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author:("aravind, K.")
1.  Monostotic fibrous dysplasia with Raynaud's phenomenon 
Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a benign bone disorder characterized by alteration in bone morphology. Monostotic FD is the commonest variant and affects the craniofacial bones. Raynaud's phenomenon is recurrent vasospasm of the fingers and toes due to cold exposure. The disease is usually idiopathic or secondary to connective tissue disorders. Raynaud's phenomenon is not described previously with FD. We recently encountered two interesting patients of craniofacial monostotic FD with Raynaud's phenomenon and report the same in this report.
doi:10.4103/0976-9668.160042
PMCID: PMC4518434  PMID: 26283854
Bisphosphonates; craniofacial dysplasia; monostotic fibrous dysplasia; Raynaud's phenomenon
2.  Comparison of curcumin with intralesional steroid injections in Oral Submucous Fibrosis – A randomized, open-label interventional study 
Introduction
Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF) is precancerous condition caused by areca nut chewing characterized by restricted mouth opening, burning sensation and stiffness & blanching of oral mucosa. Complete regression of the condition had not been achieved in all cases with any of the present treatment regimens. Curcumin is (diferuloylmethane), a yellow pigment in curry powder, exhibits anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and pro-apoptotic activities. Hence an interventional study was undertaken to establish the efficacy of curcumin in OSMF patients.
Settings & design
A randomized open label, interventional study was conducted in forty patients with clinically and histologically proven Oral Submucous Fibrosis.
Materials & methods
Forty patients with clinically and histologically proven Oral Submucous Fibrosis were selected for the study and were randomly divided into 2 groups. The first group was treated with weekly intralesional injection of 4 mg Dexamethasone & 1500 I.U Hyaluronidase and the second group by oral administration of two Curcumin tablets (Turmix 300 mg) per day for 3 months each. Improvement of burning sensation, interincisal distance and tongue protrusion was evaluated on a weekly basis.
Results
Burning sensation improved in both the groups from early to late stages. Complete resolution of burning sensation was noted with turmix. The mean increase in interincisal distance was 3.13 mm and 1.25 mm respectively in groups 1 &2. The interincisal distance improved in both the groups, with significant results at the end of first month. Tongue protrusion showed greater recovery at the end of 1st month in group 1 when compared with group 2.
Conclusion
Turmix is beneficial and effective in reducing burning sensation in early OSMF patients.
doi:10.1016/j.jobcr.2014.11.003
PMCID: PMC4306996  PMID: 25737939
Conventional therapy; Curcumin; Intralesional dexamethasone; Oral Submucous Fibrosis; Turmix
3.  Prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis among habitual gutkha and areca nut chewers in Moradabad district 
Background
To determine the prevalence and severity of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) among habitual gutkha, areca nut and pan chewers of Moradabad, India.
Method
A survey was conducted for a period of one year in east, west, north and south zones of Moradabad district, Uttar Pradesh. One thousand habitual chewers were selected as study participants, using a stratified random sampling technique, between the ages of 11–40 yrs, with a habit of chewing gutkha, areca nut, pan for over a year. A detailed history was recorded and meticulous clinical examination was conducted. Evaluation of taste sensation, hearing, interincisal distance, clinical staging was done in the OSMF patients found amongst habitual chewers. The obtained data was statistically analyzed using an SPSS 16.5 version soft ware.
Results
The prevalence of OSMF was 6.3% (63/1000) and gutkha chewing was the most common abusive habit (42/63) amongst OSMF patients. Stage 1, Stage 2, Stage 3 OSMF was seen in 28, 19 and 16 patients respectively. Restricted mouth opening, altered taste perception and defective hearing was observed in 37/63 (58.7%), 24/63 (38.09%) and 14/63 (22.22%) respectively.
Conclusion
Our study shows a prevalence of 6.3% OSMF among habitual chewers of Moradabad. Prevalence and severity were more in urban and rural patients respectively.
doi:10.1016/j.jobcr.2013.10.005
PMCID: PMC4252639  PMID: 25737912
Oral submucous fibrosis; Moradabad; Gutkha chewers; Areca nut
4.  The readability of editorials in popular Indian medical journals 
Introduction:
The essence of communication is to convey a message, and readability tests have been developed to quantify this aspect of language. There is limited research on the readability tests of journal contents from India. In this study, we performed readability tests on the editorials of four popular Indian medical journals.
