This study demonstrates the effects of simulated microgravity on E. coli K 12 MG1655 grown on LB medium supplemented with glycerol. Global gene expression analysis indicated that the expressions of hundred genes were significantly altered in simulated microgravity conditions compared to that of normal gravity conditions. Under these conditions genes coding for adaptation to stress are up regulated (sufE and ssrA) and simultaneously genes coding for membrane transporters (ompC, exbB, actP, mgtA, cysW and nikB) and carbohydrate catabolic processes (ldcC, ptsA, rhaD and rhaS) are down regulated. The enhanced growth in simulated gravity conditions may be because of the adequate supply of energy/reducing equivalents and up regulation of genes involved in DNA replication (srmB) and repression of the genes encoding for nucleoside metabolism (dfp, pyrD and spoT). In addition, E. coli cultured in LB medium supplemented with glycerol (so as to protect the cells from freezing temperatures) do not exhibit multiple stress responses that are normally observed when cells are exposed to microgravity in LB medium without glycerol.
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is the causative agent of typhoid fever, which causes nearly 21.7 million illnesses and 217,000 deaths globally. Herein, we describe the whole-genome sequence of the Salmonella Typhi strain ST0208, isolated from a sporadic case of typhoid fever in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The whole-genome sequence and comparative genomics allow an in-depth understanding of the genetic diversity, and its link to pathogenicity and evolutionary dynamics, of this highly clonal pathogen that is endemic to Malaysia.
Many of the developing countries of the Southeast Asian region are significantly affected by endemic typhoid fever, possibly as a result of marginal living standards. It is an important public health problem in countries such as Papua New Guinea, which is geographically close to some of the foci of endemicity in Asia. The severity of the disease varies in different regions, and this may be attributable to genetic diversity among the native strains. Genome sequence data on strains from different countries are needed to clearly understand their genetic makeup and virulence potential. We describe the genomes of two Salmonella Typhi isolates from patients with fatal and nonfatal cases of typhoid fever in Papua New Guinea. We discuss in brief the underlying sequencing methodology, assembly, genome statistics, and important features of the two draft genomes, which form an essential step in our functional molecular infection epidemiology program centering on typhoid fever. The comparative genomics of these and other isolates would enable us to identify genetic rearrangements and mechanisms responsible for endemicity and the differential severity of pathogenic salmonellae in Papua New Guinea and elsewhere.
Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) are a heterogeneous group of tumors that differ in risk factors and genetic alterations. In Italy, particularly Southern Italy, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents the main cause of HCC. Using high-density oligoarrays, we identified consistent differences in gene-expression between HCC and normal liver tissue. Expression patterns in HCC were also readily distinguishable from those associated with liver metastases. To characterize molecular events relevant to hepatocarcinogenesis and identify biomarkers for early HCC detection, gene expression profiling of 71 liver biopsies from HCV-related primary HCC and corresponding HCV-positive non-HCC hepatic tissue, as well as gastrointestinal liver metastases paired with the apparently normal peri-tumoral liver tissue, were compared to 6 liver biopsies from healthy individuals. Characteristic gene signatures were identified when normal tissue was compared with HCV-related primary HCC, corresponding HCV-positive non-HCC as well as gastrointestinal liver metastases. Pathway analysis classified the cellular and biological functions of the genes differentially expressed as related to regulation of gene expression and post-translational modification in HCV-related primary HCC; cellular Growth and Proliferation, and Cell-To-Cell Signaling and Interaction in HCV-related non HCC samples; Cellular Growth and Proliferation and Cell Cycle in metastasis. Also characteristic gene signatures were identified of HCV-HCC progression for early HCC diagnosis.
A diagnostic molecular signature complementing conventional pathologic assessment was identified.
