Ralstonia sp. strain OR214 belongs to the class Betaproteobacteria and was isolated from subsurface sediments in Oak Ridge, TN. A member of this genus has been described as a potential bioremediation agent. Strain OR214 is tolerant to various heavy metals, such as uranium, nickel, cobalt, and cadmium. We present its draft genome sequence here.
Caulobacter sp. strain OR37 belongs to the class Alphaproteobacteria and was isolated from subsurface sediments in Oak Ridge, TN. Strain OR37 is noteworthy due to its tolerance to high concentrations of heavy metals, such as uranium, nickel, cobalt, and cadmium, and we present its draft genome sequence here.
The genetic basis for bacterial mercury methylation has been described recently. For insights into the physiology of mercury-methylating bacteria, we present genome sequences for Desulfococcus multivorans strain DSM 2059, Desulfovibrio alkalitolerans strain DSM 16529, and Desulfovibrio species strain X2.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain M3707 was isolated from a sample of commercial distillers yeast, and its genome sequence together with the genome sequences for the four derived haploid strains M3836, M3837, M3838, and M3839 has been determined. Yeasts have potential for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) for biofuel production, and access to these genome sequences will facilitate their development.
To aid in the investigation of the Populus deltoides microbiome, we generated draft genome sequences for 21 Pseudomonas strains and 19 other diverse bacteria isolated from Populus deltoides roots. Genome sequences for isolates similar to Acidovorax, Bradyrhizobium, Brevibacillus, Caulobacter, Chryseobacterium, Flavobacterium, Herbaspirillum, Novosphingobium, Pantoea, Phyllobacterium, Polaromonas, Rhizobium, Sphingobium, and Variovorax were generated.
An international multilaboratory collaborative study was conducted to develop standard media and consensus methods for the performance and quality control of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum using broth microdilution and agar dilution techniques. A reference strain from the American Type Culture Collection was designated for each species, which was to be used for quality control purposes. Repeat testing of replicate samples of each reference strain by participating laboratories utilizing both methods and different lots of media enabled a 3- to 4-dilution MIC range to be established for drugs in several different classes, including tetracyclines, macrolides, ketolides, lincosamides, and fluoroquinolones. This represents the first multilaboratory collaboration to standardize susceptibility testing methods and to designate quality control parameters to ensure accurate and reliable assay results for mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas that infect humans.
Desulfovibrio africanus strain PCS is an anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) isolated from sediment from Paleta Creek, San Diego, CA. Strain PCS is capable of reducing metals such as Fe(III) and Cr(VI), has a cell cycle, and is predicted to produce methylmercury. We present the D. africanus PCS genome sequence.
Pelosinus fermentans JBW45 is an anaerobic, lactate-fermenting bacterium isolated from Cr(VI)-contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation 100-H site (Washington) that was collected after stimulation with a polylactate compound. The genome sequence of this organism will provide insight into the metabolic potential of a predominant population during stimulation for metal-reducing conditions.
Pelosinus fermentans 16S rRNA gene sequences have been reported from diverse geographical sites since the recent isolation of the type strain. We present the genome sequence of the P. fermentans type strain R7 (DSM 17108) and genome sequences for two new strains with different abilities to reduce iron, chromate, and uranium.
We report the first genome sequences for six strains of Rhodanobacter species isolated from a variety of soil and subsurface environments. Three of these strains are capable of complete denitrification and three others are not. However, all six strains contain most of the genes required for the respiration of nitrate to gaseous nitrogen. The nondenitrifying members of the genus lack only the gene for nitrate reduction, the first step in the full denitrification pathway. The data suggest that the environmental role of bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter should be reevaluated.
