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author:("sadeh, majeed")
1.  Antimicrobial Activity of Common Mouthwash Solutions on Multidrug-Resistance Bacterial Biofilms 
Background
Periodontal bacteria occur in both planktonic and biofilm forms. While poor oral hygiene leads to accumulation of bacteria, reducing these microbes is the first step toward good oral hygiene. This is usually achieved through the use of mouthwash solutions. However, the exact antibacterial activity of mouthwash solution, especially when bacteria form biofilms, is yet to be determined. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial activity of common mouthwash solutions against standard bacteria in their planktonic and biofilm states.
Methods
Standard bacterial strains were cultured, and biofilm were formrd. Thereafter, using standard method for determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) values of various mouthwash solutions were determined.
Results
Results show that common mouthwash solutions have variable antibacterial activity depending on their major active components. Only mouthwash solutions containing chlorohexidine gluconate or cetylpyridinum chloride exhibited activity against majority, but not all tested bacterial strains in their biofilm state. Additionally, bacteria are generally less susceptible to all mouthwash solutions in their biofilm as compared to planktonic state.
Conclusions
While mouthwash solutions have variable antibacterial activity, bacteria in their biofilm state pose a challenge to dental hygiene/care where bacteria become not susceptible to majority of available mouthwash solutions.
doi:10.4021/jocmr1535w
PMCID: PMC3748664  PMID: 23976912
Mouthwash; Antimicrobial; Biofilm; Planktonic
2.  In vitro determination of the antibiotic susceptibility of biofilm-forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus: possible role of proteolytic activity and membrane lipopolysaccharide 
We carried out a comprehensive overview of inhibitory effects of selected antibiotics on planktonic and biofilm cells of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) strains. The possible involvement of protease activity and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) profile of P. aeruginosa were also analyzed. Biofilm cells of both strains were more resistant to antibiotics than their planktonic counterparts. Protease activity was increased in both strains in the biofilm forms. Challenge with sublethal doses of antibiotics also increased proteolytic activity of biofilm cells. Additionally, the LPS profile of P. aeruginosa showed pattern alterations of the biofilm that can contribute to biofilm resistance and survival. These observations provide evidence for the involvement of bacterial proteolytic activity and LPS profile in the resistance of biofilm bacteria to antibiotics compared to their planktonic counterparts.
doi:10.2147/IDR.S41501
PMCID: PMC3593709  PMID: 23493936
biofilm; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Staphylococcus aureus; proteolytic activity; lipopolysaccharide
3.  Antibacterial activity of statins: a comparative study of Atorvastatin, Simvastatin, and Rosuvastatin 
Background
Statins have several effects beyond their well-known antihyperlipidemic activity, which include immunomodulatory, antioxidative and anticoagulant effects. In this study, we have tested the possible antimicrobial activity of statins against a range of standard bacterial strains and bacterial clinical isolates.
Methods
Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) values were evaluated and compared among three members of the statins drug (atorvastatin, simvastatin, and rosuvastatin).
Results
It was revealed that statins are able to induce variable degrees of antibacterial activity with atorvastatin, and simvastatin being the more potent than rosuvastatin. Methicillin-sensitive staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-susceptible enterococci (VSE), vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE), acinetobacter baumannii, staphylococcus epidermidis, and enterobacter aerogenes, were more sensitive to both atorvastatin, and simvastatin compared to rosuvastatin. On the other hand, escherichia coli, proteus mirabilis, and enterobacter cloacae were more sensitive to atorvastatin compared to both simvastatin and rosuvastatin. Furthermore, most clinical isolates were less sensitive to statins compared to their corresponding standard strains.
Conclusion
Our findings might raise the possibility of a potentially important antibacterial class effect for statins especially, atorvastatin and simvastatin.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-11-13
PMCID: PMC3408379  PMID: 22564676
Antimicrobial activity; Statins; Atorvastatin; Simvastatin; Rosuvastatin
4.  Investigation of the antibacterial activity of pioglitazone 
Purpose:
To evaluate the antibacterial potential of pioglitazone, a member of the thiazolidinediones class of drugs, against Gram-positive (Streptococcus pneumoniae) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria.
Methods:
Susceptibility testing was done using the antibiotic disk diffusion method and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of pioglitazone was measured according to the broth micro incubation standard method.
Results:
Pioglitazone induced a dose-dependent antibacterial activity in which the optimal concentration was 80 μM. Furthermore, results indicated that while E. coli was sensitive (MIC = 31.25 ± 3.87 mg/L) to pioglitazone-induced cytotoxicity, S. pneumoniae and K. pneumoniae were resistant (MIC = 62.5 ± 3.77 mg/L and MIC = 62.5 ± 4.14 mg/L, respectively). Moreover, pretreatment of bacteria with a suboptimal concentration of pioglitazone (40 μM) before adding amoxicillin, cephalexin, co-trimoxazole, or ciprofloxacin enhanced the antibacterial activity of all agents except co-trimoxazole. This enhancing effect was particularly seen against K. pneumoniae.
Conclusion:
These results indicate the possibility of a new and potentially important pioglitazone effect and the authors’ ongoing studies aim to illustrate the mechanism(s) by which this antibacterial effect is induced.
doi:10.2147/DDDT.S24126
PMCID: PMC3210070  PMID: 22087061
pioglitazone; susceptibility testing; antibiotics; diabetes
5.  Artificial semi-rigid tissue sensitized with natural pigments: Effect of photon radiations 
Background:
A new approach for evaluating the optical penetration depth and testing its validity with Monte Carlo simulations and Kubelka-Munk theory is used for artificial semi-rigid tissue sensitized with natural pigments. Photodynamic therapy is a promising cancer treatment in which a photosensitizing drug concentrates in malignant cells and is activated by visible light at certain wavelength.
Materials and Methods:
Cheap artificial semi-rigid tissue incorporated with scattering and absorbing materials along with some other composites comparable to normal human tissue has been performed. The optical parameters as measured with different conditions and calculated with various techniques are investigated.
Results:
The probability of interaction of light with tissue is very high when exposed to light in presence of Cichorium pumilum and RBCs followed by photohemolysis or/and photodegradation. The optical penetration depth calculated by linear absorption coefficient ranges from 0.63 to 2.85 mm is found to be comparable to those calculated using Kubelka–Munk theory or Monte Carlo simulation (range from 0.78 to 2.42 mm). The ratio of absorption to the scattering is independent of thickness and decreases with increasing irradiation time. Moreover, the optical parameters as well as their ratios are in very good agreement in the two approaches of calculation. The values of absorption and scattering coefficients are independent of thickness. Furthermore, the average photon ranges in the samples containing no scattering and absorbing materials are about three times greater than those samples containing scattering materials.
Conclusion:
Our results suggest that light propagation with optical properties presented in this work could be applicable in diagnostic and therapeutic of the human biological tissue for photodynamic therapy.
doi:10.4103/0975-7406.80781
PMCID: PMC3103923  PMID: 21687357
Attenuation coefficient; half value layer; penetration depth; photodynamic therapy; tissue phantom

Results 1-5 (5)