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1.  Ceftobiprole Activity against over 60,000 Clinical Bacterial Pathogens Isolated in Europe, Turkey, and Israel from 2005 to 2010 
Ceftobiprole medocaril is a newly approved drug in Europe for the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) (excluding patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia but including ventilated HAP patients) and community-acquired pneumonia in adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of ceftobiprole against prevalent Gram-positive and -negative pathogens isolated in Europe, Turkey, and Israel during 2005 through 2010. A total of 60,084 consecutive, nonduplicate isolates from a wide variety of infections were collected from 33 medical centers. Species identification was confirmed, and all isolates were susceptibility tested using reference broth microdilution methods. Ceftobiprole had high activity against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (100.0% susceptible), methicillin-susceptible coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), beta-hemolytic streptococci, and Streptococcus pneumoniae (99.3% susceptible), with MIC90 values of 0.25, 0.12, ≤0.06, and 0.5 μg/ml, respectively. Ceftobiprole was active against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (98.3% susceptible) and methicillin-resistant CoNS, having a MIC90 of 2 μg/ml. Ceftobiprole was active against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC50/90, 0.5/4 μg/ml) but not against most Enterococcus faecium isolates. Ceftobiprole was very potent against the majority of Enterobacteriaceae (87.3% susceptible), with >80% inhibited at ≤0.12 μg/ml. The potency of ceftobiprole against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC50/90, 2/>8 μg/ml; 64.6% at MIC values of ≤4 μg/ml) was similar to that of ceftazidime (MIC50/90, 2/>16 μg/ml; 75.4% susceptible), but limited activity was observed against Acinetobacter spp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. High activity was also observed against all Haemophilus influenzae (MIC90, ≤0.06 μg/ml) and Moraxella catarrhalis (MIC50/90, ≤0.06/0.25 μg/ml) isolates. Ceftobiprole demonstrated a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity against this very large longitudinal sample of contemporary pathogens.
PMCID: PMC4068590  PMID: 24777091
2.  Revised Reference Broth Microdilution Method for Testing Telavancin: Effect on MIC Results and Correlation with Other Testing Methodologies 
The reference broth microdilution (BMD) antimicrobial susceptibility testing method for telavancin was revised to include dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a solvent and diluent for frozen-form panel preparation, following the CLSI recommendations for water-insoluble agents. Polysorbate 80 (P-80) was also added to the test medium to minimize proven drug losses associated with binding to plastic surfaces. Four hundred sixty-two Gram-positive isolates, including a challenge set of organisms with reduced susceptibilities to comparator agents, were selected and tested using the revised method for telavancin, and the MIC results were compared with those tested by the previously established method and several Sensititre dry-form BMD panel formulations. The revised method provided MIC results 2- to 8-fold lower than the previous method when tested against staphylococci and enterococci, resulting in MIC50 values of 0.03 to 0.06 μg/ml for staphylococci and 0.03 and 0.12 μg/ml for Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis, respectively. Less-significant MIC decreases (1 to 2 log2 dilution steps) were observed when testing streptococci in broth supplemented with blood, which showed similar MIC50 values for both methods. However, Streptococcus pneumoniae had MIC50 results of 0.008 and 0.03 μg/ml when tested by the revised and previous methods, respectively. Highest essential agreement rates (≥94.0%) were noted for one candidate dry-form panel formulation compared to the revised test. The revised BMD method provides lower MIC results for telavancin, especially when tested against staphylococci and enterococci. This is secondary to the use of DMSO for panel production and the presence of P-80, which ensure the proper telavancin testing concentration and result in a more accurate MIC determination. Moreover, earlier studies where the previous method was applied underestimated the in vitro drug potency.
PMCID: PMC4135820  PMID: 25022579
3.  Antimicrobial Activity of Ceftolozane-Tazobactam Tested against Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with Various Resistance Patterns Isolated in U.S. Hospitals (2011-2012) 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2013;57(12):6305-6310.
