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author:("lueger, Erica")
1.  Outbreak of Henipavirus Infection, Philippines, 2014 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2015;21(2):328-331.
During 2014, henipavirus infection caused severe illness among humans and horses in southern Philippines; fatality rates among humans were high. Horse-to-human and human-to-human transmission occurred. The most likely source of horse infection was fruit bats. Ongoing surveillance is needed for rapid diagnosis, risk factor investigation, control measure implementation, and further virus characterization.
doi:10.3201/eid2102.141433
PMCID: PMC4313660  PMID: 25626011
outbreak; henipavirus; emerging disease; viruses; Philippines
2.  Etiologic Agents of Central Nervous System Infections among Febrile Hospitalized Patients in the Country of Georgia 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(11):e111393.
Objectives
There is a large spectrum of viral, bacterial, fungal, and prion pathogens that cause central nervous system (CNS) infections. As such, identification of the etiological agent requires multiple laboratory tests and accurate diagnosis requires clinical and epidemiological information. This hospital-based study aimed to determine the main causes of acute meningitis and encephalitis and enhance laboratory capacity for CNS infection diagnosis.
Methods
Children and adults patients clinically diagnosed with meningitis or encephalitis were enrolled at four reference health centers. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected for bacterial culture, and in-house and multiplex RT-PCR testing was conducted for herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, mumps virus, enterovirus, varicella zoster virus (VZV), Streptococcus pneumoniae, HiB and Neisseria meningitidis.
Results
Out of 140 enrolled patients, the mean age was 23.9 years, and 58% were children. Bacterial or viral etiologies were determined in 51% of patients. Five Streptococcus pneumoniae cultures were isolated from CSF. Based on in-house PCR analysis, 25 patients were positive for S. pneumoniae, 6 for N. meningitidis, and 1 for H. influenzae. Viral multiplex PCR identified infections with enterovirus (n = 26), VZV (n = 4), and HSV-1 (n = 2). No patient was positive for mumps or HSV-2.
Conclusions
Study findings indicate that S. pneumoniae and enteroviruses are the main etiologies in this patient cohort. The utility of molecular diagnostics for pathogen identification combined with the knowledge provided by the investigation may improve health outcomes of CNS infection cases in Georgia.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0111393
PMCID: PMC4219716  PMID: 25369023
3.  A Qualitative Study of Vaccine Acceptability and Decision Making among Pregnant Women in Morocco during the A (H1N1) pdm09 Pandemic 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e96244.
Vaccination uptake of pregnant women in Morocco during the A (H1N1) pdm09 pandemic was lower than expected. A qualitative study using open-ended questions was developed to explore the main determinants of acceptance and non-acceptance of the monovalent A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine among pregnant women in Morocco and to identify information sources that influenced their decision-making process. The study sample included 123 vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnant women who were in their second or third trimester between December 2009 and March 2010. They took part in 14 focus group discussions and eight in-depth interviews in the districts of Casablanca and Kenitra. Thematic qualitative analysis identified reasons for vaccine non-acceptance: (1) fear of the monovalent A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine, (2) belief in an A (H1N1) pdm09 pandemic conspiracy, (3) belief in the inapplicability of the monovalent A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine to Moroccans, (4) lack of knowledge of the monovalent A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine, and (5) challenges of vaccination services/logistics. Reasons for vaccine acceptance included: (1) perceived benefits and (2) modeling. Decision-making was strongly influenced by family, community, mass media, religious leaders and health providers suggesting that broad communication efforts should also be used to advocate for vaccination. Meaningful communication for future vaccine campaigns must consider these context-specific findings. As cultural and religious values are shared across many Arab countries, these findings may also provide valuable insights for seasonal influenza vaccine planning in the Middle East and North Africa region at large.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096244
PMCID: PMC4196726  PMID: 25313555
4.  Influenza Risk Management: Lessons Learned from an A(H1N1) pdm09 Outbreak Investigation in an Operational Military Setting 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e68639.
Background
At the onset of an influenza pandemic, when the severity of a novel strain is still undetermined and there is a threat of introduction into a new environment, e.g., via the deployment of military troops, sensitive screening criteria and conservative isolation practices are generally recommended.