Mesorhizobium loti is the microsymbiont of Lotus species, including the model legume L. japonicus. M. loti differs from other rhizobia in that it contains two copies of the key nitrogen fixation regulatory gene nifA, nifA1 and nifA2, both of which are located on the symbiosis island ICEMlSymR7A. M. loti R7A also contains two rpoN genes, rpoN1 located on the chromosome outside of ICEMlSymR7A and rpoN2 that is located on ICEMlSymR7A. The aims of the current work were to establish how nifA expression was activated in M. loti and to characterise the NifA-RpoN regulon. The nifA2 and rpoN2 genes were essential for nitrogen fixation whereas nifA1 and rpoN1 were dispensable. Expression of nifA2 was activated, possibly in response to an inositol derivative, by a novel regulator of the LacI/GalR family encoded by the fixV gene located upstream of nifA2. Other than the well-characterized nif/fix genes, most NifA2-regulated genes were not required for nitrogen fixation although they were strongly expressed in nodules. The NifA-regulated nifZ and fixU genes, along with nifQ which was not NifA-regulated, were required in M. loti for a fully effective symbiosis although they are not present in some other rhizobia. The NifA-regulated gene msi158 that encodes a porin was also required for a fully effective symbiosis. Several metabolic genes that lacked NifA-regulated promoters were strongly expressed in nodules in a NifA2-dependent manner but again mutants did not have an overt symbiotic phenotype. In summary, many genes encoded on ICEMlSymR7A were strongly expressed in nodules but not free-living rhizobia, but were not essential for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. It seems likely that some of these genes have functional homologues elsewhere in the genome and that bacteroid metabolism may be sufficiently plastic to adapt to loss of certain enzymatic functions.
Clostridium thermocellum wild-type strain YS is an anaerobic, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium capable of directly converting cellulosic substrates into ethanol. Strain YS and a derived cellulose adhesion-defective mutant strain, AD2, played pivotal roles in describing the original cellulosome concept. We present their draft genome sequences.
Microbacterium laevaniformans strain OR221 was isolated from subsurface sediments obtained from the Field Research Center (FRC) in Oak Ridge, TN. It was characterized as a bacterium tolerant to heavy metals, such as uranium, nickel, cobalt, and cadmium, as well as nitrate and low pH. We present its draft genome sequence.
Qβ virus-like particles encapsulating multiple copies of fluorescent proteins were generated in high yields using a modular system enhanced by specific engineered RNA-protein interactions. The resulting particles were structurally indistinguishable from recombinant Qβ alone. The encapsidated proteins were nearly identical in photochemical properties to monomeric analogues, were more stable toward thermal degradation, and were protected from proteolytic cleavage. Residues on the outer capsid surface were chemically derivatized by acylation and azide-alkyne cycloaddition without affecting the fluorescence properties of the packaged proteins. A high affinity carbohydrate-based ligand of the CD22 receptor was thereby attached, and specific cell labeling by the particles was successfully detected by flow cytometry and confocal laser microscopy.
Virus-like particles; fluorescent proteins; cell targeting
Rhizobium sp. strain PDO1-076 is a plant-associated bacterium isolated from Populus deltoides, and its draft genome sequence is reported.
A high-affinity RNA aptamer (Kd = 50 nM) was efficiently identified by SELEX against a heteroaryl dihydropyrimidine structure, chosen as a representative drug-like molecule with no cross reactivity with mammalian or bacterial cells. This aptamer, its weaker-binding variants, and a known aptamer against theophylline were each embedded in a longer RNA sequence that was encapsidated inside a virus-like particle by a convenient expression technique. These nucleoprotein particles were shown by backscattering interferometry to bind to the small-molecule ligands with affinities similar to those of the free (non-encapsidated) aptamers. The system therefore comprises a general approach to the production and sequestration of functional RNA molecules, characterized by a convenient label-free analytical technique.
RNA packaging; virus-like particles; aptamers; backscattering interferometry
Heparin is widely used for anticoagulation, often requiring the subsequent administration of a reversal agent. The only approved reversal agent for heparin is protamine sulfate, which induces well described adverse reactions in patients. Previously we reported a novel class of heparin antagonists based on the bacteriophage Qβ platform, displaying polyvalent cationic motifs which bind with high affinity to heparin. Here we report heparin reversal by the most effective of these virus-like particles (VLP) in samples from patients who were administered heparin during cardiac procedures or therapeutically for treatment of various thrombotic conditions. The VLP consistently reversed heparin in these samples, including those from patients that received high doses of heparin, with greater efficiency than a negative control VLP and with significantly less variability than protamine sulfate. These results provide the first step towards validation of heparin antagonist VLPs as viable alternatives to protamine.