Ceftolozane/tazobactam, a novel antimicrobial agent with activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (including drug-resistant strains) and other common Gram-negative pathogens (including most extended-spectrum-β-lactamase [ESBL]-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains), and comparator agents were susceptibility tested by a reference broth microdilution method against 7,071 Enterobacteriaceae and 1,971 P. aeruginosa isolates. Isolates were collected consecutively from patients in 32 medical centers across the United States during 2011 to 2012. Overall, 15.7% and 8.9% of P. aeruginosa isolates were classified as multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR), and 8.4% and 1.2% of Enterobacteriaceae were classified as MDR and XDR. No pandrug-resistant (PDR) Enterobacteriaceae isolates and only one PDR P. aeruginosa isolate were detected. Ceftolozane/tazobactam was the most potent (MIC50/90, 0.5/2 μg/ml) agent tested against P. aeruginosa and demonstrated good activity against 310 MDR strains (MIC50/90, 2/8 μg/ml) and 175 XDR strains (MIC50/90, 4/16 μg/ml). Ceftolozane/tazobactam exhibited high overall activity (MIC50/90, 0.25/1 μg/ml) against Enterobacteriaceae and retained activity (MIC50/90, 4/>32 μg/ml) against many 601 MDR strains but not against the 86 XDR strains (MIC50, >32 μg/ml). Ceftolozane/tazobactam was highly potent (MIC50/90, 0.25/0.5 μg/ml) against 2,691 Escherichia coli isolates and retained good activity against most ESBL-phenotype E. coli isolates (MIC50/90, 0.5/4 μg/ml), but activity was low against ESBL-phenotype Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates (MIC50/90, 32/>32 μg/ml), explained by the high rate (39.8%) of meropenem coresistance observed in this species phenotype. In summary, ceftolozane/tazobactam demonstrated high potency and broad-spectrum activity against many contemporary Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa isolates collected in U.S. medical centers. Importantly, ceftolozane/tazobactam retained potency against many MDR and XDR strains.
PMCID: PMC3837887  PMID: 24100499
4.  Decreased Ceftriaxone Susceptibility in Emerging (35B and 6C) and Persisting (19A) Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotypes in the United States, 2011-2012: Ceftaroline Remains Active In Vitro among β-Lactam Agents 
Totals of 8.7% (103/1,190) and 21.0% (249/1,190) of the Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates recovered from specimens collected in the United States during the 2011-2012 AWARE (Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation) Surveillance Program were ceftriaxone nonsusceptible according to the CLSI (≤1 μg/ml for susceptible) and EUCAST (≤0.5 μg/ml for susceptible) criteria, respectively. Decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC, 1 μg/ml) was frequently observed among serotypes 19A (51.4%; 128/249) and 35B (29.7%; 74/249), which were most often observed in the East South Central and South Atlantic U.S. Census regions. Ceftaroline (MIC50/90, 0.12/0.25 μg/ml) remained active (≥96.8% susceptible) when tested against these less susceptible isolates.
PMCID: PMC4136078  PMID: 24867974
5.  Oritavancin Activity against Staphylococcus aureus Causing Invasive Infections in U.S. and European Hospitals: a 5-Year International Surveillance Program 
In this study, oritavancin had modal MIC, MIC50, and MIC90 values of 0.03, 0.03, and 0.06 μg/ml, respectively, against Staphylococcus aureus. Similar results (MIC50/90, 0.03/0.06 μg/ml) were observed against methicillin-resistant and -susceptible isolates and those demonstrating multidrug-resistant (MDR) and non-MDR phenotypes. When oritavancin (MIC50/90, 0.06/0.12 mg/ml) was tested against S. aureus with elevated MIC values for daptomycin (i.e., 1 to 4 mg/ml) and vancomycin (i.e., 2 mg/ml), it showed MIC results 2-fold higher than those for the more susceptible vancomycin or daptomycin counterparts (MIC50/90, 0.03/0.06 mg/ml), yet it inhibited these isolates at ≤0.25 mg/ml.
PMCID: PMC3993239  PMID: 24550323
6.  Antimicrobial Activity of Ceftaroline Tested against Drug-Resistant Subsets of Streptococcus pneumoniae from U.S. Medical Centers 
Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates (6,958) were collected from patients at 163 U.S. medical centers during 2009 through 2012. Isolates were evaluated for multidrug resistance (MDR) to penicillin, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and levofloxacin. Ceftaroline was 16-fold more potent than ceftriaxone (MIC50/MIC90, ≤0.25/2 μg/ml) against all isolates. For MDR isolates (35.2% of tested strains), ceftaroline (MIC50/MIC90, 0.06/0.25 μg/ml; 100.0% susceptible) was the most active agent tested, being 8-fold more potent than ceftriaxone (MIC50/MIC90, 0.5/2 μg/ml) and 16-fold more potent than penicillin (MIC50/MIC90, 1/4 μg/ml).