CagA protein contributes to pro-inflammatory responses during H. pylori infection, following its intracellular delivery to gastric epithelial cells. Here, we report for the first time in an isogenic background, on the subtle role of CagA phosphorylation on terminal EPIYA-C motifs in the transcriptional activation and expression of IL-8. We utilized isogenic H. pylori mutants of P12 reference strain, expressing CagA with varying number of EPIYA-C motifs and the corresponding phosphorylation defective EPIFA-C motifs while preserving intact the CM multimerization motifs. These mutants had been previously closely scrutinized in terms of type IV secretion system functionality, CagA translocation and its subsequent phosphorylation. Following infection of gastric epithelial cell lines, transcriptional activation of IL-8 gene and secreted IL-8 levels were found to be strictly dependent upon the functionality of the EPIYA-C phosphorylation motifs, as EPIFA-C phosphorylation-deficient CagA expression failed to induce full IL-8 transcriptional activity. Interestingly, levels of IL-8 gene activation and of secreted IL-8 were the same, irrespective of the number of EPIYA-C terminal repeats. We monitored IkBα phosphorylation and confirmed CagA involvement in NF-kB activation. Furthermore, we observed that presence of EPIYA-C functional phosphorylation motifs contributed to NF-kB activation. NF-kB upstream signaling events, such as early ERK1/2 and AKT activation were confirmed to be independent of EPIYA-C phosphorylation. On the contrary, use of TAK1 specific inhibitor 5Z-7-Oxozeaenol resulted in complete arrest of IL-8 secretion, in a dose-dependent manner, irrespective of CagA status. H. pylori-infected TAK1-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) failed to induce NF-kB activity, unlike the respective control MEFs. CagA and TAK1 were found to immunoprecipitate together, irrespective of CagA EPIYA-C status, thus confirming earlier reports of TAK1 and CagA protein interaction. Our data suggest that CagA may potentially interfere with TAK1 activity during NF-kB activation for IL-8 induction in early H. pylori infection.
The phylogeographical structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is generally bimodal in low tuberculosis (TB) incidence countries, where genetic lineages of the isolates generally differ with little strain clustering between autochthonous and foreign-born TB patients. However, less is known on this structure in Saudi Arabia—the most important hub of human migration as it hosts a total population of expatriates and pilgrims from all over the world which is equal to that of its citizens.
We explored the mycobacterial phylogenetic structure and strain molecular clustering in Saudi Arabia by genotyping 322 drug-resistant clinical isolates collected over a 12-month period in a national drug surveillance survey, using 24 locus-based MIRU-VNTR typing and spoligotyping.
In contrast to the cosmopolitan population of the country, almost all the known phylogeographic lineages of M. tuberculosis complex (with noticeable exception of Mycobacterium africanum/West-African 1 and 2) were detected, with Delhi/CAS (21.1%), EAI (11.2%), Beijing (11.2%) and main branches of the Euro-American super-lineage such as Ghana (14.9%), Haarlem (10.6%) and Cameroon (7.8%) being represented. Statistically significant associations of strain lineages were observed with poly-drug resistance and multi drug resistance especially among previously treated cases (p value of < = 0.001 for both types of resistance), with relative over-representation of Beijing strains in the latter category. However, there was no significant difference among Saudi and non-Saudi TB patients regarding distribution of phylogenetic lineages (p = 0.311). Moreover, 59.5% (22/37) of the strain molecular clusters were shared between the Saudi born and immigrant TB patients.
Specific distribution of M. tuberculosis phylogeographic lineages is not observed between the autochthonous and foreign-born populations. These observations might reflect both socially favored ongoing TB transmission between the two population groups, and historically deep-rooted, prolonged contacts and trade relations of the peninsula with other world regions. More vigorous surveillance and strict adherence to tuberculosis control policies are urgently needed in the country.
Helicobacter pylori is the strongest known risk factor for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma. H. pylori expresses a repertoire of virulence factors that increase gastric cancer risk, including the cag pathogenicity island and the vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA). One host element that promotes carcinogenesis within the gastrointestinal tract is Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5), a transcription factor that mediates key cellular functions. To define the role of KLF5 within the context of H. pylori-induced inflammation and injury, human gastric epithelial cells were co-cultured with the wild-type cag+ H. pylori strain 60190. KLF5 expression was significantly upregulated following co-culture with H. pylori, but increased expression was independent of the cag island or VacA. To translate these findings into an in vivo model, C57BL/6 mice were challenged with the wild-type rodent-adapted cag+ H. pylori strain PMSS1 or a PMSS1 cagE− isogenic mutant. Similar to findings in vitro, KLF5 staining was significantly enhanced in gastric epithelium of H. pylori-infected compared to uninfected mice and this was independent of the cag island. Flow cytometry revealed that the majority of KLF5+ cells also stained positively for the stem cell marker, Lrig1, and KLF5+/Lrig1+ cells were significantly increased in H. pylori-infected versus uninfected tissue. To extend these results into the natural niche of this pathogen, levels of KLF5 expression were assessed in human gastric biopsies isolated from patients with or without premalignant lesions. Levels of KLF5 expression increased in parallel with advancing stages of neoplastic progression, being significantly elevated in gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia compared to normal gastric tissue. These results indicate that H. pylori induces expression of KLF5 in gastric epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo, and that the degree of KLF5 expression parallels the severity of premalignant lesions in human gastric carcinogenesis.
