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1.  Studies on Emblica officinalis Derived Tannins for Their Immunostimulatory and Protective Activities against Coccidiosis in Industrial Broiler Chickens 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:378473.
The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO) derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT) and commercial tannins (CT) were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) by haemagglutination assay. Protective efficacy of tannins was measured against coccidial infection, induced by Eimeria species. Results revealed higher geomean titers against SRBCs in chickens administered with EOT as compared to those administered with CT and control group. Mean oocysts per gram of droppings were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in EOT administered chickens as compared to control group. Lesion scoring also showed the lowest caecal and intestinal lesion score of mild to moderate intensity in chickens administered with EOT. Further, significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily body weight gains and antibody titers were detected in EOT administered chickens as compared to those of CT administered and control groups. EOT showed the immunostimulatory properties in broilers and their administration in chickens boost the protective immunity against coccidiosis.
doi:10.1155/2014/378473
PMCID: PMC3919087  PMID: 24578631
2.  Quantitative structure activity relationship and risk analysis of some pesticides in the goat milk 
The detection and quantification of different pesticides in the goat milk samples collected from different localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan was performed by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The analysis showed that about 50% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean±SEM levels (ppm) of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.34±0.007, 0.063±0.002, 0.034±0.002 and 0.092±0.002, respectively; whereas, methyl parathion was not detected in any of the analyzed samples. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models were suggested to predict the residues of unknown pesticides in the goat milk using their known physicochemical characteristics including molecular weight (MW), melting point (MP), and log octanol to water partition coefficient (Ko/w) in relation to the characteristics such as pH, % fat, specific gravity and refractive index of goat milk. The analysis revealed good correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.985) for goat QSAR model. The coefficients for Ko/w and refractive index for the studied pesticides were higher in goat milk. This suggests that these are better determinants for pesticide residue prediction in the milk of these animals. Based upon the determined pesticide residues and their provisional tolerable daily intakes, risk analysis was also conducted which showed that daily intake levels of pesticide residues including cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in present study are 2.68, 5.19 and 2.71 times higher, respectively in the goat milk. This intake of pesticide contaminated milk might pose health hazards to humans in this locality.
doi:10.1186/1735-2746-10-4
PMCID: PMC3622618  PMID: 23369514
Goat milk; Pesticides; Residues; QSAR model
3.  Virulence profile of different phylogenetic groups of locally isolated community acquired uropathogenic E. coli from Faisalabad region of Pakistan 
Background
Uropathogenic E.coli (UPEC) are among major pathogens causing urinary tract infections. Virulence factors are mainly responsible for the severity of these emerging infections. This study was planned to investigate the distribution of virulence genes and cytotoxic effects of UPEC isolates with reference to phylogenetic groups (B2, B1, D and A) to understand the presence and impact of virulence factors in the severity of infection in Faisalabad region of Pakistan.
Methods
In this study phylogenetic analysis, virulence gene identification and cytotoxicity of 59 uropathogenic E.coli isolates obtained from non-hospitalized patients was studied.
Results
Among 59 isolates, phylogenetic group B2 (50%) was most dominant followed by groups A, B1 (19% each) and D (12%). Isolates present in group D showed highest presence of virulence genes. The prevalence hlyA (37%) was highest followed by sfaDE (27%), papC (24%), cnf1 (20%), eaeA (19%) and afaBC3 (14%). Highly hemolytic and highly verotoxic isolates mainly belonged to group D and B2. We also found two isolates with simultaneous presence of three fimbrial adhesin genes present on pap, afa, and sfa operons. This has not been reported before and underlines the dynamic nature of these UPEC isolates.
Conclusions
It was concluded that in local UPEC isolates from non-hospitalized patients, group B2 was more prevalent. However, group D isolates were most versatile as all were equipped with virulence genes and showed highest level of cytotoxicity.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-11-23
PMCID: PMC3475034  PMID: 22867028
Uropathogenic E.coli; Phylogenicity; Virulence genes

Results 1-3 (3)