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1.  Meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine: a new conjugate vaccine against invasive meningococcal disease 
Invasive meningococcal disease is a serious infection that occurs worldwide. It is caused by Neisseria meningitidis, of which six serogroups (A, B, C, W-135, X, and Y) are responsible for most infections. The case fatality rate of meningococcal disease remains high and can lead to significant sequelae. Vaccination remains the best strategy to prevent meningococcal disease. Polysaccharide vaccines were initially introduced in the late 1960s but their limitations (poor immunogenicity in infants and toddlers and hyporesponsiveness after repeated doses) have led to the development and use of meningococcal conjugate vaccines, which overcome these limitations. Two quadrivalent conjugated meningococcal vaccines – MenACWY-DT (Menactra®) and MenACWY-CRM197 (Menveo®) – using diphtheria toxoid or a mutant protein, respectively, as carrier proteins have already been licensed in the US. Recently, a quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine conjugated to tetanus toxoid (MenACWY-TT; Nimenrix®) was approved for use in Europe in 2012. The immunogenicity of MenACWY-TT, its reactogenicity and safety profile, as well as its coadministration with other vaccines are discussed in this review. Clinical trials showed that MenACWY-TT was immunogenic in children above the age of 12 months, adolescents, and adults, and has an acceptable reactogenicity and safety profile. Its coadministration with several other vaccines that are commonly used in children, adolescents, and adults did not affect the immunogenicity of MenACWY-TT or the coadministered vaccine, nor did it affect its reactogenicity and safety. Other studies are now ongoing in order to determine the immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of MenACWY-TT in infants from the age of 6 weeks.
doi:10.2147/IDR.S36243
PMCID: PMC3979687
coadministration; immunogenicity; meningococcal conjugate vaccine; reactogenicity and safety
3.  Immunogenicity and Safety of a Quadrivalent Meningococcal Serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine (MenACWY-TT) Administered to Adults Aged 56 Years and Older: Results of an Open-Label, Randomized, Controlled Trial 
Drugs & Aging  2013;30(5):309-319.
Background
The burden of invasive meningococcal disease is substantial in older adults in whom the case fatality rate is high. Travelers to regions with high rates of meningococcal disease, such as Hajj pilgrims, are at increased risk of meningococcal infection, and disease transmission from travelers to their close contacts has been documented. In younger individuals, meningococcal conjugate vaccines offer advantages over polysaccharide vaccines in terms of duration of protection and boostability, and induction of herd immune effects through reductions in nasopharyngeal carriage of meningococci. To date, few data are available evaluating meningococcal conjugate vaccine use in adults >55 years of age.
Objective
To evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of quadrivalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y vaccine with all serogroups conjugated to tetanus toxoid (MenACWY-TT, Nimenrix™, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) and a licensed quadrivalent polysaccharide vaccine (MenPS, Mencevax™ GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) in adults >55 years of age.
Methods
This was a phase IIIb, open-label, randomized (3:1), controlled study conducted at one study center in Lebanon. A total of 400 healthy adults between 56 and 103 years of age without previous MenPS or tetanus toxoid vaccination within the previous 5 years or meningococcal conjugate vaccination at any time previously were included. They received a single-dose vaccination with MenACWY-TT or MenPS with blood sampling before and 1 month after vaccination. The main outcome measures were serum bactericidal activity (rabbit complement source: rSBA) vaccine response (VR) rate [rSBA titer of ≥1:32 in initially seronegative subjects (rSBA titer <1:8); ≥4-fold increase in subjects with pre-vaccination rSBA titers between 1:8 and 1:128, and ≥2-fold increase in subjects with pre-vaccination rSBA titers ≥1:128]. The percentages of subjects with rSBA titers ≥1:8 and ≥1:128 and rSBA geometric mean titers (GMTs) were assessed. Solicited adverse events were recorded for 4 days following vaccination, and all other adverse events, including the incidence of new onset chronic diseases, were recorded for 31 days after vaccination.
