Cephalotaxus spp. are known to possess anticancer potential. In this present work, for the first time the effects of C. griffithii needle (CGN) extracts on human cancer cells were examined.
The CGN was successively extracted with petroleum ether (PE), acetone and methanol. The extracts were tested for its effect on proliferation of cancer cells (MTT assay on HeLa, ZR751 and HepG2). Extract that showed the maximum growth inhibitory effect was subjected for mechanism of action study. These included apoptosis (morphological and DNA fragmentation assay), cell cycle (flow cytometry), caspase expression (Western blot) and activity (assay kit), p53 (western blot and TP53 siRNA interference) and telomerase expression (reverse transcriptase PCR) analysis.
Among the extracts, PE extract induced maximum cytotoxicity, with highest death occurred in ZR751 cells. Since, PE extract induced cell death was highest among the CGN extracts, with maximum cancer cell death occurred in ZR751 cells; we carried out mechanism study of PE extract induced ZR751 cell death. It was observed that PE extract induced ZR751 cell death was associated with cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by activating both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Knock down study revealed that p53 is essential for loss of ZR751 cell viability induced by PE extract. Further, PE extract down-regulated hTERT, hTR, and c-Myc expression. Thin layer chromatography analysis indicated the presence of unique phytochemicals in PE extract.
Based on the observations, we concluded that PE extract of C. griffithii needle contains important phyto-components with multiple cellular targets for control of breast cancer and is worthy of future studies.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1472-6882-14-305) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Cephalotaxus griffithii; Apoptosis; Cell cycle; Telomerase; p53
An experiment was conducted to evaluate and standardize the protocol for enhancing recovery of oil and quality from cold pressed wild apricot kernels by using various enzymes. Wild apricot kernels were ground into powder in a grinder. Different lots of 3 kg powdered kernel were prepared and treated with different concentrations of enzyme solutions viz. Pectazyme (Pectinase), Mashzyme (Cellulase) and Pectazyme + Mashzyme. Kernel powder mixed with enzyme solutions were kept for 2 h at 50(±2) °C temperature for enzymatic treatment before its use for oil extraction through oil expeller. Results indicate that use of enzymes resulted in enhancement of oil recovery by 9.00–14.22 %. Maximum oil recovery was observed at 0.3–0.4 % enzyme concentration for both the enzymes individually, as well as in combination. All the three enzymatic treatments resulted in increasing oil yield. However, with 0.3 % (Pectazyme + Mashzyme) combination, maximum oil recovery of 47.33 % could be observed against were 33.11 % in control. The oil content left (wasted) in the cake and residue were reduced from 11.67 and 11.60 % to 7.31 and 2.72 % respectively, thus showing a high increase in efficiency of oil recovery from wild apricot kernels. Quality characteristics indicate that the oil quality was not adversely affected by enzymatic treatment. It was concluded treatment of powdered wild apricot kernels with 0.3 % (Pectazyme + Mashzyme) combination was highly effective in increasing oil recovery by 14.22 % without adversely affecting the quality and thus may be commercially used by the industry for reducing wastage of highly precious oil in the cake.
Wild apricot; Pectazyme; Mashzyme; Iodine value; Saponification value; Acid value; Refractive index
Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) is characterized by the formation of distinctive, tortuous, and serpentine skin lesions occurring as a result of epidermal burrowing by certain helminthic larvae. Although this condition is usually uneventful, rarely it may result in patchy pulmonary infiltration with peripheral eosinophilia, also called Loeffler's syndrome. This association is fairly uncommon and is thus being reported.
Cutaneous larva migrans; Loeffler's syndrome; peripheral eosinophilia
Angiogenesis plays an important role in progression of tumor with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) being key proangiogenic factor. It was intended to study angiogenesis in different hematological malignancies by quantifying expression of VEGF and MVD in bone marrow biopsy along with serum VEGF levels and observing its change following therapy. The study included 50 cases of hematological malignancies which were followed for one month after initial therapy along with 30 controls. All of them were subjected to immunostaining by anti-VEGF and factor VIII antibodies on bone marrow biopsy along with the measurement of serum VEGF levels. Significantly higher pretreatment VEGF scores, serum VEGF levels, and MVD were observed in cases as compared to controls (p < 0.05). The highest VEGF score and serum VEGF were observed in chronic myeloid leukemia and maximum MVD in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma. Significant decrease in serum VEGF levels after treatment was observed in all hematological malignancies except for AML. To conclude angiogenesis plays an important role in pathogenesis of all the hematological malignancies as reflected by increased VEGF expression and MVD in bone marrow biopsy along with increased serum VEGF level. The decrease in serum VEGF level after therapy further supports this view and also lays the importance of anti angiogenic therapy.