PMCID: PMC4023719  PMID: 24514082
7.  Variation in Potency and Spectrum of Tigecycline Activity against Bacterial Strains from U.S. Medical Centers since Its Approval for Clinical Use (2006 to 2012) 
Tigecycline was initially approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in June 2005. We assessed the evolution of tigecycline in vitro activities since the initial approval of tigecycline for clinical use by analyzing the results of 7 years (2006 to 2012) of data from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program in the United States. We also analyzed trends over time for key resistance phenotypes. The analyses included 68,608 unique clinical isolates collected from 29 medical centers and tested for susceptibility using reference broth microdilution methods. Tigecycline was highly active against Gram-positive organisms, with MIC50 and MIC90 values of 0.12 and 0.25 μg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus (28,278 strains; >99.9% susceptible), 0.06 to 0.12 and 0.12 to 0.25 μg/ml for enterococci (99.3 to 99.6% susceptible), and ≤0.03 and ≤0.03 to 0.06 μg/ml for streptococci (99.9 to 100.0% susceptible), respectively. When tested against 20,457 Enterobacteriaceae strains, tigecycline MIC50 and MIC90 values were 0.25 and 1 μg/ml, respectively (98.3% susceptible using U.S. FDA breakpoints). No trend toward increasing tigecycline resistance (nonsusceptibility) was observed for any species or group during the study period. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Enterobacteriaceae increased from 4.4 and 0.5%, in 2006 to 8.5 and 1.5% in 2012, respectively. During the same period, the prevalence of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. with an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype increased from 5.8 and 9.1% to 11.1 and 20.4%, respectively, whereas rates of meropenem-nonsusceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae escalated from 2.2% in 2006 to 10.8% in 2012. The results of this investigation show that tigecycline generally retained potent activities against clinically important organisms isolated in U.S. institutions, including MDR organism subsets of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens.
PMCID: PMC4023762  PMID: 24492361
8.  Antimicrobial Activity of Ceftazidime-Avibactam against Gram-Negative Organisms Collected from U.S. Medical Centers in 2012 
The activities of the novel β-lactam–β-lactamase inhibitor combination ceftazidime-avibactam and comparator agents were evaluated against a contemporary collection of clinically significant Gram-negative bacilli. Avibactam is a novel non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor that inhibits Ambler class A, C, and some D enzymes. A total of 10,928 Gram-negative bacilli—8,640 Enterobacteriaceae, 1,967 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 321 Acinetobacter sp. isolates—were collected from 73 U.S. hospitals and tested for susceptibility by reference broth microdilution methods in a central monitoring laboratory (JMI Laboratories, North Liberty, IA, USA). Ceftazidime was combined with avibactam at a fixed concentration of 4 μg/ml. Overall, 99.8% of Enterobacteriaceae strains were inhibited at a ceftazidime-avibactam MIC of ≤4 μg/ml. Ceftazidime-avibactam was active against extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-phenotype Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, meropenem-nonsusceptible (MIC ≥ 2 μg/ml) K. pneumoniae, and ceftazidime-nonsusceptible Enterobacter cloacae. Among ESBL-phenotype K. pneumoniae strains, 61.1% were meropenem susceptible and 99.3% were inhibited at a ceftazidime-avibactam MIC of ≤4 μg/ml. Among P. aeruginosa strains, 96.9% were inhibited at a ceftazidime-avibactam MIC of ≤8 μg/ml, and susceptibility rates for meropenem, ceftazidime, and piperacillin-tazobactam were 82.0, 83.2, and 78.3%, respectively. Ceftazidime-avibactam was the most active compound tested against meropenem-nonsusceptible P. aeruginosa (MIC50/MIC90, 4/16 μg/ml; 87.3% inhibited at ≤8 μg/ml). Acinetobacter spp. (ceftazidime-avibactam MIC50/MIC90, 16/>32 μg/ml) showed high rates of resistance to most tested agents. In summary, ceftazidime-avibactam demonstrated potent activity against a large collection of contemporary Gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients in U.S. hospitals in 2012, including organisms that are resistant to most currently available agents, such as K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae and meropenem-nonsusceptible P. aeruginosa.