Results
One month after a single dose of MenACWY-TT, the rSBA VR rate in the MenACWY-TT group was 76.6 % for serogroup A, 80.3 % for serogroup C, 77.5 % for serogroup W-135 and 81.9 % for serogroup Y. VR rates in the MenPS group were 91.7, 84.8, 87.1 and 89.1 %, respectively. One month after vaccination, ≥93.2 % of subjects in the MenACWY-TT group and ≥93.9 % in the MenPS group had rSBA titers ≥1:128. In each group, GMTs increased by ≥13-fold for each serogroup. rSBA VR and GMTs tended to be lower in subjects who were over 65 years compared to 56–65 years of age. Only 6.3 % of MenACWY-TT recipients had anti-TT ≥0.1 IU/ml prior to vaccination, increasing to 28.1 % post-vaccination. The rSBA GMTs were 1.9- to 4-fold higher in anti-TT responders. Each local and general solicited symptom was reported by no more than 3.0 % of subjects in either group. No serious adverse events were considered vaccine related.
Conclusion
In adults 56 years of age and older, MenACWY-TT was immunogenic, with a vaccine response rate ≥76 % and with ≥93 % of subjects achieving rSBA titers ≥1:128 against all four serogroups after a single dose. MenACWY-TT induced low anti-TT concentrations in this population, which deserves further study.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s40266-013-0065-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s40266-013-0065-0
PMCID: PMC3634976  PMID: 23494214
4.  p53 and Ceramide as Collaborators in the Stress Response 
The sphingolipid ceramide mediates various cellular processes in response to several extracellular stimuli. Some genotoxic stresses are able to induce p53-dependent ceramide accumulation leading to cell death. However, in other cases, in the absence of the tumor suppressor protein p53, apoptosis proceeds partly due to the activity of this “tumor suppressor lipid”, ceramide. In the current review, we describe ceramide and its roles in signaling pathways such as cell cycle arrest, hypoxia, hyperoxia, cell death, and cancer. In a specific manner, we are elaborating on the role of ceramide in mitochondrial apoptotic cell death signaling. Furthermore, after highlighting the role and mechanism of action of p53 in apoptosis, we review the association of ceramide and p53 with respect to apoptosis. Strikingly, the hypothesis for a direct interaction between ceramide and p53 is less favored. Recent data suggest that ceramide can act either upstream or downstream of p53 protein through posttranscriptional regulation or through many potential mediators, respectively.
doi:10.3390/ijms14034982
PMCID: PMC3634419  PMID: 23455468
ceramide; p53; apoptosis; sphingolipids; mitochondria; signaling; Bcl2 family; caspase
5.  DOCK8 functions as an adaptor that links Toll-like receptor–MyD88 signaling to B cell activation 
Nature immunology  2012;13(6):612-620.
DOCK8 and MyD88 have been implicated in serologic memory. Here we report antibody responses were impaired and CD27+ memory B cells were severely reduced in DOCK8-deficient patients. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)- but not CD40-driven B cell proliferation and immunoglobulin production were severely reduced in DOCK8-deficient B cells. In contrast, TLR9-driven expression of AICDA, CD23 and CD86, and activation of NF-κB, p38 and Rac1 were intact. DOCK8 associated constitutively with MyD88 and the tyrosine kinase Pyk2 in normal B cells. Following TLR9 ligation, DOCK8 became tyrosine phosphorylated by Pyk2, bound the Src family kinase Lyn and linked TLR9 to a Src-Syk-STAT3 cascade essential for TLR9-driven B cell proliferation and differentiation. Thus, DOCK8 functions as an adaptor in a TLR9-MyD88 signaling pathway in B cells.