Materials and Methods:
The readability tests (Flesch score, Flesch grade, and text statistics) were calculated from the following journals: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism (IJEM), Journal of Association of Physicians of India (JAPI), Journal of Indian Medical Association (JIMA), and International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries (IJDDC). The editorials published in these journals over the last 2 tears were included in this analysis.
Results:
A total of 64 editorials (IJEM – 19, JAPI – 18, JIMA – 16, IJDDC – 11) were analyzed in this study. The mean readability score was (IJEM 34.8 ± 9.5; JAPI 31.4 ± 11.4; JIMA 29.6 ± 10.1; IJDDC 26.1 ± 17.7) not different between the journals (P = 0.2666). Flesch score was less variable in IJEM an d JIMA than in JAPI and IJDDC (P = 0.0167). The editorials from IJEM and JAPI had a lower Flesch grade than the remaining two journals (P = 0.0253). The readability score was directly proportional to the sentence count and inversely proportional to the words per sentence (P < 0.0001).
Conclusion:
Our results suggest that the editorials from all the medical journals have equal readability scores. The sentence count and words per sentence are important to achieve a high readability score while writing for a journal.
doi:10.4103/2230-8210.119626
PMCID: PMC3830362  PMID: 24251216
Editorial; flesch score; India; medical journals; readability test
5.  Comparison of Research Productivity Between Metro and Non-Metro Cities in a Biomedical Journal from India 
Background:
The research productivity of a place depends on doctors, patients and available infrastructure to carry research activities.
Aims:
We aimed to study the publishing trends and research productivity of metro and non-metro cities in the Journal of the Association of Physi cians of India (JAPI).
Materials and Methods:
Bibliometric analysis of research articles published in JAPI between 2000 and 2011was undertaken. The four types of articles (original articles including brief reports, case reports, correspondence and pictorial image) were studied for research productivity. They were analyzed according to subspecialty, publication times and type of research work from both places. Comparison between groups was done using Fisher exact and Mann-Whitney U test. Descriptive statistics were used and a P < 0.05 was considered significant.
Results:
Of a total of 2977 articles, 1798 were available for analysis. Metros published 46% (825/1798) and non-metros 54% (973/1798). Original articles and case reports constituted 3/4th of the published literature from both places. Pictorial images were seen more from non-metro cities (P = 0.03). Mumbai and Delhi were leading from the metros, whereas Varanasi and Chandigarh were leading from the non-metro places. Endocrinology, Neurology, Cardiology and Infectious Diseases constituted the top four subspecialties from both places. Neurology articles were published more from non-metros (P = 0.03). The timelines from submission to publication varied between 12 and 15 months, and were lesser for articles from the metros (P = 0.01).
Conclusions:
Metros and non-metro cities are comparable in publishing trends and research productivity. Places with post-graduate institutes contribute majority of the research articles. Faster publication timelines from metros indicate better manuscript content and preparation.
doi:10.4103/2141-9248.113658
PMCID: PMC3728859  PMID: 23919186
India; Metros; Non-metro cities; Publication trends; Research productivity
6.  Two interesting cases of EEC syndrome 
Aim
To report two cases of EEC syndrome with oral involvement to highlight the fact that the dental surgeon may be among the first to recognise the condition.
Introduction
The EEC syndrome, a rare congenital syndrome is characterised by ectodermal dysplasia, distal limb anomaly, cleft lip and palate and lachrymal duct anomalies although the term oligosymptomatic EEC syndrome has been suggested for cases in which ectrodactyly may be absent and that such cases should not be deprived of the EEC syndrome diagnosis. It is usually inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with variable expressivity and penetrance and all these features rarely coexist in a single individual.
Conclusion
Both our cases had all three characteristic features of the EEC syndrome. Other syndromes with overlapping features such as the Rapp–Hodgkin syndrome and the AEC syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of incomplete forms of EEC syndrome.