heparin; anticoagulation; bacteriophage Qβ; protamine; coronary intervention; venous thrombosis
The determination of the success of in situ bioremediation strategies is complex. By using controlled laboratory conditions, the influence of individual variables, such as U(VI), Cr(VI), and electron donors and acceptors on community structure, dynamics, and the metal-reducing potential can be studied. Triplicate anaerobic, continuous-flow reactors were inoculated with Cr(VI)-contaminated groundwater from the Hanford, WA, 100-H area, amended with lactate, and incubated for 95 days to obtain stable, enriched communities. The reactors were kept anaerobic with N2 gas (9 ml/min) flushing the headspace and were fed a defined medium amended with 30 mM lactate and 0.05 mM sulfate with a 48-h generation time. The resultant diversity decreased from 63 genera within 12 phyla to 11 bacterial genera (from 3 phyla) and 2 archaeal genera (from 1 phylum). Final communities were dominated by Pelosinus spp. and to a lesser degree, Acetobacterium spp., with low levels of other organisms, including methanogens. Four new strains of Pelosinus were isolated, with 3 strains being capable of Cr(VI) reduction while one also reduced U(VI). Under limited sulfate, it appeared that the sulfate reducers, including Desulfovibrio spp., were outcompeted. These results suggest that during times of electron acceptor limitation in situ, organisms such as Pelosinus spp. may outcompete the more-well-studied organisms while maintaining overall metal reduction rates and extents. Finally, lab-scale simulations can test new strategies on a smaller scale while facilitating community member isolation, so that a deeper understanding of community metabolism can be revealed.
Advancement in high throughput DNA sequencing technologies has supported a rapid proliferation of microbial genome sequencing projects, providing the genetic blueprint for in-depth studies. Oftentimes, difficult to sequence regions in microbial genomes are ruled “intractable” resulting in a growing number of genomes with sequence gaps deposited in databases. A procedure was developed to sequence such problematic regions in the “non-contiguous finished” Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 genome (6 intractable gaps) and the Desulfovibrio africanus genome (1 intractable gap). The polynucleotides surrounding each gap formed GC rich secondary structures making the regions refractory to amplification and sequencing. Strand-displacing DNA polymerases used in concert with a novel ramped PCR extension cycle supported amplification and closure of all gap regions in both genomes. The developed procedures support accurate gene annotation, and provide a step-wise method that reduces the effort required for genome finishing.
Pseudomonas fluorescens strain HK44 (DSM 6700) is a genetically engineered lux-based bioluminescent bioreporter. Here we report the draft genome sequence of strain HK44. Annotation of ∼6.1 Mb of sequence indicates that 30% of the traits are unique and distributed over five genomic islands, a prophage, and two plasmids.
Desulfovibrio africanus strain Walvis Bay is an anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacterium capable of producing methylmercury (MeHg), a potent human neurotoxin. The mechanism of methylation by this and other organisms is unknown. We present the 4.2-Mb genome sequence to provide further insight into microbial mercury methylation and sulfate-reducing bacteria.
Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20 (formerly Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20) is a Gram-negative mesophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB), known to corrode ferrous metals and to reduce toxic radionuclides and metals such as uranium and chromium to sparingly soluble and less toxic forms. We present the 3.7-Mb genome sequence to provide insights into its physiology.
The BioEnergy Science Center (BESC) is undertaking large experimental campaigns to understand the biosynthesis and biodegradation of biomass and to develop biofuel solutions. BESC is generating large volumes of diverse data, including genome sequences, omics data and assay results. The purpose of the BESC Knowledgebase is to serve as a centralized repository for experimentally generated data and to provide an integrated, interactive and user-friendly analysis framework. The Portal makes available tools for visualization, integration and analysis of data either produced by BESC or obtained from external resources.
Halanaerobium hydrogenoformans is an alkaliphilic bacterium capable of biohydrogen production at pH 11 and 7% (wt/vol) salt. We present the 2.6-Mb genome sequence to provide insights into its physiology and potential for bioenergy applications.
Packaged molecular machines are available in large amounts using dual expression vectors that guide the preparation of Qβ virus-like particles encapsulating multiple copies of functional enzymes. Packaging is promoted by RNA aptamer sequences that bridge between the coat protein and a peptide tag fused to the desired cargo. Peptidase E and luciferase were thus encapsulated and shown to be catalytically active inside the particle. The encapsulated enzymes are less sensitive to inactivation by heating and surface adsorption than the corresponding free enzymes. This system represents a modular way to marry catalytic activity with robust scaffolding for the development of multifunctional materials.
virus-like particles; Qβ bacteriophage; enzyme catalysis; enzyme protection; RNA-protein interactions; encapsulation