doi:10.1038/ni.2305
PMCID: PMC3362684  PMID: 22581261
6.  The immunogenicity and safety of an investigational meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (ACWY-TT) compared with a licensed meningococcal tetravalent polysaccharide vaccine 
Immunogenicity and safety of ACWY-TT compared with licensed ACWY polysaccharide vaccine (MenPS) in healthy adults, and lot-to-lot consistency of three ACWY-TT lots were evaluated in a phase 3, open, controlled study. Adults aged 18–55 y were randomized to receive ACWY-TT (one of three lots) or MenPS. Serum bactericidal antibodies (rSBA) were measured pre- and 1 mo post-vaccination. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed 4 d (solicited symptoms) and 31 d (unsolicited symptoms) post-vaccination. Serious AEs were reported up to 6 mo after vaccination. The number of vaccinated subjects was 1247 (ACWY-TT, n = 935; MenPS, n = 312). ACWY-TT lot-to-lot consistency and non-inferiority of ACWY-TT as compared with MenPS groups were demonstrated according to pre-specified criteria. The percentages of subjects with a vaccine response (VR = rSBA titer ≥ 1:32 in initially seronegative; ≥ 4-fold increase in initially seropositive) to ACWY-TT vs. MenPS were 80.1%/69.8% (serogroup A), 91.5%/ 92.0% (C), 90.2%/85.5% (W-135), 87.0%/78.8% (Y). Exploratory analyses showed that for serogroups A, W-135 and Y, VR rates and GMTs were significantly higher for ACWY-TT compared with MenPS. For each serogroup, ≥ 98.0% of subjects had rSBA titers ≥ 1:128. Grade 3 solicited AEs were reported in ≤ 1.6% of subjects in any group. The immunogenicity of ACWY-TT vaccine was non-inferior to MenPS for all four serogroups in adults, with significantly higher VR rates to serogroups A, W-135 and Y and an acceptable safety profile. Consistency of 3 ACWY-TT production lots was demonstrated. These data suggest that, if licensed, ACWY-TT conjugate vaccine may be used for protection against invasive meningococcal disease in healthy adults.
 
This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT00453986
doi:10.4161/hv.20211
PMCID: PMC3495723  PMID: 22485050
ACWY-TT vaccine; Neisseria meningitidis; adult; bactericidal activity; conjugate vaccine; immunogenicity; safety; tetravalent meningococcal vaccine; vaccine
7.  The investigational meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (ACWY-TT) and the seasonal influenza virus vaccine are immunogenic and well-tolerated when co-administered in adults 
Co-administration of meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y conjugate vaccine (ACWY-TT) with seasonal influenza vaccine was investigated in a subset of adults enrolled in a larger study evaluating lot-to-lot consistency of ACWY-TT and non-inferiority to licensed tetravalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MenPS). Subjects in this sub-study were randomized (3:1:1) to receive ACWY-TT alone (ACWY-TT group) or with seasonal influenza vaccine (Coad), or licensed MenPS alone. Serum bactericidal antibodies (rSBA) and serum haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody titers were measured pre- and 1 mo post-vaccination. Non-inferiority of the Coad group compared with ACWY-TT group was demonstrated in terms of rSBA geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs) to serogroups A, W-135 and Y. For serogroup C the pre-defined non-inferiority limit was marginally exceeded. Post-vaccination rSBA GMTs were significantly higher (exploratory analysis) in the Coad group compared with the MenPS group for serogroups A, W-135, and Y and were similar to the MenPS group for serogroup C. Overall, > 97% of subjects achieved rSBA titers ≥ 1:128 for all serogroups. The Coad group met all criteria defined by the Committee on Human Medicinal Products (CHMP) for seroprotection, seroconversion and seroconversion factor for HI antibodies for all three influenza strains. Grade 3 solicited local/general symptoms were reported by ≤ 1.9% of subjects in any group. These data support the co-administration of ACWY-TT with seasonal influenza vaccine when protection is needed against both diseases.
 
This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT00453986
doi:10.4161/hv.20212
PMCID: PMC3495724  PMID: 22485048
ACWY vaccine; Neisseria meningitidis; adult; co-administration; immunogenicity; influenza vaccine; polysaccharide vaccine; vaccine
8.  Temporally distinct roles for tumor suppressor pathways in cell cycle arrest and cellular senescence in Cyclin D1-driven tumor 
Molecular Cancer  2012;11:28.
Background
Cellular senescence represents a tumor suppressive response to a variety of aberrant and oncogenic insults. We have previously described a transgenic mouse model of Cyclin D1-driven senescence in pineal cells that opposes tumor progression. We now attempted to define the molecular mechanisms leading to p53 activation in this model, and to identify effectors of Cyclin D1-induced senescence.
