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1.  Sequential determination of serum viral titers, virus-specific IgG antibodies, and TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-γ levels in patients with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2014;14(1):416.
Although there have been a number of studies on the pathogenesis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) recently, knowledge on this topic is still insufficient. This study aims to reveal the kinetics of serum CCHF virus (CCHFV) titers, serum levels of anti-CCHFV immunoglobulin (Ig)G, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and interferon (IFN)-γ in CCHF patients.
In total, 31 CCHF cases (11 fatal) were studied. Serum samples were obtained daily from all patients from the time of admission and continued for a 7-day hospitalization period for serologic (ELISA), virologic (real-time PCR), and cytokine (ELISA) analysis.
The mean serum CCHFV titer at admission was 5.5E + 09 copies/mL in fatal cases and 5.7E + 08 copies/mL in survivors (p < 0.001). Compared to survivors, both the mean serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α at admission were found to be significantly increased in fatal cases. The serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α and serum CCHFV titer at admission were significantly and positively correlated with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) scores (r = 0.626, p = 0.0002; r = 0.461, p = 0.009; and r = 0.625, p = 0.003, respectively). When the data obtained from the sequential determination of CCHFV titer and levels of anti-CCHFV IgG, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 and IFN-γ were grouped according to the days of illness, the initial serum CCHFV titer of a fatal patient was 5.5E + 09 (copies/mL) and it was 6.1E + 09 (copies/mL) in a survivor on the 2 day of illness. While significant alterations were observed in all cytokines during the monitoring period, IL-6 levels remained consistently higher in fatal cases and TNF-α levels increased in both in fatal and non-fatal CCHF cases.
The increased CCHFV load and higher concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α, the presence of DIC, and the absence of CCHFV specific immunity are strongly associated with death in CCHF.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-416) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4133611  PMID: 25066751
CCHF; CCHFV titer; Specific IgG; TNF-α; IL-6; IL-10; IFN-γ; DIC; Mortality
2.  Is Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio Associated with Subclinical Inflammation and Amyloidosis in Patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever? 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:185317.
Background. The purpose of the present study is to determine the association between neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and both subclinical inflammation and amyloidosis in familial Mediterranean fever. Methods. Ninety-four patients with familial Mediterranean fever and 60 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Of the patients, 12 had familial Mediterranean fever related amyloidosis. The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio of the patients was obtained from the hematology laboratory archive. Results. The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio was significantly higher among persons with familial Mediterranean fever compared to healthy individuals (P < 0.0001). Also, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio was significantly higher in patients with amyloidosis than in amyloidosis-free patients (P < 0.0001). Since NLR was evaluated in nonamyloid and amyloid stages of the same patient population (type 1 phenotype), we obtained significant statistical differences (1.95 ± 0.30 versus 2.64 ± 0.48, P < 0.05, resp.). With the cutoff value of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio >2.21 and AUC = 0.734 (P = 0.009), it was a reliable marker in predicting the development of amyloidosis. Conclusion. The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, an emerging marker of inflammation, is higher in patients with familial Mediterranean fever in attack-free periods. The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio may be a useful marker in predicting the development of amyloidosis.
PMCID: PMC3705820  PMID: 23865042
3.  Unusual manifestations of acute Q fever: autoimmune hemolytic anemia and tubulointerstitial nephritis 
Q fever is a worldwide zoonotic infection that caused by Coxiella burnetii, a strict intracellular bacterium. It may be manifested by some of the autoimmune events and is classified into acute and chronic forms. The most frequent clinical manifestation of acute form is a self-limited febrile illness which is associated with severe headache, muscle ache, arthralgia and cough. Meningoencephalitis, thyroiditis, pericarditis, myocarditis, mesenteric lymphadenopathy, hemolytic anemia, and nephritis are rare manifestations. Here we present a case of acute Q fever together with Coombs’ positive autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and tubulointerstitial nephritis treated with chlarithromycin, steroids and hemodialysis. Clinicians should be aware of such rare manifestations of the disease.
PMCID: PMC3410774  PMID: 22607576
Q fever; Pneumonia; Autoimmune hemolytic anemia; Tubulointerstitial nephritis

Results 1-3 (3)