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1.  Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Zanamivir Treatment in Hospitalized Adults With Influenza: An Open-label, Multicenter, Single-Arm, Phase II Study 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases  2013;209(4):542-550.
Background. Intravenous zanamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor suitable for treatment of hospitalized patients with severe influenza.
Methods. Patients were treated with intravenous zanamivir 600 mg twice daily, adjusted for renal impairment, for up to 10 days. Primary outcomes included adverse events (AEs), and clinical/laboratory parameters. Pharmacokinetics, viral load, and disease course were also assessed.
Results. One hundred thirty patients received intravenous zanamivir (median, 5 days; range, 1–11) a median of 4.5 days (range, 1–7) after onset of influenza; 83% required intensive care. The most common influenza type/subtype was A/H1N1pdm09 (71%). AEs and serious AEs were reported in 85% and 34% of patients, respectively; serious AEs included bacterial pulmonary infections (8%), respiratory failure (7%), sepsis or septic shock (5%), and cardiogenic shock (5%). No drug-related trends in safety parameters were identified. Protocol-defined liver events were observed in 13% of patients. The 14- and 28-day all-cause mortality rates were 13% and 17%. No fatalities were considered zanamivir related. Pharmacokinetic data showed dose adjustments for renal impairment yielded similar zanamivir exposures. Ninety-three patients, positive at baseline for influenza by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, showed a median decrease in viral load of 1.42 log10 copies/mL after 2 days of treatment.
Conclusions. Safety, pharmacokinetic and clinical outcome data support further investigation of intravenous zanamivir.
Clinical Trials Registration NCT01014988.
PMCID: PMC4047294  PMID: 23983212
intravenous zanamivir; Influenza; hospitalized; safety; zanamivir; pandemic influenza; A/H1N1pdm09
2.  Pharmacokinetics of Colistin Methanesulfonate and Formed Colistin in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients Receiving Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis 
Colistin, administered intravenously as its inactive prodrug colistin methanesulfonate (CMS), is increasingly used as last-line therapy to combat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. CMS dosing needs to be adjusted for renal function. The impact of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) on the pharmacokinetics of both CMS and colistin has not been studied. No CMS dosing recommendations are available for patients receiving CAPD. Eight CAPD patients received a single intravenous CMS dose (150 mg colistin base activity [CBA]) over 30 min. Serial blood and dialysate samples, and cumulative urine where applicable, were collected over 25 h. CMS and colistin concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Population pharmacokinetic modeling and Monte Carlo simulations were conducted. The total body clearance of CMS (excluding CAPD clearance) was 1.77 liters/h (44%) [population mean (between-subject variability)], while CAPD clearance was 0.088 liter/h (64%). The population mean terminal half-life of CMS was 8.4 h. For colistin, the total clearance/fraction of CMS metabolized to colistin (fm) (excluding CAPD clearance) was 2.74 liters/h (50%), the CAPD clearance was 0.101 liter/h (34%), and the mean terminal half-life was 13.2 h. Monte Carlo simulations suggested a loading dose of 300 mg CBA on day 1 and a maintenance dose of either 150 mg or 200 mg CBA daily to achieve a target average steady-state plasma colistin concentration of 2.5 mg/liter. Clearance by CAPD was low for both CMS and formed colistin. Therefore, CMS doses should not be increased during CAPD. Modeling and simulation enabled us to propose the first evidence-based CMS dosage regimen for CAPD patients.
PMCID: PMC3910712  PMID: 24189256
3.  Spread of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Global Clone 2 in Asia and AbaR-Type Resistance Islands 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2013;57(11):5239-5246.
In this surveillance study, we identified the genotypes, carbapenem resistance determinants, and structural variations of AbaR-type resistance islands among carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) isolates from nine Asian locales. Clonal complex 92 (CC92), corresponding to global clone 2 (GC2), was the most prevalent in most Asian locales (83/108 isolates; 76.9%). CC108, or GC1, was a predominant clone in India. OXA-23 oxacillinase was detected in CRAB isolates from most Asian locales except Taiwan. blaOXA-24 was found in CRAB isolates from Taiwan. AbaR4-type resistance islands, which were divided into six subtypes, were identified in most CRAB isolates investigated. Five isolates from India, Malaysia, Singapore, and Hong Kong contained AbaR3-type resistance islands. Of these, three isolates harbored both AbaR3- and AbaR4-type resistance islands simultaneously. In this study, GC2 was revealed as a prevalent clone in most Asian locales, with the AbaR4-type resistance island predominant, with diverse variants. The significance of this study lies in identifying the spread of global clones of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii in Asia.
PMCID: PMC3811275  PMID: 23939892
4.  Serological Response of Patients with Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09-Associated Pneumonia: An Observational Study 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e81436.
Little is known about the dynamics or magnitude of antibody response in patients with influenza A (H1N1) pdm09-associated pneumonia. We described and compared the antibody response to influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 in patients with and without pneumonia.
We collected serum samples and determined antibody titers by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (mNT) assays from patients with RT-PCR confirmed influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus at baseline, 1, 2 and 6 months after onset of illness.
Fifty-nine patients were enrolled, 45 (76.3%) were between 15 and 60 years of age, 49 (83.1%) were hospitalized and 25 (42.4%) had complications with pneumonia. Ninety-four percent of patients had HI titers ≥ 1: 40 and 90% had mNT titers ≥ 1: 160 at 2 months after illness. Geometric mean titers (GMT) of HI and mNT increased significantly (p<0.001) between baseline and months 1 or 2, then declined significantly (p<0.001) at month 6 by the HI assay, but dropped to an insignificant level (p=0.24) by the mNT assay. The mNT-GMT was at least twice as high as corresponding HI antibodies over a 6 month period. The GMT of HI and mNT in those with pneumonia (1 mo) peaked earlier than that of those without pneumonia (2 mo). When adjusted by age and gender, those with pneumonia had a higher HI-GMT than those without pneumonia at 1 month (264 vs. 117, p=0.007), 2 months (212 vs. 159, p=0.013), and 6 months (160 vs. 82, p=0.018).