Results
Senescence evolved over a period of weeks, with initial hyperproliferation followed by cell cycle arrest due to ROS production leading to activation of a DNA damage response and the p53 pathway. Interestingly, cell cycle exit was associated with repression of the Cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk2. This was followed days later by formation of heterochromatin foci correlating with RB protein hypophosphorylation. In the absence of the Cdk4-inhibitor p18Ink4c, cell cycle exit was delayed but most cells eventually showed a senescent phenotype. However, tumors later arose from this premalignant, largely senescent lesion. We found that the p53 pathway was intact in tumors arising in a p18Ink4c-/- background, indicating that the two genes represent distinct tumor suppressor pathways. Upon tumor progression, both p18Ink4c-/- and p53-/- tumors showed increased Cdk2 expression. Inhibition of Cdk2 in cultured pre-tumorigenic and tumor cells of both backgrounds resulted in decreased proliferation and evidence of senescence.
Conclusion
Our findings indicate that the p53 and the RB pathways play temporally distinct roles in senescence induction in Cyclin D1-expressing cells, and that Cdk2 inhibition plays a role in tumor suppression, and may be a useful therapeutic target.
doi:10.1186/1476-4598-11-28
PMCID: PMC3497584  PMID: 22548705
p18Ink4c; Cyclin D1; Senescence; p53; Rb; Cdk2; Tumor; Reactive oxygen species
9.  Genotypes and serotype distribution of macrolide resistant invasive and non- invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from Lebanon 
Background
This study determined macrolide resistance genotypes in clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from multiple medical centers in Lebanon and assessed the serotype distribution in relation to these mechanism(s) of resistance and the source of isolate recovery.
Methods
Forty four macrolide resistant and 21 macrolide susceptible S. pneumoniae clinical isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility according to CLSI guidelines (2008) and underwent molecular characterization. Serotyping of these isolates was performed by Multiplex PCR-based serotype deduction using CDC protocols. PCR amplification of macrolide resistant erm (encoding methylase) and mef (encoding macrolide efflux pump protein) genes was carried out.
Results
Among 44 isolates resistant to erythromycin, 35 were resistant to penicillin and 18 to ceftriaxone. Examination of 44 macrolide resistant isolates by PCR showed that 16 isolates harbored the erm(B) gene, 8 isolates harbored the mef gene, and 14 isolates harbored both the erm(B) and mef genes. There was no amplification by PCR of the erm(B) or mef genes in 6 isolates. Seven different capsular serotypes 2, 9V/9A,12F, 14,19A, 19F, and 23, were detected by multiplex PCR serotype deduction in 35 of 44 macrolide resistant isolates, with 19F being the most prevalent serotype. With the exception of serotype 2, all serotypes were invasive. Isolates belonging to the invasive serotypes 14 and 19F harbored both erm(B) and mef genes. Nine of the 44 macrolide resistant isolates were non-serotypable by our protocols.
Conclusion
Macrolide resistance in S. pneumoniae in Lebanon is mainly through target site modification but is also mediated through efflux pumps, with serotype 19F having dual resistance and being the most prevalent and invasive.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-11-2
PMCID: PMC3371826  PMID: 22248318
Antimicrobials; Macrolides; Resistance; Genes; Serotyping
10.  Evidence of Infection with H4 and H11 Avian Influenza Viruses among Lebanese Chicken Growers 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(10):e26818.
Human infections with H5, H7, and H9 avian influenza viruses are well documented. Exposure to poultry is the most important risk factor for humans becoming infected with these viruses. Data on human infection with other low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses is sparse but suggests that such infections may occur. Lebanon is a Mediterranean country lying under two major migratory birds flyways and is home to many wild and domestic bird species. Previous reports from this country demonstrated that low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses are in circulation but highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses were not reported. In order to study the extent of human infection with avian influenza viruses in Lebanon, we carried out a seroprevalence cross-sectional study into which 200 poultry-exposed individuals and 50 non-exposed controls were enrolled. We obtained their sera and tested it for the presence of antibodies against avian influenza viruses types H4 through H16 and used a questionnaire to collect exposure data. Our microneutralization assay results suggested that backyard poultry growers may have been previously infected with H4 and H11 avian influenza viruses. We confirmed these results by using a horse red blood cells hemagglutination inhibition assay. Our data also showed that farmers with antibodies against each virus type clustered in a small geographic area suggesting that unrecognized outbreaks among birds may have led to these human infections. In conclusion, this study suggests that occupational exposure to chicken is a risk factor for infection with avian influenza especially among backyard growers and that H4 and H11 influenza viruses may possess the ability to cross the species barrier to infect humans.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026818
PMCID: PMC3203926  PMID: 22046370
11.  Expansion of immunoglobulin-secreting cells and defects in B cell tolerance in Rag-dependent immunodeficiency 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2010;207(7):1541-1554.
