The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesis that insulin-like-growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plays a role in the regulation of basolateral Cl channels in the thick ascending limb (TAL). The patch-clamp experiments demonstrated that application of IGF-I or insulin inhibited the basolateral 10-pS Cl channels. However, the concentration of insulin required for the inhibition of the Cl channels by 50% (K1/2) was ten times higher than those of IGF-1. The inhibitory effect of IGF-I on the 10-pS Cl channels was blocked by suppressing protein tyrosine kinase or by blocking phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). In contrast, inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) failed to abolish the inhibitory effect of IGF-1 on the Cl channels in the TAL. Western blot analysis demonstrated that IGF-1 significantly increased the phosphorylation of phospholipid-dependent kinase (PDK) at serine residue 241 (Ser241) and AKT at Ser473 in the isolated medullary TAL. Moreover, inhibition of PI3K with LY294002 abolished the effect of IGF-1 on the phosphorylation of PDK and AKT. The notion that the effect of IGF-1 on the 10-pS Cl channels was induced by stimulation of PDK-AKT-mTOR pathway was further suggested by the finding that rapamycin completely abolished the effect of IGF-1 on the 10-pS Cl channels in the TAL. We conclude that IGF-1 inhibits the basolateral Cl channels by activating PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathways. The inhibitory effect of IGF-1 on the Cl channels may play a role in ameliorating the ischemia-induced renal injury through IGF-1 administration.
phosphoinositide 3-kinase; PKD; AKT; mTOR; Cl transport
A common feature of biomineralization proteins is their self-assembly to produce a surface consistent in size with the inorganic crystals that they produce. Mms6, a small protein of 60 amino acids from Magnetospirillum magneticum strain AMB-1 that promotes the in vitro growth of superparamagnetic magnetite nanocrystals, assembles in aqueous solution to form spherical micelles that could be visualized by TEM and AFM. The results reported here are consistent with the view that the N and C-terminal domains interact with each other within one polypeptide chain and across protein units in the assembly. From studies to determine the amino acid residues important for self-assembly, we identified the unique GL repeat in the N-terminal domain with additional contributions from amino acids in other positions, throughout the molecule. Analysis by CD spectroscopy identified a structural change in the iron-binding C-terminal domain in the presence of Fe3+. A change in the intrinsic fluorescence of tryptophan in the N-terminal domain showed that this structural change is transmitted through the protein. Thus, self-assembly of Mms6 involves an interlaced structure of intra- and inter-molecular interactions that results in a coordinated structural change in the protein assembly with iron binding.
Mms6; micelle; structural rearrangement
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) contribute to poplar defense mechanisms against biotic and abiotic stresses. Transcripts of PA biosynthetic genes accumulated rapidly in response to infection by the fungus Marssonina brunnea f.sp. multigermtubi, treatments of salicylic acid (SA) and wounding, resulting in PA accumulation in poplar leaves. Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) are two key enzymes of the PA biosynthesis that produce the main subunits: (+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin required for formation of PA polymers. In Populus, ANR and LAR are encoded by at least two and three highly related genes, respectively. In this study, we isolated and functionally characterized genes PtrANR1 and PtrLAR1 from P. trichocarpa. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Populus ANR1 and LAR1 occurr in two distinct phylogenetic lineages, but both genes have little difference in their tissue distribution, preferentially expressed in roots. Overexpression of PtrANR1 in poplar resulted in a significant increase in PA levels but no impact on catechin levels. Antisense down-regulation of PtrANR1 showed reduced PA accumulation in transgenic lines, but increased levels of anthocyanin content. Ectopic expression of PtrLAR1 in poplar positively regulated the biosynthesis of PAs, whereas the accumulation of anthocyanin and flavonol was significantly reduced (P<0.05) in all transgenic plants compared to the control plants. These results suggest that both PtrANR1 and PtrLAR1 contribute to PA biosynthesis in Populus.
Resveratrol is an important stilbene that benefits human health. However, it is only distributed in a few species including grape and is very expensive. At present, grape has been an important source resveratrol. However, the details are scarce on resveratrol distribution in different Vitis species or cultivars.