PMCID: PMC3957905  PMID: 24379201
10.  Activity of Ceftaroline-Avibactam Tested against Gram-Negative Organism Populations, including Strains Expressing One or More β-Lactamases and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Carrying Various Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Types 
Ceftaroline is a new cephalosporin with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and -negative organisms. The prodrug of ceftaroline, ceftaroline fosamil, combined with the β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam (formerly NXL104), was tested against Enterobacteriaceae strains producing Ambler class A, B, C, and D enzymes, including strains producing multiple enzymes, as well as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., and methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. Isolates were collected from 1999 to 2008 from global surveillance programs, and susceptibility testing was performed by reference broth microdilution methods. Ceftaroline-avibactam exhibited potent activity against Enterobacteriaceae producing various β-lactamase types (MIC90, 0.25 to 2 μg/ml, except for metalloenzymes), including 99 strains carrying multiple enzymes (2 to 4 β-lactamases; MIC90, 2 μg/ml). All isolates were inhibited by ceftaroline-avibactam at ≤4 μg/ml. Ceftaroline-avibactam (MIC90, 0.5 to 1 μg/ml) was more active than meropenem (MIC90, >8 μg/ml) and other comparators when tested against KPC-producing strains. S. aureus strains, including MRSA with four staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types, were dominantly (99.1%) inhibited by ceftaroline-avibactam at ≤2 μg/ml, and the ceftaroline MIC was not adversely affected by the addition of the β-lactamase inhibitor (MIC50/90, 1 and 2 μg/ml for ceftaroline with and without avibactam). Ceftaroline-avibactam demonstrated limited activity against Acinetobacter spp. and P. aeruginosa (MIC50s, 32 and 16 μg/ml, respectively). These results document that ceftaroline-avibactam has potent activity against Enterobacteriaceae that produce KPC, various ESBL types (CTX-M types), and AmpC (chromosomally derepressed or plasmid-mediated enzymes), as well as against those producing more than one of these β-lactamase types, and its development as a therapeutic option for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae as well as MRSA is warranted.
PMCID: PMC3421892  PMID: 22733066
11.  Daptomycin Activity against Uncommonly Isolated Streptococcal and Other Gram-Positive Species Groups 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2013;57(12):6378-6380.
A total of 1,356 clinical isolates were tested against daptomycin by broth microdilution methods. Daptomycin was active against seven groups of viridans group streptococci (MIC50 and MIC90 values ranging from ≤0.06 and ≤0.06 μg/ml [Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae] to 0.5 and 1 μg/ml [Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus parasanguinis], respectively), beta-hemolytic streptococci serogroups C, F, and G (MIC50 and MIC90, ≤0.06 to 0.25 and 0.12 to 0.25 μg/ml, respectively), Corynebacterium spp. (MIC50 and MIC90, ≤0.06 and 0.12 μg/ml, respectively), and Micrococcus spp. (MIC50 and MIC90, ≤0.06 and 0.25 μg/ml, respectively). Listeria monocytogenes exhibited higher daptomycin MICs (MIC50 and MIC90, 2 and 4 μg/ml, respectively) than other tested organisms.
PMCID: PMC3837863  PMID: 24080651
12.  Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Clinical Isolates of HACEK Organisms 
The “HACEK” organisms are a group of fastidious Gram-negative bacteria that cause a variety of infections, including infective endocarditis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing is not universally available, and therapy for these infections is often empirical. We report the antimicrobial susceptibilities of 70 clinical HACEK isolates to 18 antimicrobials. All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone and levofloxacin, indicating that these agents remain appropriate empirical choices for the treatment of infections with this group of organisms.
PMCID: PMC3623346  PMID: 23403420
13.  Macrolide-Resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Humans, Ontario, Canada, 2010–2011 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2013;19(9):1525-1527.
Antimicrobial drug resistance rates for Mycoplasma pneumoniae was determined in clinical specimens and isolates obtained during 2011–2012 in Ontario, Canada. Of 91 M. pneumoniae drug-resistant specimens, 11 (12.1%) carried nucleotide mutations associated with macrolide resistance in the 23S rRNA gene. None of the M. pneumoniae specimens were resistant to fluoroquinolones or tetracyclines.
PMCID: PMC3810904  PMID: 23968896
macrolide resistance; community-acquired pneumonia; macrolides; Mycoplasma pneumoniae; bacteria; antibiotic resistance; antimicrobial resistance; Ontario; Canada
14.  Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Recovered from a Phase IV Clinical Trial for Linezolid versus Vancomycin for Treatment of Nosocomial Pneumonia 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2012;50(11):3694-3702.