Vetiver, a perennial C4 grass, has long been known for its multifarious uses in perfumery, medicine and environmental protection. Two distinct vetiver morphotypes have been identified in India, i.e., A. North Indian type characterized by thick and smooth fast growing roots that produce superior quality of laevorotatory oil; and B. South Indian type with more number of thin and hairy roots that produce inferior quality of dextrorotatory oil. The two morphotypes were targeted for transcriptome analysis to understand the contribution of genetic background on oil quality and root morphology. Sample A showed enhanced activity of flavonoid and terpenoid biosynthesis related genes, i.e. ERF, MYB, bHLH, bZIP and WRKY. Interestingly, expression analysis revealed that the genes involved in sesquiterpene biosynthesis pathway were up regulated in Sample A. Moreover, some of the genes involved in mevalonate pathway of sesquiterpene biosynthesis were unique to Sample A. Our results also demonstrated several transcripts involved in root development and hormonal regulation being up regulated in Sample A. To validate gene expression results of RNA-seq data, 20 transcripts were validated by qRT-PCR experiment. The present study provided an important start point for further discovery of genes related to root oil quality in different ecotypes of vetiver.
Cathelicidins are an ancient class of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with broad spectrum bactericidal activities. In this study, we investigated the diversity and biological activity of cathelicidins of buffalo, a species known for its disease resistance. A series of new homologs of cathelicidin4 (CATHL4), which were structurally diverse in their antimicrobial domain, was identified in buffalo. AMPs of newly identified buffalo CATHL4s (buCATHL4s) displayed potent antimicrobial activity against selected Gram positive (G+) and Gram negative (G-) bacteria. These peptides were prompt to disrupt the membrane integrity of bacteria and induced specific changes such as blebing, budding, and pore like structure formation on bacterial membrane. The peptides assumed different secondary structure conformations in aqueous and membrane-mimicking environments. Simulation studies suggested that the amphipathic design of buCATHL4 was crucial for water permeation following membrane disruption. A great diversity, broad-spectrum antimicrobial action, and ability to induce an inflammatory response indicated the pleiotropic role of cathelicidins in innate immunity of buffalo. This study suggests short buffalo cathelicidin peptides with potent bactericidal properties and low cytotoxicity have potential translational applications for the development of novel antibiotics and antimicrobial peptidomimetics.
Most dental practitioners as well as their patients prefer to have fixed rather than removable prosthesis. However, there are many clinical situations that prohibit the use of the fixed treatment modality. These clinical cases can vary from, simply not having the proper number of healthy teeth and/or implants to, the esthetically challenging cases of high smile lines and severe loss of alveolar support. The approach of using a traditional removable prosthesis in these situations has always been met with severe compromises. The functionally fixed restoration is a third modality of treatment that can solve many of the problems of the removable restoration and at the same time provide the same comfort and success of the fixed prosthesis. This restoration has a pontic assembly that is removed by the patient for periodontal maintenance. This article presents a case report which describes a technique for treatment of partially edentulous maxilla with severe loss of alveolar support using a fixed removable prosthesis/Andrew’s bridge.
Severe loss of alveolar support; Andrew’s bridge; Removable pontic assembly; High smile line
Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) also called Bean's syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by multiple cutaneous venous malformations in association with visceral lesions, most commonly affecting the gastrointestinal tract. We report here, a 21-year-old woman patient, who presented with unilateral, blaschkoid distribution of cutaneous venous malformations along with blue rubber bleb nevus and recurrent episodes of hematochezia due to vascular lesions in the sigmoid colon; likely to be a case of BRBNS. The unusual unilateral, blaschkoid distribution of BRBNS prompted this present report.
Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome; hematochezia; unilateral blaschkoid distribution
A considerable proportion of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients are ineligible for radical therapies. Many are frail not to tolerate intravenous palliative chemotherapy either. These patients often receive palliative radiotherapy (RT), or supportive care alone. We intend to compare outcomes with palliative RT alone, versus palliative RT plus oral low dose metronomic cyclophosphamide.