The composition and content of resveratrols were investigated by HPLC for assessing genotypic variation in berry skins and leaves of 75 grape cultivars, belonging to 3 species and 7 interspecific hybrids. Trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid and trans-piceid were detected in berry skins and leaves, but cis-resveratrol was not. Resveratrol content largely varied with genetic background as well as usage. In most cultivars, total resveratrol including the above three compounds was higher in berry skins than leaves. In berry skins of most cultivars and leaves of almost all cultivars, cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol; trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were minor components. Some specific cultivars were found with extremely high levels of trans-resveratrol, cis- piceid, trans-piceid or total resveratrols in berry skins or leaves. In skins and leaves, rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols, and the cultivated European type cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low totals. There were no significant correlations of the amounts of total resveratrols or any individual resveratrol between berry skins and leaves. All 75 cultivars can be divided into four groups based on the composition of resveratrols and their concentration by principal component analysis.
Resveratrol content of grape berries and leaves varied largely with their genetic background and usage. Rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols than the other germplasm. Total resveratrols were lower in leaves than berry skins in most cultivars. Cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol in most cultivars, and trans-res and trans-pd were minor components.
The rpoS mRNA, which encodes the master regulator σS of general stress response, requires Hfq-facilitated base pairing with DsrA small RNA for efficient translation at low temperatures. It has recently been proposed that one mechanism underlying Hfq action is to bridge a transient ternary complex by simultaneously binding to rpoS and DsrA. However, no structural evidence of Hfq simultaneously bound to different RNAs has been reported. We detected simultaneous binding of Hfq to rpoS and DsrA fragments. Crystal structures of AU6A•Hfq•A7 and Hfq•A7 complexes were resolved using 1.8- and 1.9-Å resolution, respectively. Ternary complex has been further verified in solution by NMR. In vivo, activation of rpoS translation requires intact Hfq, which is capable of bridging rpoS and DsrA simultaneously into ternary complex. This ternary complex possibly corresponds to a meta-stable transition state in Hfq-facilitated small RNA–mRNA annealing process.
The present study was carried out to examine the effect of valproic acid (VPA), an important histone deacetylase inhibitor, on the in vitro development and expression of the epigenetic marker histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9ac) in bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. We found that treatment with 4 mM VPA for 24 h could significantly improve the development of bovine SCNT embryos. Compared with the no-treatment group, the cleavage rate was higher (69.79±0.99% vs. 65.11±1.02%, p<0.05), as was the blastocyst rate (39.99±1.29% vs. 34.87±1.74%, p<0.05). Moreover, the rate of apoptosis (1.91±0.48% vs. 5.67±0.40%, p<0.05) in blastocysts was greatly reduced after VPA treatment. Valproic acid treatment also increased the immunofluorescent signal for H3K9ac in SCNT embryos in a pattern similar to that of in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos. In conclusion, we demonstrated that VPA can significantly improve the in vitro developmental competence and enhance the nuclear reprogramming of bovine SCNT embryos.
Betaine is a methyl donor and has been considered as a lipotropic effect substance. But its mechanism remains unclear. Hepatic steatosis is associated with abnormal expression of genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism. DNA methylation contributes to the disregulation of gene expression. Here we hypothesized that betaine supplement and subsequent DNA methylation modifications alter the expression of genes that are involved in hepatic lipid metabolism and hence alleviate hepatic triglyceride accumulation.
Male wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice (n = 6) were fed with the AIN-93 G diet. ApoE−/− mice (n = 12), weight-matched with the WT mice, were divided into two groups (n = 6 per group), and fed with the AIN-93 G diet and AIN-93 G supplemented with 2% betaine/100 g diet. Seven weeks after the intervention, mice were sacrificed. Liver betaine, choline, homocysteine concentration were measured by HPLC. Liver oxidants activity and triglyceride level were assessed by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Finally, hepatic PPAR alpha gene and its target genes expression levels and the methylation status of the PPAR alpha gene were determined.
