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1.  Phytochemical, toxicological and antimicrobial evaluation of lawsonia inermis extracts against clinical isolates of pathogenic bacteria 
Background
The emerging resistance of pathogen against the currently available antimicrobial agents demands the search of new antimicrobial agents. The use of medicinal plants as natural substitute is the paramount area of research to overwhelm the drug resistance of infectious agents. Scientists have not made enough effort on the evaluation of safety of medicinal plant yet.
Methods
In the present study antimicrobial activity of Lawsonia inermis is investigated against clinical isolates of seven bacteria including four Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella spp., Shigella sonnei) and three Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis) using disc diffusion method. Four types of Lawsonia inermis extracts were prepared using methanol, chloroform, acetone and water as extraction solvents, while DMSO (Dimethyl sulfoxide) and water as dissolution solvents. The rate and extent of bacterial killing was estimated by time-kill kinetic assay at 1× MIC of each bacterial isolate. The overall safety of Lawsonia inermis extracts was assessed in mice.
Results
Lawsonia inermis displayed noteworthy antimicrobial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains used in the study. The minimum value of MIC for different bacterial strains ranged from 2.31 mg/ml to 9.27 mg/ml. At 1x MIC of each bacterial isolate, 3log10 decrease in CFU was recorded after 6 hours of drug exposure and no growth was observed in almost all tested bacteria after 24 hours of exposure. No sign of toxidrome were observed during in vivo toxicity evaluation in mice at 300 mg/kg concentration.
Conclusion
In conclusion, the present study provides the scientific rational for medicinal use of Lawsonia inermis. The use of Lawsonia inermis extracts is of great significance as substitute antimicrobial agent in therapeutics.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-12-36
PMCID: PMC4220702  PMID: 24289297
Lawsonia inermis; Antimicrobial activity; Time-kill kinetic assay
2.  Heterologous expression, immunochemical and computational analysis of recombinant human interferon alpha 2b 
SpringerPlus  2013;2:264.
Interferon alpha 2b (IFNα-2b) is an important cytokine and used for antiviral and anticancer treatment. The low cost production of IFNα-2b with high biological activity is necessary to provide the interferon therapy to the hepatitis patients in Pakistan. In the present study, human interferon alpha 2b (hIFNα-2b) gene from a healthy person was cloned and overexpressed in E. coli BL21(DE3). The molecular weight of the expressed hIFNα-2b is 19 kDa. The over expressed recombinant hIFNα-2b was checked by ELISA using antibodies raised against commercially available hIFNα-2b. The biocomputational analysis of recombinant hIFNα-2b gene showed the 99.9% nucleotide sequence and 100% deduced amino acid sequence homology with reported sequences of IFNα-2b. The predicted 3D-structure showed mainly five α-helices, one 310 helix and two disulfide bonds at Cys1-Cys98 and Cys129-Cys138. The amino acid sequence alignment indicated that the disulfide linkage position is conserved in all IFNα family members. On the basis of sequence homology among interferon alpha family, new potent variants of hIFNα-2b with enhance efficacy can be produced. Indigenous production of IFNα-2b from gene of local population will reduce the cost and increase tolerability of interferon therapy.
doi:10.1186/2193-1801-2-264
PMCID: PMC3695685  PMID: 23875128
hIFNα-2b; Cloning; Overexpression; Computational analysis
3.  Inhibitory effect of Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale extracts on clinically important drug resistant pathogenic bacteria 
Background
Herbs and spices are very important and useful as therapeutic agent against many pathological infections. Increasing multidrug resistance of pathogens forces to find alternative compounds for treatment of infectious diseases.
Methods
In the present study the antimicrobial potency of garlic and ginger has been investigated against eight local clinical bacterial isolates. Three types of extracts of each garlic and ginger including aqueous extract, methanol extract and ethanol extract had been assayed separately against drug resistant Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcusepidermidis and Salmonella typhi. The antibacterial activity was determined by disc diffusion method.
Results
All tested bacterial strains were most susceptible to the garlic aqueous extract and showed poor susceptibility to the ginger aqueous extract. The (minimum inhibitory concentration) MIC of different bacterial species varied from 0.05 mg/ml to 1.0 mg/ml.
Conclusion
In the light of several socioeconomic factors of Pakistan mainly poverty and poor hygienic condition, present study encourages the use of spices as alternative or supplementary medicine to reduce the burden of high cost, side effects and progressively increasing drug resistance of pathogens.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-11-8
PMCID: PMC3418209  PMID: 22540232
Garlic; Ginger; Antibacterial activity; Extracts

Results 1-3 (3)