Data was mined from 139 eligible NSCLC patient records. Comparisons were made between 65 patients treated from January 2011 to March 2013 with palliative RT (20-30 Gray in 5-10 fractions) alone, versus 74 patients treated from April 2013 to December 2014 with palliative RT plus oral metronomic cyclophosphamide (50 mg once daily from day of initiation of RT until at least the day of disease progression). Response was assessed after 1-month post-RT by computed tomography. Patients with complete or partial response were recorded as responders. For the determination of progression free survival (PFS), progression would be declared in case of increase in size of lesions, development of new lesions, or development of effusions. The proportions of responders were compared with the Fisher exact test, and the PFS curves were compared with the log-rank test.
Differences in response rates were statistically insignificant. The PFS was significantly higher when metronomic chemotherapy was added to RT in comparison to treatment with RT alone (mean PFS 3.1 vs. 2.55 months; P=0.0501). Further histological sub-group analysis revealed that the enhanced outcomes with addition of metronomic cyclophosphamide to RT were limited to patients with adenocarcinoma histology (3.5 vs. 2.4 months; P=0.0053), while there was no benefit for those with squamous cell histology (2.6 vs. 2.6 months; P=1). At the dose of oral cyclophosphamide used, there was no recorded instance of any measurable hematological toxicity.
For pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients, the treatment with palliative RT plus oral metronomic cyclophosphamide is better than that with palliative RT alone. However, for pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma the addition of oral metronomic cyclophosphamide to palliative RT offered no benefit. Further studies with similar and different metronomic chemotherapy agents are justifiable.
Metronomic chemotherapy; metronomic cyclophosphamide; metronomic chemotherapy as radiosensitizer; non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC); pulmonary adenocarcinoma; bronchogenic carcinoma; squamous cell lung carcinoma
In the title compound, C15H15FN2OS, the dihedral angle between the planes of the benzothiophene ring system and the fluorobenzene ring is 3.74 (14)°. The six-membered ring of the benzothiophene moiety adopts a half-chair conformation. The molecular conformation is consolidated by intramolecular N—H⋯F and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. In the crystal, molecules are linked by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating C(6)  chains.
crystal structure; benzothiophene derivative; biological properties; hydrogen bonding
Objectives To review the terminology, clinical features, and management of temporal bone osteomyelitis.
Design and Setting Prospective study in a tertiary care center from 2001 to 2008.
Participants Twenty patients visiting the outpatient department diagnosed with osteomyelitis of the temporal bone.
Main Outcome Measures The age, sex, clinical features, cultured organisms, surgical interventions, and classification were analyzed.
Results Of the 20 cases, 2 (10%) were diagnosed as acute otitis media. Eighteen (90%) had chronic otitis media. Nineteen (95%) were classified as medial temporal bone osteomyelitis and one (5%) as lateral temporal osteomyelitis. The most common clinical features were ear discharge (100%), pain (83%), and granulations (100%). Facial nerve palsy was seen in seven cases (35%) and parotid involvement in one case. Ten patients (56%) had diabetes mellitus. The organisms isolated were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (80%) and Staphylococcus aureus (13.33%). Histopathology revealed chronic inflammation in 20 patients (100%) and osteomyelitic bony changes in 14 (70%). Surgical debridement was the most preferred modality of treatment (87%).
Conclusion A new classification of temporal bone osteomyelitis has been proposed. Bacterial cultures must be performed in all patients. Antibiotic therapy is the treatment of choice. Surgical intervention is necessary in the presence of severe pain, complications, refractory cases, or the presence of bony sequestra on radiology.
osteomyelitis; temporal bone; diabetes mellitus; malignant external otitis; skull base osteomyelitis
The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Theileria in blood samples of crossbred and indigenous adult cows raised under unorganized small scale farming system in a Babesia and Anaplasma endemic geographical area from Assam, India and to see its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks.
Materials and Methods:
For the present study, 57 clinical cases of cattle suspected to be of hemoparasitic infections were taken into consideration. The parasites were identified based on morphology in giemsa stained blood smear followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sera samples were tested for T. annulata antibodies in plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR was also conducted in eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick collected from a Theileria orientalis positive animal.
