There exists considerable debate concerning management of prosthetic vascular graft infection (PVGI), especially in terms of antimicrobial treatment. This report studies factors associated with treatment failure in a cohort of patients with staphylococcal PVGI, along with the impact of rifampin (RIF).
All data on patients with PVGI between 2006 and 2010 were reviewed. Cure was defined as the absence of evidence of infection during the entire post-treatment follow-up for a minimum of one year. Failure was defined as any other outcome.
84 patients (72 M/12 F, median age 64.5 ± 11 y) with diabetes mellitus (n = 25), obesity (n = 48), coronary artery disease (n = 48), renal failure (n = 24) or COPD (n = 22) were treated for PVGI (median follow-up was 470 ± 469 d). PVGI was primarily intracavitary (n = 47). Staphylococcus aureus (n = 65; including 17 methicillin-resistant S. aureus) and coagulase-negative Staphylocococcus (n = 22) were identified. Surgical treatment was performed in 71 patients. In univariate analysis, significant risk factors associated with failure were renal failure (p = 0.04), aortic aneurysm (p = 0.03), fever (p = 0.009), aneurysm disruption (p = 0.02), septic shock in the peri-operative period (p = 0.005) and antibiotic treatment containing RIF (p = 0.03). In multivariate analysis, 2 variables were independently associated with failure:septic shock [OR 4.98: CI 95% 1.45-16.99; p=0.01] and antibiotic containing rifampin [OR: 0.32: CI95% 0.10-0.96; p=0.04].
Results of the present study suggest that fever, septic shock and non-use of antibiotic treatment containing RIF are associated with poor outcome.