ApoE−/− mice had higher hepatic triglyceride and lower GSH-Px activity when compared with the WT mice. Betaine intervention reversed triglyceride deposit, enhanced SOD and GSH-Px activity in the liver. Interestingly, mice fed on betaine-supplemented diet showed a dramatic increase of hepatic choline concentration and a decrease of betaine and homocysteine concentration relative to the WT mice and the ApoE−/− mice absent with betaine intervention. Expression of PPAR alpha and CPT1 were decreased and expression of FAS was markedly increased in ApoE−/− mice. In parallel, PPAR alpha promoter methylation level were slightly increased in ApoE−/− mice though without significance. Betaine supplement upregulated expression of PPAR alpha and its target genes (CPT1, CYP2E1) and reversed hypermethylation of PPAR alpha promoter of ApoE−/− mice. Furthermore, PPAR alpha methylation was positively correlated with hepatic betaine concentration.
Our findings indicate that betaine supplement could alleviate hepatic triglyceride accumulation and improve antioxidant capacity by decreasing PPAR alpha promoter methylation and upregulating PPAR alpha and its target genes mRNA expression.
Betaine; PPAR alpha; Fatty liver; DNA methylation
The aim of this research is to optimize the cultural conditions for the conversion of glycerol to ethanol by Enterobacter aerogenes S012. Taguchi method was used to screen the cultural conditions based on their signal to noise ratio (SN). Temperature (°C), agitation speed (rpm) and time (h) were found to have the highest influence on both glycerol utilization and ethanol production by the organism while pH had the lowest. Full factorial design, statistical analysis, and regression model equation were used to optimize the selected cultural parameters for maximum ethanol production. The result showed that fermentation at 38°C and 200 rpm for 48 h would be ideal for the bacteria to produce maximum amount of ethanol from glycerol. At these optimum conditions, ethanol production, yield and productivity were 25.4 g/l, 0.53 g/l/h, and 1.12 mol/mol-glycerol, repectively. Ethanol production increased to 26.5 g/l while yield and productivity decreased to 1.04 mol/mol-glycerol and 0.37 g/l/h, respectively, after 72 h. Analysis of the fermentation products was performed using HPLC, while anaerobic condition was created by purging the fermentation vessel with nitrogen gas.
Enterobacter aerogenes; Ethanol; Glycerol; Metabolic pathway; Fermentation
We used the patch-clamp technique to study the effect of changing the external Ca2+ on the basolateral 50-pS K channel in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of rat kidney. Increasing the external Ca2+ concentration from 1 mM to 2 or 3 mM inhibited the basolateral 50 −pS K channels while decreasing external Ca2+ to 10 μM increased the 50-pS K channel activity. The effect of the external Ca2+ on the 50-pS K channels was observed only in cell-attached patches but not in excised patches. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of increasing external Ca2+ on the 50-pS K channels was absent in the presence of NPS2390, an antagonist of Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaSR), suggesting that the inhibitory effect of the external Ca2+ was the result of stimulation of the CaSR. Application of the membrane-permeable cAMP analogue increased the 50-pS K channel activity but did not block the effect of raising the external Ca2+ on the K channels. Neither inhibition of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) nor suppression of cytochrome P450-ω-hydroxylation-dependent metabolism of arachidonic acid was able to abolish the effect of raising the external Ca2+ on the 50-pS K channels. In contrast, inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) or blocking protein kinase C (PKC) completely abolished the inhibition of the basolateral 50-pS K channels induced by raising the external Ca2+. We conclude that the external Ca2+ concentration plays an important role in the regulation of the basolateral K channel activity in the TAL and that the effect of the external Ca2+ is mediated by the CaSR which stimulates PLC-PKC pathways. The regulation of the basolateral K channels by the CaSR may be the mechanism by which extracellular Ca2+ level modulates the reabsorption of divalent cations.
External Ca2+; inwardly-rectifying K channel; phospholipase C; PKC
The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and determine the possible risk factors of poor sleep quality in Chinese type 2 diabetes patients with insulin treatment.