PCR amplified 1124, 776, and 160 bp DNA fragments of B. bigemina (64.91%), T. orientalis (21.05%) and A. marginale (14.03%), respectively. This assay further conducted in 12 T. orientalis positive blood samples with primers of Buffeli, Chitose, and Ikeda variants of T. orientalis showed 3 samples positive to Ikeda type and none for Buffeli and Chitose. Babesia bovis and Theileria annulata specific primers also did not amplify any fragment during the PCR assay of the blood samples. Further, all sera samples tested negative to T. annulata antibodies in Plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR conducted in eggs of R (B).microplus tick collected from a T. orientalis positive animal revealed presence of the parasite DNA. Gradual improvement in physical condition leading to complete recovery in 10 out of 12 T. orientalis infected clinical cases treated with buparvaquone(at 2.5mg/kg.b.wt I/M) was the feedback obtained from field veterinarians and the cattle owners.
The present investigation represents the first report of occurrence of T. orientalis in cattle of Assam with involvement of pathogenic Ikeda strain in clinical outbreaks and its possible natural transmission by R (B). microplus through the transovarian mode.
Anaplasma marginale; Assam (India); Babesia bigemina; Ikeda type; Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus; Theileria orientalis
Trauma is one of the leading causes of death and disability in Indian population.
To correlate various variables like epidemiology, clinical status, severity of TBI & associated co-morbid conditions and its outcome.
Settings and Design:
This study involved retrospective collection, prospective management and follow up of 796 cases of TBI admitted to the neurosurgery department of a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi during one year study duration.
Materials and Methods:
All the relevant variables recorded and analyzed with Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) in 6 months into 3 groups i.e. group 1 (GOS-1/Dead), group 2 (GOS-2&3/Bad) and group 3- (GOS-3&4/good).
Compiled data collected, analyzed and difference between two proportions was analyzed using Chi Square test.
This study included 791 cases with 569 (72%) males and 222 (28%) females with average age of 24 years. Fall from height was the main cause of TBI (56%) followed by road traffic injury (RTI) (36%). Majority (61%) patients reached the hospital within 6 hours of injury out of which 27% patients were unconscious. As per Glasgow coma scale mild, moderate & severe grade of TBI was seen in 62%, 22% &16% cases respectively. Radiological examination of other body parts revealed injuries in 11% cases. Only 11% cases required surgical management, rest was managed conservatively. Good outcome noted in 80% cases and 20% cases expired. Average duration of hospital stay was 5 days. According to multivariate analysis, the factors which correlated with poor prognosis are presence of radiological injuries to other body parts, GCS, abnormal cranial nerve examination, abnormal plantar and abnormal pupillary reflex. (P < 0.05)
TBI predominantly affects young male population and most of these are preventable. Early transportation to the hospital and first aid results in good outcome. Mortality increases with the severity of TBI and associated injuries therefore multimodality approach in polytrauma is essential.
Epidemiology; traumatic brain injury; Glasgow outcome score; multimodality approach; TBI is a significant public health problem worldwide and requires appropriate attention from researchers and policy makers regionally through the development of ongoing surveillance programs and the implementation of effective evidence — based interventions. By improving our system with better reporting and documentation of cases, we will be able to make a better plan to decrease the incidence of TBI and their timely appropriate multimodality approaches to achieve better outcome of these cases within our limited resources.
Abnormal motor response in the form of decerebration signifies either injury or compression of brain stem. The presence of decerebrate rigidity following head injury is a grave prognostic sign. Mortality may increase up to 70% in patients showing signs of decerebration. Although many studies have identified the prognostic factors in severe head injuries, few studies have focused on the operated patients with decerebration in predicting the long-term outcome. This study was planned to determine the outcome in this group of patients for prognostication and to help plan further line of management.
Materials and Methods:
All the patients admitted with severe head injury with decerebration (M2 motor response) admitted in neurosurgery department from September 2009 to January 2011 were included in the study. All the patients had operable supratentorial mass lesions with no direct evidence of brain stem damage. Patients with penetrating injury and diffuse injury with no operative mass lesions were excluded from the study. Clinical and computerized tomography (CT) data were correlated with outcome retrospectively. Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) was used as a measure of functional outcome.