Clinical significance
It is important to follow an interdisciplinary approach to attain the greatest degree of success possible in the treatment of such cases.
doi:10.1016/j.jobcr.2013.02.001
PMCID: PMC3942048  PMID: 25737881
EEC syndrome; Ectrodactyly; Cleft lip; Ectodermal dysplasia
7.  Publication trends of neurology articles in a biomedical journal from India 
Background:
The details about the research productivity in the neurology specialty from India is lacking. We analyzed the publishing trends and the research productivity of neurology-related articles in the Journal of the Association of Physicians of India (JAPI).
Materials and Methods:
We carried the bibliometric analysis of articles related to neurology specialty from JAPI published between 2000 and 2011. Data were derived from the journal's website and the articles were analyzed for type (original article, case reports, etc.), disease (infection, vascular, etc.), place, and timelines for publication.
Results:
Out of total 2977 articles published, 256 articles belong to neurology. Neurology contributed to 7--20% of the published articles per year in JAPI. Case reports (52%) constitute the majority type of articles followed by Original Articles (20%), Correspondence and Images (15% each). Infections (27%), structural disorders (19%), cerebrovascular and peripheral nervous system disorders (16% each) contribute the majority of research articles in Neurology. Mumbai (15%), Delhi (13%), and Chennai (9%) are the top three contributors followed by Lucknow and Varanasi. All types of articles took about 9--10 months for acceptance and another 4--5 months for publication. Letters to the Editor were published faster when compared to other articles (P=0.0035).
Conclusion:
Neurology specialty contributes an average 14% of articles per annum in JAPI. Infections, vascular, structural, and peripheral nervous system disorders together account for 80% of published literature with a small representation from other diseases. Mumbai and Delhi are the leading contributors toward research productivity in neurology.
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.99695
PMCID: PMC3424791  PMID: 22919186
Biomedical journals; India; neurology; publication trends; research productivity
8.  Oral lichen planus - Review on etiopathogenesis 
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic mucocutaneous disease of uncertain etiopathogenesis. Several factors including stress, genetics, systemic diseases, viruses, dental restorative materials and drugs have been implicated as causative agents. The disease seems to be mediated by an antigen specific mechanism, activating cytotoxic T cells, and non specific mechanisms like mast cell degranulation and matrix metalloproteinase activation. Further clarity on the pathogenesis will aid in modifying therapeutic interventions, thus significantly reducing the morbidity of OLP patients.
doi:10.4103/0975-5950.85847
PMCID: PMC3304232  PMID: 22442603
Etiology; oral lichen planus; pathogenesis
9.  Expression profiling of genes regulated by TGF-beta: Differential regulation in normal and tumour cells 
BMC Genomics  2007;8:98.
Background
TGF-beta is one of the key cytokines implicated in various disease processes including cancer. TGF-beta inhibits growth and promotes apoptosis in normal epithelial cells and in contrast, acts as a pro-tumour cytokine by promoting tumour angiogenesis, immune-escape and metastasis. It is not clear if various actions of TGF-beta on normal and tumour cells are due to differential gene regulations. Hence we studied the regulation of gene expression by TGF-beta in normal and cancer cells.
Results
Using human 19 K cDNA microarrays, we show that 1757 genes are exclusively regulated by TGF-beta in A549 cells in contrast to 733 genes exclusively regulated in HPL1D cells. In addition, 267 genes are commonly regulated in both the cell-lines. Semi-quantitative and real-time qRT-PCR analysis of some genes agrees with the microarray data. In order to identify the signalling pathways that influence TGF-beta mediated gene regulation, we used specific inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase, ERK kinase, JNK kinase and integrin signalling pathways. The data suggest that regulation of majority of the selected genes is dependent on at least one of these pathways and this dependence is cell-type specific. Interestingly, an integrin pathway inhibitor, RGD peptide, significantly affected TGF-beta regulation of Thrombospondin 1 in A549 cells.
Conclusion
These data suggest major differences with respect to TGF-beta mediated gene regulation in normal and transformed cells and significant role of non-canonical TGF-beta pathways in the regulation of many genes by TGF-beta.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-8-98
PMCID: PMC1858692  PMID: 17425807

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