140 type 2 diabetes patients with insulin treatments were enrolled in our study. General characteristics and laboratory testing such glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), post-prandial plasma glucose (PPG) were measured. Every patient completed Chinese version of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. PSQI global score>5 was defined as poor sleep quality.
Global PSQI score was significantly higher in female type 2 diabetes patients with insulin treatment than male (7.52 vs 6.08, P<0.05). After adjusting for age, BMI, FPG, PPG, HbA1c and duration of diabetes, female is still an independent risk factor for poor sleep quality [OR = 2.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24–5.27, P = 0.01].
The results suggest that we found poor sleep quality in female Chinese type 2 diabetes patients with insulin treatment and these findings may contribute to sleep disorder control in female type 2 diabetes.
MYH3 is a major contractile protein which converts chemical energy into mechanical energy through the ATP hydrolysis. MYH3 is mainly expressed in the skeletal muscle in different stages especially embryonic period, and it has a role in the development of skeletal muscle and heart. In this study, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was applied to analyze the genetic variations of the MYH3 gene and verify the effect on growth and carcass traits in a total of 365 Qinchuan cattles. The PCR product was digested with some restriction enzyme and demonstrated the polymorphism in the population, the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at nucleotides g. +1215T>C, g. +3377C>T, and g. +28625C>T were in linkage disequilibrium with each other. The result of haplotype analysis showed that nineteen different haplotypes were identified among the five SNPs. The statistical analyses indicated that the five SNPs were significant association with growth and carcass traits (P < 0.05, N = 365); whereas the five SNPs were no significant association between 18 combined genotypes of MYH3 gene and growth and carcass traits. Taken together, our results provide the evidence that polymorphisms in MYH3 are associated with growth and carcass traits in Qinchuan cattle, and may be used as a possible candidate for marker-assisted selection and management in beef cattle breeding program.
Qinchuan cattle; Growth and carcass traits; Combined genotypes; Haplotype; MYH3
We demonstrate experimentally the submicron size self-assembled (SA) GaAs quantum rings (QRs) by quantum size effect (QSE). An ultrathin In0.1 Ga0.9As layer with different thickness is deposited on the GaAs to modulate the surface nucleus diffusion barrier, and then the SA QRs are grown. It is found that the density of QRs is affected significantly by the thickness of inserted In0.1 Ga0.9As, and the diffusion barrier modulation reflects mainly on the first five monolayer . The physical mechanism behind is discussed. The further analysis shows that about 160 meV decrease in diffusion barrier can be achieved, which allows the SA QRs with density of as low as one QR per 6 μm2. Finally, the QRs with diameters of 438 nm and outer diameters of 736 nm are fabricated using QSE.
Quantum rings; Self-assemble; Quantum size effect; Surface diffusion
Genetic mapping and QTL detection are powerful methodologies in plant improvement and breeding. Construction of a high-density and high-quality genetic map would be of great benefit in the production of superior grapes to meet human demand. High throughput and low cost of the recently developed next generation sequencing (NGS) technology have resulted in its wide application in genome research. Sequencing restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) might be an efficient strategy to simplify genotyping. Combining NGS with RAD has proven to be powerful for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker development.
An F1 population of 100 individual plants was developed. In-silico digestion-site prediction was used to select an appropriate restriction enzyme for construction of a RAD sequencing library. Next generation RAD sequencing was applied to genotype the F1 population and its parents. Applying a cluster strategy for SNP modulation, a total of 1,814 high-quality SNP markers were developed: 1,121 of these were mapped to the female genetic map, 759 to the male map, and 1,646 to the integrated map. A comparison of the genetic maps to the published Vitis vinifera genome revealed both conservation and variations.
The applicability of next generation RAD sequencing for genotyping a grape F1 population was demonstrated, leading to the successful development of a genetic map with high density and quality using our designed SNP markers. Detailed analysis revealed that this newly developed genetic map can be used for a variety of genome investigations, such as QTL detection, sequence assembly and genome comparison.