The patients admitted with decerebration (M2 motor response) comprised 8% of the total head injury related operative procedures performed at our institute during the period. Of the 72 patients, 14 (19%) patients were more than 60 years old and 21% (15) were females. The surgical mass lesions comprised extradural hematoma in 27 (38%), cerebral contusions in 19 (26%), acute Subdural Hematoma alone in 7 (10%), and acute Subdural Hematoma (SDH) with cerebral contusion in 19 (26%) of the patients. Of the 72 patients, 36(50%) were operated within 24 hours of injury Follow-up of all, but 2 (3%) was obtained. Favorable outcome (GOS 4 and 5) was obtained in 14% (n = 10) of the patients with 83% (n = 60) mortality rate. The favorable outcome rate among the patients operated for Extradural Hematoma was 26% and for cerebral contusions was 11%. Only 5% of the patients operated for acute SDH survived.
Radiological diagnosis (type of lesion), followed by duration of decerebration and age of the patient are the most important prognostic factors determining the outcome of surgery in decerebrating patients. Our results confirm that despite the poor prognosis in decerebrate patients, a significant number of patients may still survive and have a good outcome.
Decerebrating patients; Glasgow outcome scale; severe head injury
Present study provides clinical evidence of existence of a functional loop involving miR-21 and let-7a as potential regulators of aberrant STAT3 signaling recently reported by our group in an experimental setup (Shishodia et al. BMC Cancer 2014, 14:996). The study is now extended to a set of cervical tissues that represent natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced tumorigenic transformation.
Materials and methods
Cervical tissues from histopathologically-confirmed pre-cancer (23) and cancer lesions (56) along with the normal control tissues (23) were examined for their HPV infection status, expression level of miR-21 & let-7a and STAT3 & pSTAT3 (Y705) by PCR-based genotyping, quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting.
Analysis of cancer tissues revealed an elevated miR-21 and reduced let-7a expression that correspond to the level of STAT3 signaling. While miR-21 showed direct association, let-7a expression was inversely related to STAT3 expression and its activation. In contrast, a similar reciprocal expression kinetics was absent in LSIL and HSIL tissues which overexpressed let-7a. miR-21 was found differentially overexpressed in HPV16-positive lesions with a higher oncoprotein E6 level. Overexpression of miR-21 was accompanied by elevated level of other STAT3-regulated gene products MMP-2 and MMP-9. Enhanced miR-21 was found associated with decreased level of STAT3 negative regulator PTEN and negative regulator of MMPs, TIMP-3.
Overall, our study suggests that the microRNAs, miR-21 and let-7a function as clinically relevant integral components of STAT3 signaling and are responsible for maintaining activated state of STAT3 in HPV-infected cells during cervical carcinogenesis.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12943-015-0385-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
HPV; LSIL; HSIL; Cervical cancer; STAT3; pSTAT3; miR-21; let-7a; MMPs; PTEN; TIMP-3
Despite high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer in Indian women, no study has been done in tribal populations whose socio-sexual lifestyle is different. Therefore, HPV screening has been carried out in pre-adolescent, adolescent and young adult tribal girls using self-collected urine samples.
20–35 ml self-collected midstream urine samples were obtained from a total of 2278 healthy tribal girls (9–25 years) comprising pre-adolescent, adolescent and young adults from three Indian states: Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. β-globin positive 2034 samples were employed for HPV detection and genotyping.
The overall prevalence of HPV infection in tribal girls was 12.9% (262/2034). More than 65% (172/262) of them were infected with HR-HPV types of which HPV16 was the most predominant type (54%). Young adult girls aged 18–25 years showed a significantly higher prevalence of HPV infection (19.2%; OR = 3.36; 95% CI 2.97–6.34, P<0.001) as compared to that in adolescent (11.4%; OR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.20–2.76, P<0.01) or pre-adolescent girls (6.6%).
This is a first study showing significantly a very high prevalence of HPV infection in adolescent and young adult tribal girls possibly due to different socio-sexual behavior, indicating a serious health concern for Indian tribal women.
Serious bacterial infections continue to be an important cause of death and illness among infants in developing countries. Time to recovery could be considered a surrogate marker of severity of the infection. We therefore aimed to identify clinical and laboratory predictors of time to recovery in infants with probable serious bacterial infection (PSBI).
We used the dataset of 700 infants (7-120 days) enrolled in a randomised controlled trial in India in which 10mg of oral zinc or placebo was given to infants with PSBI. PSBI was defined as signs/symptoms of possible serious bacterial infection along with baseline C-reactive protein(CRP) level >12mg/L. Time to recovery was defined as time from enrolment to the end of a 2-day period with no symptoms/signs of PSBI and daily weight gain of at least 10g over 2 succesive days on exclusive oral feeding. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to measure the associations between relevant variables and time to recovery.
