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1.  Detection of Carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae by a Commercial Multiplex PCR 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2012;50(9):3115-3118.
A commercial multiplex PCR (hyplex SuperBug ID) was tested with a collection of 132 clinical Enterobacteriaceae strains producing different carbapenemases. The sensitivity for the detection of KPC-, VIM-, NDM-, and OXA-48-encoding genes was 100%, whereas two IMP variants were missed.
doi:10.1128/JCM.00991-12
PMCID: PMC3421779  PMID: 22785190
2.  First description of Escherichia coli producing CTX-M-15- extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) in out-patients from south eastern Nigeria 
We studied the presence of extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs) in 44 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli collected from out-patients in two university teaching hospitals in South-Eastern Nigeria. Species identification was performed by standard microbiology methods and re-confirmed by MALDI-TOF technology. Phenotypic characterization of ESBL enzymes was done by double disc synergy test and presence of ESBL genes was determined by specific PCR followed by sequencing. Transfer of plasmid DNA was carried out by transformation using E. coli DH5 as recipient strain. Phenotypic characterization identified all isolates to be ESBL positive. 77% of strains were from urine, 13.6% from vaginal swabs and 9.0% from wound swabs. 63.6% were from female patients, 68% were from outpatients and 95.5% from patients younger than 30 years. All ESBL producers were positive in a PCR for blaCTX-M-1 cluster, in exemplary strains blaCTX-M-15 was found by sequencing. In all strains ISEcp1 was found upstream and ORF477 downstream of blaCTX-M. PCR for blaTEM and blaOXA-1 was positive in 93.1% of strains, whereas blaSHV was not detected, aac(6′)-Ib-cr was found in 97.7% of strains. RAPD analysis revealed seven different clonal groups named A through G with the majority of the strains (65.9%) belonging to clone A. Transfer of an ESBL plasmid with co-resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin, tobramycin, doxycycline and trimethropim-sulfamethoxazole was successful in 19 (43.2%) strains. This study showed a high rate of CTX-M-1 cluster - ESBLs in South-Eastern Nigeria and further confirms the worldwide spread of CTX-M ESBL in clinical isolates.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-11-19
PMCID: PMC3473344  PMID: 22824236
Outpatients; ESBL; CTX-M; Escherichia coli
3.  Late Periprosthetic Joint Infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis Identified by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry: A Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Case Reports in Medicine  2011;2011:608919.
Staphylococcus lugdunensis, member to the group of coagulase-negative staphylococci, is previously thought to be rarely isolated. Recently other staphylococci have been described, which were supposedly related to S. lugdunensis, such as Staphylococcus pseudolugdunensis and Staphylococcus pettenkoferi. To decrease the rate misidentifications, an accurate identification method, such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry or molecular methods, should be used. S. lugdunensis is usually associated with severe infections similar to those caused by S. aureus. Moreover, it has been described that skin infections due to S. lugdunensis are severely underreported and could be also underreported in periprosthetic joint infections. Ours is the first case of a late periprosthetic infection of the hip due to S. lugdunensis, identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A periprosthetic infection due to S. lugdunensis should be treated according to protocols of S. aureus periprosthetic infections, and therefore an accurate species identification is desirable.
doi:10.1155/2011/608919
PMCID: PMC3138060  PMID: 21776276
4.  Occurrence of genes of putative fibrinogen binding proteins and hemolysins, as well as of their phenotypic correlates in isolates of S. lugdunensis of different origins 
BMC Research Notes  2011;4:113.
Background
Staphylococcus lugdunensis is an important human pathogen that causes potentially fatal endocarditis, osteomyelitis and skin and soft tissue infections similar to diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Nevertheless, in contrast to S. aureus, data on pathogenicity factors of S. lugdunensis is scarce. Two adhesins, a fibrinogen and a von Willebrand factor binding protein, and a S. lugdunensis synergistic hemolysin (SLUSH) have been previously described. Moreover, the newly sequenced genome of S. lugdunensis revealed genes of other putative fibrinogen binding adhesins and hemolysins. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the occurrence of genes likely coding for fibrinogen binding adhesins and hemolysins using clinical strains of S. lugdunensis.
Findings
Most of the putative adhesin genes and hemolysin genes investigated in this study were highly prevalent, except for the SLUSH gene cluster. In contrast to previous reports, binding to fibrinogen was detected in 29.3% of the S. lugdunensis strains. In most strains, hemolysis on blood agar plates was weak after 24 h and distinct after 48 h of incubation. The fibrinogen binding and hemolysis phenotypes were also independent of the type of clinical specimen, from which the isolates were obtained.
Conclusion
In this study we described a pyrrolidonyl arylamidase negative S. lugdunensis isolate. Our data indicate that a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight MS-based identification of S. lugdunensis or species-specific PCR's should be performed in favour of pyrrolidonyl arylamidase testing. In contrast to the high occurrence of putative fibrinogen binding protein genes, 29.3% of the S. lugdunensis strains bound to fibrinogen. Putative hemolysin genes were also prevalent in most of the S. lugdunensis strains, irrespective of their hemolysis activity on Columbia blood agar plates. Similar to a previous report, hemolysis after 48 h of incubation is also indicative for S. lugdunensis. The SLUSH gene cluster was detected in an estimated 50% of the strains, indicating that this locus is different or non-prevalent in many strains.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-4-113
PMCID: PMC3089787  PMID: 21477287
5.  Performance of MicroScan WalkAway and Vitek 2 for Detection of Oxacillin Resistance in a Set of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates with Diverse Genetic Backgrounds ▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2009;47(8):2623-2625.
Of 104 genotypically diverse methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates tested with the MicroScan WalkAway (Pos MIC 24 panel) and Vitek 2 (AST-P549 card) systems, 7 and 6 isolates, respectively, showed an oxacillin MIC of ≤2mg/liter. Most of these MRSA isolates were community acquired. However, if the cefoxitin screen of AST-P549 was also considered, MRSA detection failed for only one isolate.
doi:10.1128/JCM.02112-08
PMCID: PMC2725681  PMID: 19515835
6.  Tropheryma whipplei Infection of an Acellular Porcine Heart Valve Bioprosthesis in a Patient Who Did Not Have Intestinal Whipple's Disease 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2004;42(10):4487-4493.
Rare cases of culture-negative infective endocarditis are caused by Tropheryma whipplei, the uncommon bacterium of Whipple's disease. We evaluated an 80-year-old woman with valvular heart disease but without intestinal Whipple's disease. The diagnosis of aortic valve xenograft culture-negative infection with T. whipplei was established by multiple molecular assays and by electron microscopy. First, a PCR with broad-range primers identified the complete 16S ribosomal DNA of T. whipplei in bioprosthesis tissue. Novel real-time reverse transcription-PCR assays were developed to detect mRNAs encoding recently identified proteins determined from the T. whipplei genome, specifically Whipplei surface protein (TW113) and a DNA polymerase III subunit (TW727). The positive detection of mRNAs indicated the presence of metabolically active bacteria and suggested the viability of T. whipplei. The quantification of T. whipplei genome equivalents by real-time PCR indicated a high-density bacterial colonization of the valve tissue. Additionally, an ultrastructural examination revealed numerous rod-shaped bacteria consistent in size with T. whipplei in the extracellular collagen matrix of the bioprosthesis. We conclude that extracellular growth of T. whipplei can occur in the microenvironment of biological prosthetic valve tissue and that T. whipplei endocarditis can occur in the absence of intestinal Whipple's disease.
doi:10.1128/JCM.42.10.4487-4493.2004
PMCID: PMC522317  PMID: 15472298

Results 1-6 (6)