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author:("Bahra, amish")
1.  Other primary headaches 
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology  2012;15(Suppl 1):S66-S71.
The ‘Other Primary Headaches’ include eight recognised benign headache disorders. Primary stabbing headache is a generally benign disorder which often co-exists with other primary headache disorders such as migraine and cluster headache. Primary cough headache is headache precipitated by valsalva; secondary cough has been reported particularly in association with posterior fossa pathology. Primary exertional headache can occur with sudden or gradual onset during, or immediately after, exercise. Similarly headache associated with sexual activity can occur with gradual evolution or sudden onset. Secondary headache is more likely with both exertional and sexual headache of sudden onset. Sudden onset headache, with maximum intensity reached within a minute, is termed thunderclap headache. A benign form of thunderclap headache exists. However, isolated primary and secondary thunderclap headache cannot be clinically differentiated. Therefore all headache of thunderclap onset should be investigated. The primary forms of the aforementioned paroxysmal headaches appear to be Indomethacin sensitive disorders. Hypnic headache is a rare disorder which is termed ‘alarm clock headache’, exclusively waking patients from sleep. The disorder can be Indomethacin responsive, but can also respond to Lithium and caffeine. New daily persistent headache is a rare and often intractable headache which starts one day and persists daily thereafter for at least 3 months. The clinical syndrome more often has migrainous features or is otherwise has a chronic tension-type headache phenotype. Management is that of the clinical syndrome. Hemicrania continua straddles the disorders of migraine and the trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias and is not dealt with in this review.
PMCID: PMC3444217  PMID: 23024566
Cough headache; exertional headache; hypnic headache; primary headache disorders; stabbing headache
2.  Primary Headache Disorders: Focus on Migraine 
Reviews in Pain  2011;5(4):2-11.
Migraine is the most common disabling headache disorder.Most patients with disabling tension-type headache are likely to have migraine and accordingly respond to treatments efficacious in migraine.Individuals are genetically predisposed to experiencing recurrent migraine.Evidence supports migraine to be a primarily neural and not vascular mediated disorder.1–2% of the population have chronic daily headache associated with acute-relief medication overuse; the majority are migraineurs.The presence of acute-relief medication overuse renders preventative medication less adequately efficacious.
PMCID: PMC4590049  PMID: 26525886
migraine; aura; headache; primary headache disorders; disabling tension-type headache; medication overuse headache
3.  Imaging patients with suspected brain tumour: guidance for primary care 
The number of referrals by primary care practitioners to secondary care neurology services, particularly for headache, may be difficult to justify. Access to imaging by primary care practitioners could avoid referral without compromising patient outcomes, but the decision to refer is based on a number of complex factors. Due to the paucity of rigorous evidence in this area, available data are combined with expert opinion to offer support for GPs. The study suggests management for three levels of risk of tumour: red flags >1%; orange flags 0.1–1%; and yellow flags <0.1% but above the background population rate of 0.01%. Clinical presentations are stratified into these three groups. Important secondary causes of headache where imaging is normal should not be overlooked, and normal investigation does not eliminate the need for follow-up or appropriate management of headache.
PMCID: PMC2593538  PMID: 19068162
brain tumour; diagnosis; imaging; primary care

Results 1-4 (4)