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author:("Ahmed, fayyad")
1.  Students’ perception of educational environment at Public Sector Medical University of Pakistan 
Background:
Assessing educational environment is vital in determining the success or failure of any institute. A positive environment leads to achievements of students in learning while a negative one would hinder their accomplishments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the medical students’ perceptions of their educational environment and to identify any differences related to gender and colleges affiliated with the University.
Materials and Methods:
This cross-sectional study involved all medical colleges affiliated with Dow University of Health Sciences from September to November 2011. DREEM questionnaire was administered to undergraduate medical students of the colleges. Mean and standard deviation of total DREEM score and five subscales were reported. The internal consistency coefficient (Cronbach's alpha) was calculated. Student's t test and one-way ANOVA were used for statistical analysis.
Results:
Total respondents were 586 students (response rate = 90.1%), 463 (79.0%) were female. Total DREEM mean score was 114.4/200 (57.2%). Highest score was found in the domain of student's academic self-perceptions (58.7%) and lowest in domain of student's perception of learning (53.7%). The inventory was found to have good reliability, with an alpha-coefficient of 0.89. There was significant difference of total DREEM score, student's perception of learning, teachers, and atmosphere between different colleges. Females perceived their educational environment to be more positive compared to male students.
Conclusion:
The undergraduate educational environment of the university is more positive than negative. Highest score was found in domain of student's academic self-perceptions and lowest in domain of student's perception of learning.
PMCID: PMC3810578  PMID: 24174949
Dundee ready education environment measure; educational environment; perception; undergraduate
2.  Chronic daily headaches 
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology  2012;15(Suppl 1):S40-S50.
Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches.
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.100002
PMCID: PMC3444216  PMID: 23024563
Chronic daily headache; chronic migraine; chronic tension type headache; hemicrania continua; new daily persistent headache
3.  Imaging patients with suspected brain tumour: guidance for primary care 
The number of referrals by primary care practitioners to secondary care neurology services, particularly for headache, may be difficult to justify. Access to imaging by primary care practitioners could avoid referral without compromising patient outcomes, but the decision to refer is based on a number of complex factors. Due to the paucity of rigorous evidence in this area, available data are combined with expert opinion to offer support for GPs. The study suggests management for three levels of risk of tumour: red flags >1%; orange flags 0.1–1%; and yellow flags <0.1% but above the background population rate of 0.01%. Clinical presentations are stratified into these three groups. Important secondary causes of headache where imaging is normal should not be overlooked, and normal investigation does not eliminate the need for follow-up or appropriate management of headache.
doi:10.3399/bjgp08X376203
PMCID: PMC2593538  PMID: 19068162
brain tumour; diagnosis; imaging; primary care

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