Grape; Genetic map; Next generation sequencing (NGS); Restriction-site associated DNA (RAD)
To date, there has not been an agreement on the best methods for the characterisation of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) toxicity. The length of MWCNTs has been identified as a factor in in vitro and in vivo studies, in addition to their purity and biocompatible coating. Another unresolved issue relates to the variable toxicity of MWCNTs on different cell types. The present study addressed the effects of MWCNTs' length on mammalian immune and epithelial cancer cells RAW264.7 and MCF-7, respectively. Our data confirm that MWCNTs induce cytotoxicity in a length- and cell type-dependent manner. Whereas, longer (3 to 14 μm) MWCNTs exert high toxicity, especially to RAW264.7 cells, shorter (1.5 μm) MWCNTs are significantly less cytotoxic. These findings confirm that the degree of biocompatibility of MWCNTs is closely related to their length and that immune cells appear to be more susceptible to damage by MWCNTs. Our study also indicates that MWCNT nanotoxicity should be analysed for various components of cellular response, and cytotoxicity data should be validated by the use of more than one assay system. Results from chromogenic-based assays should be confirmed by trypan blue exclusion.
Carbon nanotube; Cytotoxicity; Length effect; Cell type
It has been proposed in the literature that Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) could be exploited to enhance or accelerate nerve regeneration and to provide guidance for regenerating axons. MNPs could create mechanical tension that stimulates the growth and elongation of axons. Particles suitable for this purpose should possess (1) high saturation magnetization, (2) a negligible cytotoxic profile, and (3) a high capacity to magnetize mammalian cells. Unfortunately, the materials currently available on the market do not satisfy these criteria; therefore, this work attempts to overcome these deficiencies.
Magnetite particles were synthesized by an oxidative hydrolysis method and characterized based on their external morphology and size distribution (high-resolution transmission electron microscopy [HR-TEM]) as well as their colloidal (Z potential) and magnetic properties (Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices [SQUID]). Cell viability was assessed via Trypan blue dye exclusion assay, cell doubling time, and MTT cell proliferation assay and reactive oxygen species production. Particle uptake was monitored via Prussian blue staining, intracellular iron content quantification via a ferrozine-based assay, and direct visualization by dual-beam (focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy [FIB/SEM]) analysis. Experiments were performed on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line and primary Schwann cell cultures of the peripheral nervous system.
This paper reports on the synthesis and characterization of polymer-coated magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles with an average diameter of 73 ± 6 nm that are designed as magnetic actuators for neural guidance. The cells were able to incorporate quantities of iron up to 2 pg/cell. The intracellular distribution of MNPs obtained by optical and electronic microscopy showed large structures of MNPs crossing the cell membrane into the cytoplasm, thus rendering them suitable for magnetic manipulation by external magnetic fields. Specifically, migration experiments under external magnetic fields confirmed that these MNPs can effectively actuate the cells, thus inducing measurable migration towards predefined directions more effectively than commercial nanoparticles (fluidMAG-ARA supplied by Chemicell). There were no observable toxic effects from MNPs on cell viability for working concentrations of 10 μg/mL (EC25 of 20.8 μg/mL, compared to 12 μg/mL in fluidMAG-ARA). Cell proliferation assays performed with primary cell cultures of the peripheral nervous system confirmed moderate cytotoxicity (EC25 of 10.35 μg/mL).
These results indicate that loading neural cells with the proposed MNPs is likely to be an effective strategy for promoting non-invasive neural regeneration through cell magnetic actuation.
magnetic nanoparticle; actuator; migration; neural regeneration
Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have increasing applications in biomedicine, however fears over long term stability of polymer coated particles have arisen. Gold coating IONPs results in particles of increased stability and robustness. The unique properties of both the iron oxide (magnetic) and gold (surface plasmon resonance) result in a multimodal platform for use as MRI contrast agents and as a nano-heater.
