surface of many cancers. When conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), mixed with an immunological adjuvant and administered s.c. the magnitude of the antibody responses against globo H, GD3 and KLH depend largely on the potency of the adjuvant. We describe here the results obtained using this s.c. immunization model with 7 botanicals purported to have immune stimulant effects.
Groups of 5–10 mice were immunized with globo H–KLH or GD3-KLH mixed with botanical, saline or positive control immunological adjuvant, s.c. 3 times at 1 week intervals. Antibody responses were measured 1 and 2 weeks after the 3rd immunization. The following seven botanicals and fractions were tested: (1) H-48 (Honso USA Co.), (2) Coriolus vesicolor raw water extract, purified polysaccharide-K (PSK) or purified polysaccharide-peptide (PSP) (Institute of Chinese Medicine (ICM)), (3) Maitake extract (Yukiguni Maitake Co Ltd. and Tradeworks Group), (4) Echinacea lipophilic, neutral and acidic extracts (Gaia Herbs), (5) Astragalus water, 50% or 95% ethanol extracts (ICM), (6) Turmeric supercritical (SC) or hydro-ethanolic (HE) extracts (New Chapter) or 60% ethanol extract (ICM) and (7) yeast β-glucan (Biotec Pharmacon). Purified saponin extract QS-21 (Antigenics) and semi-synthetic saponin GPI-0100 (Advanced BioTherapies) were used as positive control adjuvants. Sera were analyzed by ELISA against synthetic globo H ceramide or GD3 and KLH.
Consistent significant adjuvant activity was observed after s.c vaccination with the Coriolus extracts (especially PSK), a 95% ethanol extract of astragalus and yeast β-glucan, and (to a lesser extent) Maitake. Antibodies against KLH in all cases and against globo H in most cases were induced by these botanicals. Little or no adjuvant activity was demonstrated with H48 or Echinacea extracts or the astragalus water extract. Experiments with GD3-KLH as immunogen confirmed the adjuvant activity of the Coriolus, yeast β-glucan and Astragalus extracts. While extraction with ethanol concentrated the active ingredients in astragalus, it had no impact on coriolus where the 90% ethanol precipitate and solute were equally active.
Some, but not all, botanicals purported to be immune stimulants had adjuvant activity in our model. PSK and astragalus were surprisingly active and are being further fractionated to identify the most active adjuvant components.
Astragalus; Botanicals; Conjugate vaccine; Cancer vaccine; β-glucan; Immunological adjuvant; PSK; Saponin
In children, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma has been found to be the lead point in intussusception involving the terminal ileum. We present here two cases of ileal primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma which presented as intussusception, highlighting the differing presentations of these children and their outcome, with a brief review of the literature.
Congenital pouch colon is one of rare congenital anomalies. We report a 3-day-old male child with congenital pouch colon who underwent a window colostomy but died because of overwhelming sepsis. Due to its rarity, many surgeons in our part of the world may not be aware of it, hence increasing the potential to its mismanagement. However, with simple keen observations, we can safely come to its diagnosis. The aim of this report is to bring attention to congenital pouch colon associated with anorectal malformation in our country, with a brief emphasis on an approach to its diagnosis and initial management.
Tat is among the required regulatory genes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Tat functions both within infected cells as a transcription factor and as an extracellular factor that binds and alters bystander cells. Some functions of extracellular Tat can be neutralized by immune serum or monoclonal antibodies. In order to understand the antibody response to Tat, we are defining antibody epitopes and the effects of natural Tat sequence variation on antibody recognition. The dominant Tat epitope in macaque sera is within the first 15 amino acids of the protein amino terminus. Together with a subdominant response to amino acids 57 to 60, these two regions account for most of the macaque response to linear Tat epitopes and both regions are also sites for the binding of neutralizing antibodies. However, the dominant and subdominant epitope sequences differ among virus strains, and this natural variation can preclude antibody binding and Tat neutralization. We also examined serum samples from 31 HIV-positive individuals that contained Tat binding antibodies; 23 of the 31 sera recognized the amino terminus peptide. Similar to binding in macaques, human antibody binding to the amino terminus was affected by variations at positions 7 and 12, sequences that are distinct for clade B compared to other viral clades. Tat-neutralizing antibodies to the dominant amino terminus epitope are affected by HIV clade variation.
Based on carbamazepine′s hypothesized ability to stabilize temporal lobe seizures and behavioral disorders and its ability to inhibit limbic system excitability in models such as kindling, we undertook this study with the aims of finding out the response of carbamazepine in kindler and non kindler groups and to see the relationship of socio-demographic and clinical variables in kindler and non-kindler bipolar mood disorder with response to carbamazepine. Simple random sampling was done and patients (over a period of one and a half year) between 18-50 years who had a diagnosis of Bipolar Affective Disorder, current episode mania as per lCD-10 and who had history of at least three manic or depressive episode in the past were taken. The total sample was divided into two groups i. e. kindler and non-kindlers. Kindlers were defined as patients with 3 or more affective episodes in less than equal to 1 year apart. Non-kindlers were defined as patients with at least 3 episodes in the past with inter episodic period of more than 1 year. All the patients included in this study were followed up for 6 months and were given carbamazepine in adequate dosages. Fifty -five patients completed the 6 months follow up. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups based on sex, past history of substance intake, type of mood (irritable versus elated), number of relapses during the follow-up and improvement on carbamazepine. Our study does not support the kindling hypothesis.
Carbamazepine; kindlers; non-kindlers
Neutrophil mobilization following administration of Pseudomonas polysaccharide was significantly reduced in malnutrition, especially during infection. The random mobility of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) was slightly decreased in undernutrition. Chemotactic migration of PMNs was depressed and correlated more with the presence of infection than with nutritional deficiency. It is possible that these abnormalities of PMN mobilization and mobility in malnourished individuals contribute to suboptimal amount, kinetics, and pattern of tissue inflammatory response to bacteraemic challenge.