A total of 434 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) baseline isolates were collected from subjects enrolled in a prospective, double-blind randomized trial comparing linezolid versus vancomycin for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia. Isolates were susceptibility tested by broth microdilution, examined for inducible clindamycin resistance by D-test, and screened for heterogeneous resistance to vancomycin (hVISA) by the Etest macromethod. All strains were subjected to Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) screening, and SCCmec, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and spa typing. Selected strains were evaluated by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Clonal complexes (CCs) were assigned based on the spa and/or MLST results. Most strains were CC5 (56.0%), which originated from North America (United States) (CC5-MRSA-SCCmec II/IV; 70.0%), Asia (CC5-MRSA-II; 14.0%) and Latin America (CC5-MRSA-I/II; 12.3%). The second- and third-most-prevalent clones were CC8-MRSA-IV (23.3%) and CC239-MRSA-III (11.3%), respectively. Furthermore, the CC5-MRSA-I/II clone predominated in Asia (50.7% within this region) and Latin America (66.7%), followed by CC239-MRSA-III (32.8% and 28.9%, respectively). The European strains were CC8-MRSA-IV (34.5%), CC22-MRSA-IV (18.2%), or CC5-MRSA-I/II/IV (16.4%), while the U.S. MRSA isolates were CC5-MRSA-II/IV (64.4%) or CC8-MRSA-IV (28.8%). Among the U.S. CC8-MRSA-II/IV strains, 73.7% (56/76 [21.2% of all U.S. MRSA strains]) clustered within USA300. One strain from the United States (USA800) was intermediate to vancomycin (MIC, 4 μg/ml). All remaining strains were susceptible to linezolid, daptomycin, vancomycin, and teicoplanin. hVISA strains (14.5%) were predominantly CC5-MRSA-II, from South Korea, and belonged to a single PFGE type. Overall, each region had two predominant clones. The USA300 rate corroborates previous reports describing increased prevalence of USA300 strains causing invasive infections. The prevalence of hVISA was elevated in Asia, and these strains were associated with CC5.
PMCID: PMC3486224  PMID: 22972817
15.  Molecular Epidemiology of Staphylococcus epidermidis Clinical Isolates from U.S. Hospitals 
The epidemiology of Staphylococcus epidermidis in U.S. hospitals remains limited. This study aimed to address the genetic backgrounds of linezolid-susceptible and -resistant S. epidermidis strains (isolated in 2010), including cfr-carrying strains. In addition, the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and linezolid resistance mechanisms among clonal lineages were assessed. A total of 71 S. epidermidis isolates were selected, and linezolid-resistant strains were screened for cfr and mutations in 23S rRNA, L3, and L4. All isolates were subjected to multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and the results were analyzed by eBURST. Overall, 27 sequence types (STs) were detected, and ST5 (21.1%) and ST2 (16.9%) predominated. The majority (62/71; 87.3%) of STs belonged to clonal complex 2 (CC2), which was mostly comprised of subclusters CC2-II (41/62; 66.1%) and CC2-I (21/62; 33.9%). Other STs were grouped within CC23 or CC32 or were singletons. CC2-I strains were more likely to display a methicillin (95.2% versus 33.3 to 70.7%), a linezolid (47.6% versus 0.0 to 7.3%), or a multidrug (81.0% versus 33.3 to 36.6%) resistance phenotype. Among linezolid-resistant isolates, cfr was noted only within CC2 strains, and it was detected equally in the CC2-I (3/10; 30.0%) and CC2-II (1/3; 33.3%) subclusters. 23S rRNA mutations (G2576 [seven strains] and C2534 [one strain]) were observed only among CC2-I (8/10; 80.0%) isolates. Strains showing a G2576 alteration also had M156 (7/7; 100.0%) and/or H146 (6/7; 85.7%) L3 modifications. This study provides an overview of the S. epidermidis clonal distribution and reports higher resistance rates among CC2-I strains. The results show that cfr may be acquired and expressed by both CC2 main subclusters, while 23S rRNA mutations appeared more often within CC2-I strains. Interestingly, these 23S rRNA mutants also had L3 alterations, which may act synergistically or in a compensatory manner to minimize the fitness cost while providing survival advantages under selective pressure.