The patients recovered from influenza A (H1N1) pdm09-associated pneumonia, clearly developed an earlier and more robust antibody response until 6 months after onset of illness. The results in our study are useful to determine an appropriate donor and timing to obtain convalescent plasma for adjunctive treatment of seriously ill patients with pandemic H1N1 influenza.
PMCID: PMC3842268  PMID: 24312299
5.  AbaR4-Type Resistance Island Including the blaOXA-23 Gene in Acinetobacter nosocomialis Isolates 
This study reports for the first time the AbaR4-type resistance island with the blaOXA-23 gene in two carbapenem-resistant A. nosocomialis isolates from South Korea and Thailand.
PMCID: PMC3421619  PMID: 22687501
6.  Prevalence and genotypic relatedness of carbapenem resistance among multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa in tertiary hospitals across Thailand 
Increased infection caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa has raised awareness of the resistance situation worldwide. Carbapenem resistance among MDR (CR-MDR) P. aeruginosa has become a serious life-threatening problem due to the limited therapeutic options. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, the antibiotic susceptibility patterns and the relatedness of CR-MDR P. aeruginosa in tertiary hospitals across Thailand.
MDR P. aeruginosa from eight tertiary hospitals across Thailand were collected from 2007–2009. Susceptibility of P. aeruginosa clinical isolates was determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline. Selected CR-MDR P. aeruginosa isolates were genetically analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.
About 261 clinical isolates were identified as MDR P. aeruginosa and approximately 71.65% were found to be CR-MDR P. aeruginosa. The result showed that the meropenem resistance rate was the highest reaching over 50% in every hospitals. Additionally, the type of hospitals was a major factor affecting the resistance rate, as demonstrated by significantly higher CR-MDR rates among university and regional hospitals. The fingerprinting map identified 107 clones with at least 95% similarity. Only 4 clones were detected in more than one hospital.
Although the antibiotic resistance rate was high, the spreading of CR-MDR was found locally. Specific strains of CR-MDR did not commonly spread from one hospital to another. Importantly, clonal dissemination ratio indicated limited intra-hospital transmission in Thailand.
PMCID: PMC3475077  PMID: 22970983
Antimicrobial susceptibility; Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; Carbapenem resistance; Multidrug resistance; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Epidemiology
7.  Changing Trends in Antimicrobial Resistance and Serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates in Asian Countries: an Asian Network for Surveillance of Resistant Pathogens (ANSORP) Study 
Antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a serious concern worldwide, particularly in Asian countries, despite the introduction of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). The Asian Network for Surveillance of Resistant Pathogens (ANSORP) performed a prospective surveillance study of 2,184 S. pneumoniae isolates collected from patients with pneumococcal infections from 60 hospitals in 11 Asian countries from 2008 to 2009. Among nonmeningeal isolates, the prevalence rate of penicillin-nonsusceptible pneumococci (MIC, ≥4 μg/ml) was 4.6% and penicillin resistance (MIC, ≥8 μg/ml) was extremely rare (0.7%). Resistance to erythromycin was very prevalent in the region (72.7%); the highest rates were in China (96.4%), Taiwan (84.9%), and Vietnam (80.7%). Multidrug resistance (MDR) was observed in 59.3% of isolates from Asian countries. Major serotypes were 19F (23.5%), 23F (10.0%), 19A (8.2%), 14 (7.3%), and 6B (7.3%). Overall, 52.5% of isolates showed PCV7 serotypes, ranging from 16.1% in Philippines to 75.1% in Vietnam. Serotypes 19A (8.2%), 3 (6.2%), and 6A (4.2%) were the most prominent non-PCV7 serotypes in the Asian region. Among isolates with serotype 19A, 86.0% and 79.8% showed erythromycin resistance and MDR, respectively. The most remarkable findings about the epidemiology of S. pneumoniae in Asian countries after the introduction of PCV7 were the high prevalence of macrolide resistance and MDR and distinctive increases in serotype 19A.
PMCID: PMC3294909  PMID: 22232285
8.  In Vitro Activity of Doripenem against Burkholderia pseudomallei▿  
The MIC50 and MIC90 values of doripenem, determined by Etest, for 110 isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei were 0.5 and 0.75 μg/ml, respectively. There were significant correlations between MICs determined by Etest and MICs determined by agar dilution, MICs determined by Etest and inhibition zone size, and MICs determined by agar dilution and inhibition zone size.
PMCID: PMC2704683  PMID: 19364859
9.  Effect of different Mueller–Hinton agars on tigecycline disc diffusion susceptibility for Acinetobacter spp. 
PMCID: PMC2536710  PMID: 18567913
MHA; susceptibility testing; Acinetobacter
10.  In Vitro Activity of Tigecycline against Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia thailandensis 
Investigation of the in vitro activity of tigecycline against Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia thailandensis revealed that the inhibition zone diameters of tigecycline against all isolates were ≥20 mm and that the MIC50 values were 0.5 and 1 μg/ml and the MIC90 values were 2 and 1.5 μg/ml for B. pseudomallei and B. thailandensis, respectively.
PMCID: PMC1426953  PMID: 16569883

Results 1-10 (10)