Here we synthesize IONPs of core diameter 30 nm and gold coat using the seeding method with a poly(ethylenimine) intermediate layer. The final particles were coated in poly(ethylene glycol) to ensure biocompatibility and increase retention times in vivo. The particle coating was monitored using FTIR, PCS, UV–vis absorption, TEM, and EDX. The particles appeared to have little cytotoxic effect when incubated with A375M cells. The resultant hybrid nanoparticles (HNPs) possessed a maximal absorbance at 600 nm. After laser irradiation in agar phantom a ΔT of 32°C was achieved after only 90 s exposure (50 μgmL-1). The HNPs appeared to decrease T2 values in line with previously clinically used MRI contrast agent Feridex®.
The data highlights the potential of these HNPs as dual function MRI contrast agents and nano-heaters for therapies such as cellular hyperthermia or thermo-responsive drug delivery.
Magnetic nanoparticles; Gold nano-shells; Magnetic resonance imaging; Surface plasmon resonance; Multifunctional nanoparticles
Klebsiella pneumonia carbapenemases (KPCs) are able to hydrolyze the carbapenems, which cause many bacteria resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics, so the rapid dissemination of KPCs is worrisome. Laboratory identification of KPCs-harboring clinical isolates would be a key to limit the spread of the bacteria. This study would evaluate a rapid low-cost real-time PCR assay to detect KPCs.
Real-time PCR assay based on SYBR GreenIwas designed to amplify a 106bp product of the blaKPC gene from the159 clinical Gram-negative isolates resistant to several classes of -lactam antibiotics through antimicrobial susceptibility testing. We confirmed the results of real-time PCR assay by the conventional PCR-sequencing. At the same time, KPCs of these clinical isolates were detected by the modified Hodge test (MHT). Then we compared the results of real-time PCR assay with those of MHT from the sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, we evaluated the sensitivity of the real-time PCR assay.
The sensitivity and specificity of the results of the real-time PCR assay compared with those of MHT was 29/29(100%) and 130/130(100%), respectively. The results of the real-time PCR and the MHT were strongly consistent (Exact Sig. (2-tailed) =1. 000; McNemar test). The real-time PCR detection limit was about 0.8cfu using clinical isolates.
The real-time PCR assay could rapidly and accurately detect KPCs -harboring strains with high analytical sensitivity and specificity.
Real-time polymerase chain reaction; Klebsiella pneumonia carbapenemase
Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNP's) have an increasing number of biomedical applications. As such in vitro characterisation is essential to ensure the bio-safety of these particles. Little is known on the cellular interaction or effect on membrane integrity upon exposure to these MNPs. Here we synthesised Fe3O4 and surface coated with poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to achieve particles of varying surface positive charges and used them as model MNP's to evaluate the relative utility and limitations of cellular assays commonly applied for nanotoxicity assessment. An alternative approach, atomic force microscopy (AFM), was explored for the analysis of membrane structure and cell morphology upon interacting with the MNPs. The particles were tested in vitro on human SH-SY5Y, MCF-7 and U937 cell lines for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lipid peroxidation (LPO), LDH leakage and their overall cytotoxic effect. These results were compared with AFM topography imaging carried out on fixed cell lines.
Successful particle synthesis and coating were characterised using FTIR, PCS, TEM and ICP. The particle size from TEM was 30 nm (−16.9 mV) which increased to 40 nm (+55.6 mV) upon coating with PEI and subsequently 50 nm (+31.2 mV) with PEG coating. Both particles showed excellent stability not only at neutral pH but also in acidic environment of pH 4.6 in the presence of sodium citrate. The higher surface charge MNP-PEI resulted in increased cytotoxic effect and ROS production on all cell lines compared with the MNP-PEI-PEG. In general the effect on the cell membrane integrity was observed only in SH-SY5Y and MCF-7 cells by MNP-PEI determined by LDH leakage and LPO production. AFM topography images showed consistently that both the highly charged MNP-PEI and the less charged MNP-PEI-PEG caused cell morphology changes possibly due to membrane disruption and cytoskeleton remodelling.