The contribution of B cells to the pathology of Omenn syndrome and leaky severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) has not been previously investigated. We have studied a mut/mut mouse model of leaky SCID with a homozygous Rag1 S723C mutation that impairs, but does not abrogate, V(D)J recombination activity. In spite of a severe block at the pro–B cell stage and profound B cell lymphopenia, significant serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM, IgA, and IgE and a high proportion of Ig-secreting cells were detected in mut/mut mice. Antibody responses to trinitrophenyl (TNP)-Ficoll and production of high-affinity antibodies to TNP–keyhole limpet hemocyanin were severely impaired, even after adoptive transfer of wild-type CD4+ T cells. Mut/mut mice produced high amounts of low-affinity self-reactive antibodies and showed significant lymphocytic infiltrates in peripheral tissues. Autoantibody production was associated with impaired receptor editing and increased serum B cell–activating factor (BAFF) concentrations. Autoantibodies and elevated BAFF levels were also identified in patients with Omenn syndrome and leaky SCID as a result of hypomorphic RAG mutations. These data indicate that the stochastic generation of an autoreactive B cell repertoire, which is associated with defects in central and peripheral checkpoints of B cell tolerance, is an important, previously unrecognized, aspect of immunodeficiencies associated with hypomorphic RAG mutations.
doi:10.1084/jem.20091927
PMCID: PMC2901061  PMID: 20547827
12.  Apoptosis and the activity of ceramide, Bax and Bcl-2 in the lungs of neonatal rats exposed to limited and prolonged hyperoxia 
Respiratory Research  2006;7(1):100.
Background
The aim of the study is to examine the effect of limited and prolonged hyperoxia on neonatal rat lung. This is done by examining the morphologic changes of apoptosis, the expression of ceramide, an important mediator of apoptosis, the expression of inflammatory mediators represented by IL-1β and the expression of 2 proto-oncogenes that appear to modulate apoptosis (Bax and Bcl-2).
Methods
Newborn rats were placed in chambers containing room air or oxygen above 90% for 7 days. The rats were sacrificed at 3, 7 or 14 days and their lungs removed. Sections were fixed, subjected to TUNEL, Hoechst, and E-Cadherin Staining. Sections were also incubated with anti-Bcl-2 and anti-Bax antisera. Bcl-2 and Bax were quantitated by immunohistochemistry. Lipids were extracted, and ceramide measured through a modified diacylglycerol kinase assay. RT-PCR was utilized to assess IL-1β expression.
Results
TUNEL staining showed significant apoptosis in the hyperoxia-exposed lungs at 3 days only. Co-staining of the apoptotic cells with Hoechst, and E-Cadherin indicated that apoptotic cells were mainly epithelial cells. The expression of Bax and ceramide was significantly higher in the hyperoxia-exposed lungs at 3 and 14 days of age, but not at 7 days. Bcl-2 was significantly elevated in the hyperoxia-exposed lungs at 3 and 14 days. IL-1β expression was significantly increased at 14 days.
Conclusion
Exposure of neonatal rat lung to hyperoxia results in early apoptosis documented by TUNEL assay. The early rise in Bax and ceramide appears to overcome the anti-apoptotic activity of Bcl-2. Further exposure did not result in late apoptotic changes. This suggests that apoptotic response to hyperoxia is time sensitive. Prolonged hyperoxia results in acute lung injury and the shifting balance of ceramide, Bax and Bcl-2 may be related to the evolution of the inflammatory process.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-7-100
PMCID: PMC1559609  PMID: 16869980
13.  Cardiac growth patterns in response to chronic hypoxia in a neonatal rat model mimicking cyanotic heart disease 
OBJECTIVE:
Myocardial growth during fetal life is accomplished by the proliferation of myocytes. Shortly after birth, normal myocytes largely lose their capability to replicate. The present study aims to assess the effect of persistent postnatal hypoxia on myocardial growth patterns in an animal model mimicking cyanotic heart disease.