PMCID: PMC3421855  PMID: 22687512
16.  Worldwide Appraisal and Update (2010) of Telavancin Activity Tested against a Collection of Gram-Positive Clinical Pathogens from Five Continents 
A total of 15,480 Gram-positive pathogens were collected from 89 sites in the United States, Europe, the Asia-Pacific region, and Latin America in 2010. Telavancin was active against indicated Staphylococcus aureus (MIC50/90, 0.12/0.25 μg/ml), vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis (MIC50/90, 0.5/0.5 μg/ml), and beta-hemolytic (MIC50/90, 0.06/0.12 μg/ml) and viridans group streptococcus (MIC50/90, 0.03/0.06 μg/ml) isolates. These MIC results showed potency for telavancin equal to or greater than that of comparators. These in vitro data confirm a continued potent activity of telavancin when tested against contemporary Gram-positive clinical isolates.
PMCID: PMC3393449  PMID: 22508304
17.  Oritavancin Activity against Vancomycin-Susceptible and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci with Molecularly Characterized Glycopeptide Resistance Genes Recovered from Bacteremic Patients, 2009-2010 
Oritavancin exhibited potent activity against vancomycin-susceptible (MIC50 and MIC90, 0.015/0.03 μg/ml) and vanB-carrying E. faecalis isolates (MIC50 and MIC90, 0.015 and 0.015 μg/ml). Higher (16- to 32-fold) MIC50s and MIC90s for vanA-harboring E. faecalis were noted (MIC50 and MIC90, 0.25 and 0.5 μg/ml), although oritavancin inhibited all strains at ≤0.5 μg/ml. Vancomycin-susceptible and vanB-carrying E. faecium strains (MIC50 and MIC90, ≤0.008 and ≤0.008 μg/ml for both) were very susceptible to oritavancin, as were VanA-producing isolates (MIC50 and MIC90, 0.03 and 0.06 μg/ml). Oritavancin exhibited good in vitro potency against this collection of organisms, including vancomycin-resistant enterococci.
PMCID: PMC3294904  PMID: 22183169
18.  Summary of Ceftaroline Activity against Pathogens in the United States, 2010: Report from the Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation (AWARE) Surveillance Program 
The Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation (AWARE) surveillance program is a sentinel resistance monitoring system designed to track the activity of ceftaroline and comparator agents. In the United States, a total of 8,434 isolates were collected during the 2010 surveillance program from 65 medical centers distributed across the nine census regions (5 to 10 medical centers per region). All organisms were isolated from documented infections, including 3,055 (36.2%) bloodstream infections, 2,282 (27.1%) respiratory tract infections, 1,965 (23.3%) acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, 665 (7.9%) urinary tract infections, and 467 (5.5%) miscellaneous other infection sites. Ceftaroline was the most potent β-lactam agent tested against staphylococci. The MIC90 values were 1 μg/ml for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; 98.4% susceptible) and 0.5 μg/ml for methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Ceftaroline was 16- to 32-fold more potent than ceftriaxone against methicillin-susceptible staphylococcal strains. All staphylococcus isolates (S. aureus and CoNS) were inhibited at ceftaroline MIC values of ≤2 μg/ml. Ceftaroline also displayed potent activity against streptococci (MIC90, 0.015 μg/ml for beta-hemolytic streptococci; MIC90, 0.25 μg/ml for penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae). Potent activity was also shown against Gram-negative pathogens (Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis). Furthermore, wild-type strains of Enterobacteriaceae (non-extended-spectrum β-lactamase [ESBL]-producing strains and non-AmpC-hyperproducing strains) were often susceptible to ceftaroline. Continued monitoring through surveillance networks will allow for the assessment of the evolution of resistance as this new cephalosporin is used more broadly to provide clinicians with up-to-date information to assist in antibiotic stewardship and therapeutic decision making.
PMCID: PMC3370782  PMID: 22470115
19.  Emergence and Spread of Streptococcus pneumoniae with erm(B) and mef(A) Resistance 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2005;11(6):851-858.
Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates (N = 31,001) were collected from patients with community-acquired respiratory tract infections during the PROTEKT US surveillance study (2000–2003). While the macrolide (erythromycin) resistance rate remained stable at ≈29%, the prevalence of resistant isolates containing both erm(B) and mef(A) increased from 9.7% in year 1 to 16.4% in year 3, with substantial regional variability. Almost all (99.2%) dual erm(B)+mef(A) macrolide-resistant isolates exhibited multidrug resistance, whereas 98.6% and 99.0% were levofloxacin- and telithromycin-susceptible, respectively. These strains were most commonly isolated from the ear or middle-ear fluid of children. Of 152 representative erm(B)+mef(A) isolates, >90% were clonally related to the multidrug-resistant international Taiwan19F-14 clonal complex 271 (CC271). Of 366 erm(B)+mef(A) isolates from the PROTEKT global study (1999–2003), 83.3% were CC271, with the highest prevalence seen in South Africa, South Korea, and the United States. This study confirms the increasing global emergence and rapidly increasing US prevalence of this multidrug-resistant pneumococcal clone.