Infants who were formula fed prior to illness episode had 33% longer time to recovery (HR-0.67, 95%CI-0.52, 0.87) than those who were not. Being underweight (HR-0.84, 95%CI-0.70, 0.99), lethargic (HR-0.77, 95%CI-0.62, 0.96) and irritable (HR-0.81, 95%CI-0.66, 0.99) were independent predictors of time to recovery. Baseline CRP was significantly associated with time to recovery (P<0.001), higher CRP was associated with longer time to recovery and this association was nearly linear.
Simple clinical and laboratory parameters such as formula feeding prior to the illness, being underweight, lethargic, irritable and having elevated CRP levels could be used for early identification of infants with PSBI at risk for protracted illness and could guide prompt referral to higher centers in resource limited settings. This also provides prognostic information to clinicians and family as longer recovery time has economic and social implications on the family in our setting.
Aim and Objective:
To survey the epidemiology, management, and severity of extradural hematoma (EDH) in children.
Materials and Methods:
All patients of EDH (n = 65) in the age group of 0–16 years admitted to our department during the period of August 13 and July 14 were analyzed retrospectively from the hospital records. In all patients, age, sex, mode of injury, clinical presentation, site of EDH, management, duration of hospitalization, and outcome were evaluated.
Observation and Results:
Of 65 patients, males were 70.76% with a male to female ratio of 2.4:1, most of the victims (47.69%) were in the age group of 11–16 years. Mean duration of hospitalization was 4.32 days. The most common mode of injury was fall from height in 29 cases (44.61%) followed by road traffic accident (RTA) in 23 cases (35.35%). Temporoparietal EDH was the most common computed tomography finding present in 22 (33.84%) patients. 67.69% patients presented to casualty with minor head injury having Glasgow coma scale (GCS) between 14 and 15. Most common presenting feature was vomiting in 52 cases (80%) and next to it was altered sensorium. The mortality rate was 7.69% (n = 5).
Extradural hematoma is a life-threatening entity encountered in pediatric head injury. Timely intervention and diagnosis decrease mortality to a great degree. Most of the mortality is encountered in patients who presented late at the neurosurgical unit with low GCS.
Children; extradural hematoma; Glasgow coma scale; Glasgow outcome scale; mortality; supratentorial
Nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are innate immune receptors that recognize bacterial cell wall components and initiate host immune response. Structure and function of NLRs have been well studied in human and mice, but little information exists on genetic composition and role of these receptors in innate immune system of water buffalo—a species known for its exceptional disease resistance. Here, a comparative study on the functional domains of NOD1 and NOD2 was performed across different species. The NOD mediated in-vitro cellular responses were studied in buffalo peripheral blood mononuclear cells, resident macrophages, mammary epithelial, and fibroblast cells. Buffalo NOD1 (buNOD1) and buNOD2 showed conserved domain architectures as found in other mammals. The domains of buNOD1 and buNOD2 showed analogy in secondary and tertiary conformations. Constitutive expressions of NODs were ubiquitous in different tissues. Following treatment with NOD agonists, peripheral lymphocytes showed an IFN-γ response along-with production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Alveolar macrophages and mammary epithelial cells showed NOD mediated in-vitro immune response through NF-κB dependent pathway. Fibroblasts showed pro-inflammatory cytokine response following agonist treatment. Our study demonstrates that both immune and non-immune cells could generate NOD-mediated responses to pathogens though the type and magnitude of response depend on the cell types. The structural basis of ligand recognition by buffalo NODs and knowledge of immune response by different cell types could be useful for development of non-infective innate immune modulators and next generation anti-inflammatory compounds.
Plexiform neurofibroma (PNF) arises as a diffuse mass from nerve trunk and leads to overgrowth of cutis and subcutis structure. This is a case report of 20-year-old male, presented to our hospital with a giant ulcerated swelling over his left arm. Differential diagnosis of sarcoma, neurofibroma, hemangioma and angiolipoma was made but biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of plexiform neurofibroma. Isolated PNF with ulceration of overlying skin over arm is a rare presentation and here we are presenting it as a perusal of rare entity.
Arm; Neurofibromatosis; Plexiform neurofibroma