Our findings indicate that common in vitro cell endpoint assays do not give detailed and complete information on cellular state and it is essential to explore novel approaches and carry out more in-depth studies to elucidate cellular response mechanism to magnetic nanoparticles.
Magnetic nanoparticle; Cellular interaction; Cell membrane; Cytotoxicity; Cell viability assay; Atomic force microscopy; Zeta potential
BnAP2, an APETALA2 (AP2)-like gene, has been isolated from Brassica napus cultivar Zhongshuang 9. The cDNA of BnAP2, with 1, 299 bp in length, encoded a transcription factor comprising of 432 amino acid residues. Results from complementary experiment indicated that BnAP2 was completely capable of restoring the phenotype of Arabidopsis ap2-11 mutant. Together with the sequence and expression data, the complementation data suggested that BnAP2 encodes the ortholog of AtAP2. To address the transcriptional activation of BnAP2, we performed transactivation assays in yeast. Fusion protein of BnAP2 with GAL4 DNA binding domain strongly activated transcription in yeast, and the transactivating activity of BnAP2 was localized to the N-terminal 100 amino acids. To further study the function of BnAP2 involved in the phenotype of B. napus, we used a transgenic approach that involved targeted RNA interference (RNAi) repression induced by ihp-RNA. Floral various phenotype defectives and reduced female fertility were observed in B. napus BnAP2-RNAi lines. Loss of the function of BnAP2 gene also resulted in delayed sepal abscission and senescence with the ethylene-independent pathway. In the strong BnAP2-RNAi lines, seeds showed defects in shape, structure and development and larger size. Strong BnAP2-RNAi and wild-type seeds initially did not display a significant difference in morphology at 10 DAF, but the development of BnAP2-RNAi seeds was slower than that of wild type at 20 DAF, and further at 30 DAF, wild-type seeds were essentially at their final size, whereas BnAP2-RNAi seeds stopped growing and developing and gradually withered.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression in post-transcriptional fashion, and emerging studies support their importance in regulating many biological processes, including myogenic differentiation and muscle development. miR-29 is a promoting factor during myogenesis but its full spectrum of impact on muscle cells has yet to be explored. Here we describe an analysis of miR-29 affected transcriptome in C2C12 muscle cells using a high throughput RNA-sequencing platform. The results reveal that miR-29 not only functions to promote myogenic differentiation but also suppresses the transdifferentiation of myoblasts into myofibroblasts. miR-29 inhibits the fibrogenic differentiation through down-regulating both extracellular matrix genes and cell adhesion genes. We further demonstrate that miR-29 is under negative regulation by TGF-beta (TGF-β)–Smad3 signaling via dual mechanisms of both inhibiting MyoD binding and enhancing Yin Yang 1 (YY1)-recruited Polycomb association. Together, these results identify miR-29 as a pleiotropic molecule in both myogenic and fibrogenic differentiation of muscle cells.
Mutant superoxide dismutase type 1 (MTSOD1) is thought to cause ∼20% of cases of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) because it misfolds and aggregates. Previous studies have shown that MTSOD1 accumulates inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and activates the unfolded protein response (UPR), suggesting that ER stress is involved in the pathogenesis of FALS. We used a genetic approach to investigate the role of the UPR in FALS. We crossed G85RSOD1 transgenic mice with pancreatic ER kinase haploinsufficient (PERK+/−) mice to obtain G85R/PERK+/− mice. PERK+/− mice carry a loss of function mutation of PERK, which is the most rapidly activated UPR pathway, but have no abnormal phenotype. Compared with G85R transgenic mice, G85R/PERK+/− mice had a dramatically accelerated disease onset as well as shortened disease duration and lifespan. There was also acceleration of the pathology and earlier MTSOD1 aggregation. A diminished PERK response accelerated disease and pathology in G85R transgenic mice presumably because the mice had a reduced capacity to turn down synthesis of misfolded SOD1, leading to an early overloading of the UPR. The results indicate that the UPR has a significant influence on FALS, and suggest that enhancing the UPR may be effective in treating ALS.
microRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally, and mounting evidence supports the prevalence and functional significance of their interplay with transcription factors (TFs). Here we describe the identification of a regulatory circuit between muscle miRNAs (miR-1, miR-133 and miR-206) and Yin Yang 1 (YY1), an epigenetic repressor of skeletal myogenesis in mouse. Genome-wide identification of potential down-stream targets of YY1 by combining computational prediction with expression profiling data reveals a large number of putative miRNA targets of YY1 during skeletal myoblasts differentiation into myotubes with muscle miRs ranking on top of the list. The subsequent experimental results demonstrate that YY1 indeed represses muscle miRs expression in myoblasts and the repression is mediated through multiple enhancers and recruitment of Polycomb complex to several YY1 binding sites. YY1 regulating miR-1 is functionally important for both C2C12 myogenic differentiation and injury-induced muscle regeneration. Furthermore, we demonstrate that miR-1 in turn targets YY1, thus forming a negative feedback loop. Together, these results identify a novel regulatory circuit required for skeletal myogenesis and reinforce the idea that regulatory circuitries involving miRNAs and TFs are prevalent mechanisms.
The flavonoid-derived proanthocyanidins (PAs) are one class of the major defence phenolics in poplar leaves. Transcriptional activation of PA biosynthetic genes, resulting in PA accumulation in leaves, was detected following infection by the fungal Marssonina brunnea f.sp. multigermtubi using digital gene expression analysis. In order to study PA biosynthesis and its induction by fungi, a putative leucoanthocyanidin reductase gene, PtrLAR3, was isolated from Populus trichocarpa. Sequence comparison of PtrLAR3 with other known leucoanthocyanidin reductase proteins revealed high amino acid sequence similarity. Semi-quantitative reverse-transcription (RT) PCR and quantitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that PtrLAR3 was expressed in various tissues and the highest level of expression was observed in roots. Overexpression of PtrLAR3 in Chinese white poplar (Populus tomentosa Carr.) led to a significant plant-wide increase in PA levels. In vitro assays showed that crude leaf extracts from 35S:PtrLAR3 transformants were able to inhibit significantly the hyphal growth of M. brunnea f.sp. multigermtubi compared to the extracts from control plants. The transgenic 35S:PtrLAR3 poplar plants displayed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in their disease symptoms compared with the control. RT-PCR analysis showed that PtrLAR3 expression was up-regulated in all transformants. These results suggested that constitutive expression of endogenous PtrLAR3 could be exploited to improve resistance to fungal pathogens in poplar.
Marssonina brunnea; poplar; proanthocyanidin biosynthesis; PtrLAR3
Magnetic nanoparticles [MNPs] made from iron oxides have many applications in biomedicine. Full understanding of the interactions between MNPs and mammalian cells is a critical issue for their applications. In this study, MNPs were coated with poly(ethylenimine) [MNP-PEI] and poly(ethylene glycol) [MNP-PEI-PEG] to provide a subtle difference in their surface charge and their cytotoxicity which were analysed by three standard cell viability assays: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium [MTS], CellTiter-Blue and CellTiter-Glo (Promega, Southampton, UK) in SH-SY5Y and RAW 264.7 cells The data were validated by traditional trypan blue exclusion. In comparison to trypan blue manual counting, the MTS and Titer-Blue assays appeared to have consistently overestimated the viability. The Titer-Glo also experienced a small overestimation. We hypothesise that interactions were occurring between the assay systems and the nanoparticles, resulting in incorrect cell viability evaluation. To further understand the cytotoxic effect of the nanoparticles on these cells, reactive oxygen species production, lipid peroxidation and cell membrane integrity were investigated. After pegylation, the MNP-PEI-PEG possessed a lower positive surface charge and exhibited much improved biocompatibility compared to MNP-PEI, as demonstrated not only by a higher cell viability, but also by a markedly reduced oxidative stress and cell membrane damage. These findings highlight the importance of assay selection and of dissection of different cellular responses in in-vitro characterisation of nanostructures.
magnetic nanoparticle; cellular interaction; cytotoxicity; cell viability assay; zeta potential.