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1.  Successful salvage therapy with Daptomycin for osteomyelitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a renal transplant recipient with Fabry-Anderson disease 
Daptomycin is licensed in adults for the management of Staphylococcus aureus methicillin-resistant infections, including bone and skin complicated infections. We describe for the first time its use in a renal transplant recipient for Fabry-Anderson Disease with right heel osteomyelitis. The patient was unresponsive to first-line Teicoplanin and second-line Tigecycline, whereas he was successfully treated with third-line Daptomycin monotherapy at 4 mg/Kg/qd for 4 weeks. Local debridement was performed in advance of each line of treatment.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-11-6
PMCID: PMC3324387  PMID: 22404900
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Osteomyelitis; Daptomycin; Salvage therapy; Antibiotic therapy
2.  Acupuncture for the treatment of severe acute pain in Herpes Zoster: results of a nested, open-label, randomized trial in the VZV Pain Study 
Background
Data on the potential efficacy of acupuncture (AC) in controlling intense or very intense pain in patients with Herpes Zoster (HZ) has not been so far adequately assessed in comparison with standard pharmacological treatment (ST) by a controlled trial design.
Methods
Within the VZV Pescara study, pain was assessed in HZ patients on a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and by the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) both at the beginning and at the end of treatment. Response rates, mean changes in pain intensity, differences in total pain burden with an area-under-the-curve (AUC) method over a 1-year follow-up and differences in the incidence of Post-Herpetic Neuralgia (PHN) were evaluated.
Results
One hundred and two patients were randomized to receive either AC (n = 52) or ST (n = 50) for 4 weeks. Groups were comparable regarding age, sex, pain intensity at presentation and missed antiviral prescription. Both interventions were largely effective. No significant differences were observed in response rates (81.6% vs 89.2%, p = 0.8), mean reduction of VAS (4.1 +/- 2.3 vs 4.9 +/- 1.9, p = 0.12) and MPQ scores (1.3 +/- 0.9 vs 1.3 +/- 0.9, p = 0.9), incidence of PHN after 3 months (48.4% vs 46.8%, p = 0.5), and mean AUC during follow-up (199 +/- 136 vs 173 +/- 141, p = 0.4). No serious treatment-related adverse event was observed in both groups.
Conclusions
This controlled and randomized trial provides the first evidence of a potential role of AC for the treatment of acute herpetic pain.
Trial registration
ChiCTR-TRC-10001146.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-11-46
PMCID: PMC3125389  PMID: 21639941
3.  Predictors of pain intensity and persistence in a prospective Italian cohort of patients with herpes zoster: relevance of smoking, trauma and antiviral therapy 
BMC Medicine  2010;8:58.
Background
Herpes zoster (HZ) is a common disease, characterized by rash-associated localized pain. Its main complication, post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), is difficult to treat and may last for months to years in the wake of rash resolution. Uncertainties remain as to the knowledge of predictors of HZ-related pain, including the role of antiviral therapy in preventing PHN in ordinary clinical practice. This prospective cohort study was aimed at investigating pain intensity at HZ presentation and its correlates, as well as the incidence of PHN and its predictors.
Methods
Patients diagnosed with HZ were consecutively enrolled by a network of Italian General Practitioners and Hospital Units in the health district of Pescara, Italy, over two years. Uncertain cases were referred for microbiological investigation. Data were collected through electronic case report form (e-CRFs) at enrolment and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after enrolment. Pain intensity was coded on a five-degree semi-quantitative scale at each time point. PHN was defined as pain of any intensity during follow-up and quantified using an area-under-the-curve (AUC) method.
Results
Four hundred and forty-one patients composed the final sample. Mean age was 58.1 years (SD = 20.4 years); 43.5% of patients were males; 7.9% did not receive prescription of antivirals. Intense/very intense pain at presentation was reported by 25.2% of patients and was significantly associated with female gender, older age, cigarette smoking, trauma and/or surgery at HZ site (logistic regression). PHN was diagnosed in 51.2% of patients at one month and in 30.0% of patients at three months. PHN was significantly associated with pain intensity at presentation, age, smoking, trauma and missed antiviral prescription (generalized estimating equations model). The same factors were also independent predictors of the overall pain burden as described by the AUC method (linear regression).
Conclusions
Smoking, traumas and surgery at the HZ site emerged as new predictors of both HZ-related pain intensity and persistence, opening new perspectives in the prevention of HZ-related pain. An independent line of evidence was provided for the efficacy of antiviral therapy in preventing PHN and reducing total pain burden.
doi:10.1186/1741-7015-8-58
PMCID: PMC2964549  PMID: 20937086
4.  Rapid and persistent selection of the K103N mutation as a majority quasispecies in a HIV1-patient exposed to efavirenz for three weeks: a case report and review of the literature 
Introduction
Selection of the K103N mutation is associated with moderately reduced in vitro fitness of HIV. Strains bearing K103N in vivo tend to persist, even in the absence of additional drug pressure, as minority quasispecies, often undetectable in genotyping resistance testing assays, performed at standard conditions. Here, we report on the rapid and long lasting selection of a K103N bearing strain as the dominant quasispecies after very short exposure to efavirenz in vivo.
Case presentation
A 55-year-old Caucasian man was switched to efavirenz, zidovudine and lamivudine in February 2003, while on viral suppression in his first-line highly active anti-retroviral treatment regimen. One month later, he reported inconsistent adherence and his viremia level was 5700 c/mL. He did not attend further checkups until September 2005, when his viral load was 181,000 c/mL. The patient reported interrupting his medications approximately three weeks after simplification. The genotyping resistance testing assay was performed both on HIV RNA and HIV DNA from plasma, yielding an identical pattern with the isolate presence of the K103N mutation in the prevalent strain.
Conclusion
Persistence of the K103N mutation as a majority quasispecies may ensue after a very short exposure to efavirenz. Our case would therefore suggest that the presence of the K103N mutation should always be ruled out by genotyping resistance testing assays, even after minimal exposures to efavirenz.
doi:10.4076/1752-1947-3-9132
PMCID: PMC2827172  PMID: 21092074

Results 1-4 (4)