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author:("Bashir, naira")
1.  Virulence profile of different phylogenetic groups of locally isolated community acquired uropathogenic E. coli from Faisalabad region of Pakistan 
Background
Uropathogenic E.coli (UPEC) are among major pathogens causing urinary tract infections. Virulence factors are mainly responsible for the severity of these emerging infections. This study was planned to investigate the distribution of virulence genes and cytotoxic effects of UPEC isolates with reference to phylogenetic groups (B2, B1, D and A) to understand the presence and impact of virulence factors in the severity of infection in Faisalabad region of Pakistan.
Methods
In this study phylogenetic analysis, virulence gene identification and cytotoxicity of 59 uropathogenic E.coli isolates obtained from non-hospitalized patients was studied.
Results
Among 59 isolates, phylogenetic group B2 (50%) was most dominant followed by groups A, B1 (19% each) and D (12%). Isolates present in group D showed highest presence of virulence genes. The prevalence hlyA (37%) was highest followed by sfaDE (27%), papC (24%), cnf1 (20%), eaeA (19%) and afaBC3 (14%). Highly hemolytic and highly verotoxic isolates mainly belonged to group D and B2. We also found two isolates with simultaneous presence of three fimbrial adhesin genes present on pap, afa, and sfa operons. This has not been reported before and underlines the dynamic nature of these UPEC isolates.
Conclusions
It was concluded that in local UPEC isolates from non-hospitalized patients, group B2 was more prevalent. However, group D isolates were most versatile as all were equipped with virulence genes and showed highest level of cytotoxicity.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-11-23
PMCID: PMC3475034  PMID: 22867028
Uropathogenic E.coli; Phylogenicity; Virulence genes
2.  Multiple drug resistance patterns in various phylogenetic groups of uropathogenic E.coli isolated from Faisalabad region of Pakistan 
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology  2011;42(4):1278-1283.
The objective of this work was the phylogenetic characterization of local clinical isolates of uropathogenic E. coli with respect to drug resistance. A total of 59 uropathogenic E. coli responsible for community acquired urinary tract infections were included in this study. A triplex PCR was employed to segregate each isolate into four different phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2 and D). Drug resistance was evaluated by disc diffusion method. The drugs used were ampicillin, aztreonam, cefixime, cefoperazone, ceftriaxone, cephradine among β-lactam group; amikacin, gentamicin, and streptomycin among aminoglycosides; nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin from quinolones; trimethoprim-sulfomethoxazole, and tetracycline. Among 59 uropathogenic E. coli isolates majority belonged to phylogenetic group B2 (50%) where as 19% each belonged to groups A and B1, and 12% to group D. All the isolates were multiple drug resistant (MDR). Most effective drugs against Group A, B1, and B2 were gentamicin, amikacin and cefixime; ceftriaxone and quinolones; and ceftriaxone and amikacin, respectively. Group D isolates were found to be highly resistant to all drugs. Our results have shown emergence of MDR isolates among uropathogenic E. coli with dominance of phylogenetic group B2. However, it was found that group D isolates were though less frequent, more drug resistant as compared with group B2. Groups A and B1 were relatively uncommon. Amikacin, ceftriaxone and gentamicin were the most effective drugs in general.
doi:10.1590/S1517-83822011000400005
PMCID: PMC3768734  PMID: 24031752
uropathogenic E. coli; phylogenetic analysis; drug resistance
3.  Serum Surfactant Protein D during Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 
Disease markers  2010;27(6):287-294.
Background: There is a paucity of lung specific biomarkers to diagnose exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to track their progression. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a pulmonary collectin regulating the innate immunity of the lung and its serum expression is perturbed in COPD. However, it is not known whether serum levels change during exacerbations. We sought to determine whether serum SP-D levels are raised in COPD exacerbations.
Objectives: To determine whether or not patients with exacerbations have elevated serum SP-D levels compared with asymptomatic controls, stable disease.
Study design: case control study.
Methods: We measured serum SP-D levels from patients with stable COPD (n = 14), patients experiencing acute exacerbations (n = 13) and in control subjects (n = 54) using a specific immunoassay and compared the levels using analysis of variance.
Results: Serum SP-D levels were significantly increased in patients who experienced an acute exacerbation (227 ± 120 ng/mL) compared to patients with stable disease (151 ± 83 ng/mL) or control subjects (128 ± 65 ng/mL; p = 0.003). Serum SP-D levels were also found to be inversely related to various lung function parameters including FEV1/FVC% predicted.
Conclusions: Our study suggests that serum SP-D levels are increased in patients during exacerbations and may be a potential diagnostic biomarker for COPD exacerbations.
doi:10.3233/DMA-2009-0674
PMCID: PMC3834666  PMID: 20075511
Surfactant protein D; serum biomarker; COPD; exacerbations; diagnostic

Results 1-3 (3)