PMCID: PMC3367592  PMID: 15963279
Keywords: human papillomavirus; Cervix neoplasms; Cost-benefit analysis; vaccines; public health
20.  Genetic Resistance Elements Carrying mef Subclasses Other than mef(A) in Streptococcus pyogenes ▿ † 
In Streptococcus pyogenes, efflux-mediated erythromycin resistance is associated with the mef gene, represented mostly by mef(A), although a small portion of strains carry different mef subclasses. We characterized the composite genetic elements, including mef subclasses other than mef(A), associated with other resistance genes in S. pyogenes isolates. Determination of the genetic elements was performed by PCR mapping. The strains carrying mosaic mef(A/E), in which the 5′ region was identical to mef(A) and the 3′ region was identical to mef(E), also carried tet(O). The two genes were found enclosed in an element similar to S. pyogenes prophage Φm46.1, designated the Φm46.1-like element. In S. pyogenes strains carrying mef(E) and tet(M), mef(E) was included in a typical mega element, and in some strains, it was physically associated with tet(M) in the composite element Tn2009. S. pyogenes strains carrying mef(I) also carried catQ; the two genes were linked in a fragment representing a portion of the 5216IQ complex of Streptococcus pneumoniae, designated the defective IQ element. In the only isolate carrying a novel mef gene, this was associated with catQ and tet(M) in a genetic element similar to the 5216IQ complex of S. pneumoniae (5216IQ-like complex), suggesting that the novel mef is in fact a variant of mef(I). This study demonstrates that the composite elements containing mef are shared between S. pyogenes and S. pneumoniae and suggests that it is important to distinguish the mef subclass on the basis of the genetic element containing it.
PMCID: PMC3122394  PMID: 21502613
21.  JNJ-Q2, a New Fluoroquinolone with Potent In Vitro Activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Including Methicillin- and Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Strains ▿ 
JNJ-Q2 is a broad-spectrum bactericidal fluoroquinolone with potent activity against Gram-positive and -negative pathogens. In this study, the in vitro activity of JNJ-Q2 was evaluated against 511 selected Staphylococcus aureus samples isolated in 2008-2009 from patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections in the United States by using reference methodology. JNJ-Q2 was the most potent fluoroquinolone tested overall (MIC50 and MIC90, 0.12 and 0.5 μg/ml, respectively) and against methicillin- and fluoroquinolone-resistant subgroups in direct comparisons to moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin (each being ≥16-fold less potent than JNJ-Q2).
PMCID: PMC3122438  PMID: 21555765
22.  Antimicrobial Activity of CXA-101, a Novel Cephalosporin Tested in Combination with Tazobactam against Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacteroides fragilis Strains Having Various Resistance Phenotypes▿ 
CXA-101, a novel oxyimino-aminothiazolyl cephalosporin, CXA-201 (CXA-101 combined with tazobactam), and various comparators were susceptibility tested by broth microdilution methods against 1,301 well-characterized clinical strains collected worldwide, including ceftazidime-resistant members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)- and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacteroides fragilis. CXA-201 was 2- to 32-fold more active than ceftazidime and piperacillin-tazobactam against ceftazidime-resistant Enterobacteriaceae species but less active than cefepime for some species. CXA-101 and CXA-201 were very active against P. aeruginosa (MIC50, 1 μg/ml for both compounds), including imipenem-resistant strains.
PMCID: PMC3088243  PMID: 21321149
23.  In Vitro Activity and Single-Step Mutational Analysis of Rifamycin SV Tested against Enteropathogens Associated with Traveler's Diarrhea and Clostridium difficile▿  
Rifamycin SV is a broad-spectrum, poorly absorbed antimicrobial agent that, when coupled with MMX technology, is being targeted for the oral treatment of traveler's diarrhea (TD) and Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD). Rifamycin SV was tested for activity against 911 TD-associated enteropathogens and 30 C. difficile isolates collected from several global surveillance studies. Rifamycin SV demonstrated similar antimicrobial activity levels against the Enterobacteriaceae, with MIC50 values ranging from 32 to 128 μg/ml for all but one strain (an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli at >512 μg/ml). For non-Enterobacteriaceae strains, MIC50 values ranged from 2 to 8 μg/ml, with the exception of Campylobacter spp., for which all strains had MIC values of >512 μg/ml. Rifamycin SV also demonstrated excellent activity (MIC50 of ≤0.03 μg/ml) against most C. difficile strains (including one hypervirulent NAP1 strain), and this activity was even superior to the potency observed for vancomycin, metronidazole, and rifaximin. In mutational passaging studies, rifamycin SV induced stable resistance and showed a mutation frequency in E. coli similar to that of rifampin. This study presents the potency of rifamycin SV for enteropathogens commonly recovered from patients with TD and CDAD. Additional in vitro and in vivo studies appear necessary to determine the utility of rifamycin SV as an oral agent for the prevention and treatment of TD and CDAD.