Objectives
In response to elevated rates of influenza-like illness among U.S. military base camps in Kuwait, U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3 partnered with local U.S. Army medical units to conduct an A(H1N1) pdm09 outbreak investigation.
Patients/Methods
Initial clinical data and nasal specimens were collected via the existent passive surveillance system and active surveillance was conducted using a modified version of the World Health Organization/U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention influenza-like illness case definition [fever (T > 100.5˚F/38˚C) in addition to cough and/or sore throat in the previous 72 hours] as the screening criteria. Samples were tested via real-time reverse-transcription PCR and sequenced for comparison to global A(H1N1) pdm09 viruses from the same time period.
Results
The screening criteria used in Kuwait proved insensitive, capturing only 16% of A(H1N1) pdm09-positive individuals. While still not ideal, using cough as the sole screening criteria would have increased sensitivity to 73%.
Conclusions
The results of and lessons learned from this outbreak investigation suggest that pandemic influenza risk management should be a dynamic process (as information becomes available regarding true attack rates and associated mortality, screening and isolation criteria should be re-evaluated and revised as appropriate), and that military operational environments present unique challenges to influenza surveillance.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068639
PMCID: PMC3707881  PMID: 23874699
5.  In vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing of Brucella isolates from Egypt between 1999 and 2007 and evidence of probable rifampin resistance 
Background
Brucellosis poses a significant public health problem in Mediterranean countries, including Egypt. Treatment of this disease is often empirical due to limited information on the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Brucella spp. in this region of the world. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Brucella blood isolates in Egypt, a country endemic for brucellosis.
Methods
Brucella spp. isolates were identified from the blood cultures of acute febrile illness (AFI) patients presenting to a network of infectious disease hospitals from 1999–2007. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for tetracycline, gentamicin, doxycycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and rifampin using the E-test. Interpretations were made according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines.
Results
A total of 355 Brucella spp. isolates were analyzed. All were susceptible to tetracycline, doxycycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin and ciprofloxacin; probable resistance to rifampin and ceftriaxone was observed among 277 (64%) and 7 (2%) of the isolates, respectively. Percentages of isolates showing probable resistance to rifampin were significantly lower before 2001 than in the following years (7% vs. >81%, p < 0.01).
Conclusions
Despite the high burden of brucellosis in Egypt and frequent empirical treatment, isolates have remained susceptible to the majority of tested antibiotics. However, this is the first report of high rates of probable resistance to rifampin among Brucella isolates from Egypt. Patients should be closely monitored while following standard treatment regimens. Continued surveillance, drug susceptibility studies and updated CLSI interpretive criteria are needed to monitor and update antibiotic prescribing policies for brucellosis.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-11-24
PMCID: PMC3464789  PMID: 22929054
Brucella; Brucellosis; MIC; Rifampin; Ceftriaxone; E-test; Egypt
6.  Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Ticks from Imported Livestock, Egypt 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2012;18(1):181-182.
doi:10.3201/eid1801.111071
PMCID: PMC3310117  PMID: 22260737
vector-borne infections; zoonoses; Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever; viruses; ticks; Egypt; livestock
7.  Clinical Assessment of Self-Reported Acute Flaccid Paralysis in a Population-Based Setting in Guatemala 
Historically, poliovirus infection has been an important cause of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) worldwide; however, successful elimination of wild-type poliovirus in much of the world has highlighted the importance of other causes of AFP. Despite the evolving etiology, AFP surveillance in most developing countries still focuses on poliovirus detection and fails to detect many AFP cases, particularly among adults. We assessed 41 subjects self-reporting symptoms suggestive of AFP during a population-based health survey in the Department of Santa Rosa, Guatemala. Thirty-five (85%) of the suspected cases were not hospitalized. Most subjects (37) did not have features consistent with AFP or had other diagnoses explaining weakness. We identified two adults who had not received medical attention for a clinical illness consistent with Guillain-Barré syndrome, the most important cause of non-poliovirus AFP. Usual surveillance methods for AFP, particularly in developing countries, may underestimate the true burden of non-poliovirus AFP.
doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0090
PMCID: PMC2844551  PMID: 20348524
8.  Effects of Hand Hygiene Campaigns on Incidence of Laboratory-confirmed Influenza and Absenteeism in Schoolchildren, Cairo, Egypt 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2011;17(4):619-625.
To evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive hand hygiene campaign on reducing absenteeism caused by influenza-like illness (ILI), diarrhea, conjunctivitis, and laboratory-confirmed influenza, we conducted a randomized control trial in 60 elementary schools in Cairo, Egypt. Children in the intervention schools were required to wash hands twice each day, and health messages were provided through entertainment activities. Data were collected on student absenteeism and reasons for illness. School nurses collected nasal swabs from students with ILI, which were tested by using a qualitative diagnostic test for influenza A and B. Compared with results for the control group, in the intervention group, overall absences caused by ILI, diarrhea, conjunctivitis, and laboratory-confirmed influenza were reduced by 40%, 30%, 67%, and 50%, respectively (p<0.0001 for each illness). An intensive hand hygiene campaign was effective in reducing absenteeism caused by these illnesses.
doi:10.3201/eid1704.101353
PMCID: PMC3377412  PMID: 21470450
Hand hygiene; campaigns; influenza; viruses; schoolchildren; Egypt; absenteeism; expedited; research
9.  Increasing penicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance in nasopharyngeal Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from Guatemalan children, 2001-2006 
Objectives
We determined nasopharyngeal colonization rates and antibiotic resistance patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from Guatemalan children and determined risk factors for colonization and antibiotic nonsusceptibility.
Methods
Isolates were obtained from Guatemala City children 5 to 60 months of age attending public and private outpatient clinics and daycare centers during August 2001–June 2002 and outpatient clinics during November 2005–February 2006. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of penicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMS), cefotaxime, and erythromycin were determined using E-test.
Results
The overall nasopharyngeal colonization rate for S. pneumoniae was 59.1%. From 2001/2 to 2005/6 TMS nonsusceptibility increased from 42.4% to 60.8% (p<0.05) in public clinics and from 51.4% to 84.0% (p=0.009) in private clinics and penicillin nonsusceptibility increased from 1.5% to 33.3% in public clinics (p<0.001). Reported antibiotic use was not strictly associated with nonsusceptibility to that same antibiotic. Resistance to three or four antibiotics increased in public clinics from 2001/2 (0%) to 2005/6 (10.7%; p<0.001). Risk factors for nasopharyngeal colonization with penicillin- or TMS-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae were low family income, daycare center attendance, and recent penicillin use.
Conclusions
Increasing antibiotic nonsusceptibility rates in nasopharyngeal S. pneumoniae isolates from Guatemalan children reflect worldwide trends. Policies encouraging more judicious use of TMS should be considered.
doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2007.09.001
PMCID: PMC2430874  PMID: 18035570
antibiotic resistance; erythromycin; cefotaxime; macrolide; cephalosporin; risk factors
10.  Oxfendazole Treatment of Sheep with Naturally Acquired Hydatid Disease 
A blinded, randomized placebo-controlled trial assessed the efficacy and safety of oxfendazole for the treatment of ovine hydatid disease. Cyst fertility and parasite viability were measured following daily, weekly, and monthly treatment schedules with 30 mg of oxfendazole per kg of body weight. The 12-week trial was conducted in 215 adult sheep in the central Peruvian Andes and was masked for both treatment group and scheduling. In this trial oxfendazole significantly reduced protoscolex viability relative to controls in all treatment groups. In the daily, weekly, and monthly groups, 100, 97, and 78% of sheep, respectively, were either cured or improved following treatment, compared to 35% cured or improved animals in the control group. However, daily dosing at 30 mg of oxfendazole per kg proved highly toxic to sheep, resulting in a 24% death rate in the daily group as compared to a 4 to 6% mortality rate in all other groups. If found safe in humans, oxfendazole may prove to be a useful and inexpensive treatment for cestode infections in humans. This study suggests that a staggered dosing regimen of oxfendazole, and possibly other benzimidazoles, may be as efficacious as daily treatment regimens for hydatidosis while decreasing both the cost and adverse effects associated with daily dosing.
PMCID: PMC89458  PMID: 10471576

Results 1-10 (10)