METHODS:
Sprague-Dawley rats were placed in a normobaric hypoxic environment at birth and oxygen levels were maintained at 10% (group H). Controls (group C) remained in room air. The animals were sacrificed and the hearts were harvested at one, four and eight weeks.
RESULTS:
Significant polycythemia developed in the hypoxic rats. There was a significant increase in indexed right ventricle (RV) and left ventricle (LV) masses compared with controls. Myocardial DNA concentrations were significantly increased in both ventricles of the hypoxic rats. For the RV, the increase in DNA content for group H was 135%, 132% and 112% that of group C values at one, four and eight weeks, respectively. RV and LV myocardial protein:DNA ratios were lower in the one-week- and four-week-old hypoxic rats, and significantly higher in the hypoxic eight-week-old rats. Polyploidy, hydroxyproline concentrations and dry:wet weight ratios were not significantly different in the LV and RV between both group H and group C animals.
CONCLUSION:
Cardiac mass increases in response to chronic hypoxia were greater in the RV than the LV. This increase was mainly due to myocardial proliferation in the first four weeks of life. Although the three groups of hypoxic rats had significant elevations in DNA concentration compared with controls, there was a shift from proliferation to hypertrophy after week 4 of life. The age of the myocyte appears to be the most important factor in triggering proliferation in this hypoxic animal model.
PMCID: PMC2719159  PMID: 19649219
Cyanosis; Hypoxia; Myocardial growth; Rat
14.  IL-1 stimulates ceramide accumulation without inducing apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells. 
Mediators of Inflammation  2002;11(1):39-45.
BACKGROUND: In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), cytokine levels (such as interleukin-1 (IL-1)) are elevated. We have shown previously that IL-1 activates phospholipid signaling pathways in intestinal epithelial cells (EEC), leading to increased ceramide levels. AIM: To determine whether ceramide induces apoptosis in IEC. METHODS: Apoptosis was evaluated by annexin-V binding or Hoechst nuclear staining. Levels of bcl-2, bcl-x, bax, p53 and p21 were determined by Western blotting, and celi cycle analysis was determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: IL-1 increased ceramide accumulation in a time-dependent and concentration-dependent manner with a peak response at 4 h, with [IL-1] = 30 ng/ml. Neither IL-1 nor ceramide induced apoptosis in EEC, but they increased bcl-2 levels and decreased bax and p21 levels without affecting bcl-x and p53 levels. They also caused a slight but significant increase in the G2/M phase. These data suggest a role for ceramide in IBD and suggest a possible mechanism for the enhanced tumorigenic activity in IBD patients.
PMCID: PMC1781644  PMID: 11926594
15.  Cytokine Response Modifier A (CrmA) Inhibits Ceramide Formation in Response to Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α: CrmA and Bcl-2 Target Distinct Components in the Apoptotic Pathway 
Proteases are now firmly established as major regulators of the “execution” phase of apoptosis. Here, we examine the role of proteases and their relationship to ceramide, a proposed mediator of apoptosis, in the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)–induced pathway of cell death. Ceramide induced activation of prICE, the protease that cleaves the death substrate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Bcl-2 inhibited ceramide-induced death, but not ceramide generation. In contrast, Cytokine response modifier A (CrmA), a potent inhibitor of Interleukin-1β converting enzyme and related proteases, inhibited ceramide generation and prevented TNF-α–induced death. Exogenous ceramide could overcome the CrmA block to cell death, but not the Bcl-2 block. CrmA, however, did not inhibit the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB by TNF-α, demonstrating that other signaling functions of TNF-α remain intact and that ceramide does not play a role in the activation of NF-κB. These studies support a distinct role for proteases in the signaling/activation phase of apoptosis acting upstream of ceramide formation.
PMCID: PMC2196031  PMID: 9053448

Results 1-15 (15)