PMCID: PMC3067105  PMID: 21149623
24.  Investigation of the Potential for Mutational Resistance to XF-73, Retapamulin, Mupirocin, Fusidic Acid, Daptomycin, and Vancomycin in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates during a 55-Passage Study ▿  
XF-73 is a dicationic porphyrin drug with rapid Gram-positive antibacterial activity currently undergoing clinical trials for the nasal decolonization of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In multistep (55-passage) resistance selection studies in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of XF-73, retapamulin, mupirocin, fusidic acid, and vancomycin against four Network on Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus MRSA strains, there was no >4-fold increase in the MIC for XF-73 after 55 passages. In contrast, there was an increase in the MICs for retapamulin (from 0.25 μg/ml to 4 to 8 μg/ml), for mupirocin (from 0.12 μg/ml to 16 to 512 μg/ml), for fusidic acid (from 0.12 μg/ml to 256 μg/ml), and for vancomycin (from 1 μg/ml to 8 μg/ml in two of the four strains tested). Further investigations using S. aureus NRS384 (USA300) and daptomycin demonstrated a 64-fold increase in the MIC after 55 passages (from 0.5 μg/ml to 32 μg/ml) with a >4-fold increase in the MIC obtained after only five passages. Sequencing analysis of selected isolates confirmed previously reported point mutations associated with daptomycin resistance. No cross-resistance to XF-73 was observed with the daptomycin-resistant strains, suggesting that whereas the two drugs act on the bacterial cell membrane, their specific site of action differs. XF-73 thus represents the first in a new class of antibacterial drugs, which (unlike the comparator antibiotics) after 55 passages exhibited a ≤4-fold increase in MIC against the strains tested. Antibacterial drugs with a low propensity for inducing bacterial resistance are much needed for the prevention and treatment of multidrug-resistant bacteria both within and outside the hospital setting.
PMCID: PMC3067113  PMID: 21149626
25.  Molecular Analysis of Antimicrobial Resistance Mechanisms in Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates from Ontario, Canada▿  
Surveillance of gonococcal antimicrobial resistance and the molecular characterization of the mechanisms underlying these resistance phenotypes are essential in order to establish correct empirical therapies, as well as to describe the emergence of new mechanisms in local bacterial populations. To address these goals, 149 isolates were collected over a 1-month period (October-November 2008) at the Ontario Public Health Laboratory, Toronto, Canada, and susceptibility profiles (8 antibiotics) were examined. Mutations in previously identified targets or the presence of some enzymes related to resistance (r), nonsusceptibility (ns) (resistant plus intermediate categories), or reduced susceptibility (rs) to the antibiotics tested were also studied. A significant proportion of nonsusceptibility to penicillin (PEN) (89.2%), tetracycline (TET) (72.3%), ciprofloxacin (CIP) (29%), and macrolides (erythromycin [ERY] and azithromycin; 22.3%) was found in these strains. Multidrug resistance was observed in 18.8% of the collection. Although all the strains were susceptible to spectinomycin and extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) (ceftriaxone and cefixime), 9.4% of them displayed reduced susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. PBP 2 mosaic structures were found in all of these ESCrs isolates. Alterations in the mtrR promoter, MtrR repressor (TETr, PENns, ESCrs, and ERYns), porin PIB (TETr and PENns), and ribosomal protein S10 (TETr) and double mutations in gyrA and parC quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) (CIPr) were associated with and presumably responsible for the resistance phenotypes observed. This is the first description of ESCrs in Canada. The detection of this phenotype indicates a change in the epidemiology of this resistance and highlights the importance of continued surveillance to preserve the last antimicrobial options available.
PMCID: PMC3028768  PMID: 21098249

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