The envelope protein (E1–E2) of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major component of the viral structure. The glycosylated envelope protein is considered to be important for initiation of infection by binding to cellular receptor(s) and also known as one of the major antigenic targets to host immune response. The present study was aimed at identifying mouse monoclonal antibodies which inhibit binding of virus like particles of HCV to target cells. The first step in this direction was to generate recombinant HCV-like particles (HCV-LPs) specific for genotypes 3a of HCV (prevalent in India) using the genes encoding core, E1 and E2 envelop proteins in a baculovirus expression system. The purified HCV-LPs were characterized by ELISA and electron microscopy and were used to generate monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in mice. Two monoclonal antibodies (E8G9 and H1H10) specific for the E2 region of envelope protein of HCV genotype 3a, were found to reduce the virus binding to Huh7 cells. However, the mAbs generated against HCV genotype 1b (D2H3, G2C7, E1B11) were not so effective. More importantly, mAb E8G9 showed significant inhibition of the virus entry in HCV JFH1 cell culture system. Finally, the epitopic regions on E2 protein which bind to the mAbs have also been identified. Results suggest a new therapeutic strategy and provide the proof of concept that mAb against HCV-LP could be effective in preventing virus entry into liver cells to block HCV replication.
A unique event in bacterial epidemiology was the emergence of the El Tor biotype of Vibrio cholerae O1 and the subsequent rapid displacement of the existing classical biotype as the predominant cause of epidemic cholera. We demonstrate that when the El Tor and classical biotypes were cocultured in standard laboratory medium a precipitous decline in colony forming units (CFU) of the classical biotype occurred in a contact dependent manner. Several lines of evidence including DNA release, microscopy and flow cytometric analysis indicated that the drastic reduction in CFU of the classical biotype in cocultures was not accompanied by lysis, although when the classical biotype was grown individually in monocultures, lysis of the cells occurred concomitant with decrease in CFU starting from late stationary phase. Furthermore, uptake of a membrane potential sensitive dye and protection of genomic DNA from extracellular DNase strongly suggested that the classical biotype cells in cocultures retained viability in spite of loss of culturability. These results suggest that coculturing the classical biotype with the El Tor biotype protects the former from lysis allowing the cells to remain viable in spite of the loss of culturability. The stationary phase sigma factor RpoS may have a role in the loss of culturability of the classical biotype in cocultures. Although competitive exclusion of closely related strains has been reported for several bacterial species, conversion of the target bacterial population to the viable non-culturable state has not been demonstrated previously and may have important implications in the evolution of bacterial strains.
Among enteric pathogens, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is responsible for the largest number of food-borne outbreaks and fatalities. The ability of the pathogen to cause systemic infection for extended durations leads to a high cost of disease control. Chronic carriers play important roles in the evolution of Salmonella Typhi; therefore, identification and in-depth characterization of isolates from clinical cases and carriers, especially those from zones of endemicity where the pathogen has not been extensively studied, are necessary. Here, we describe the genome sequence of the highly virulent Salmonella Typhi strain BL196/05 isolated during the outbreak of typhoid in Kelantan, Malaysia, in 2005. The whole-genome sequence and comparative genomics of this strain should enable us to understand the virulence mechanisms and evolutionary dynamics of this pathogen in Malaysia and elsewhere.
Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α, is a paracrine inhibitor of melanocytes, which plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases including vitiligo, as abnormal immune responses have frequently been observed in vitiligo patients. Moreover, vitiligo patients show higher lesion levels of TNF-α. Genetic polymorphisms in the promoter region of TNF-α are involved in the regulation of its expression. The present study explores TNF-α promoter polymorphisms and correlates them with TNF-α transcript and protein levels in vitiligo patients and controls of Gujarat along with its effect on disease onset and progression. PCR-RFLP technique was used for genotyping of these polymorphisms in 977 vitiligo patients and 990 controls. TNF-α transcript and protein levels were measured by Real time PCR and ELISA respectively. The genotype and allele frequencies for the investigated polymorphisms were significantly associated with vitiligo patients. The study revealed significant increase in TNF-α transcript and protein levels in vitiligo patients compared to controls. In particular, haplotypes: AATCC, AACCT, AGTCT, GATCT, GATCC and AGCCT were found to increase the TNF-α levels in vitiligo patients. Analysis of TNF-α levels based on the gender and disease progression suggests that female patients and patients with active vitiligo had higher levels of TNF-α. Also, the TNF-α levels were high in patients with generalized vitiligo as compared to localized vitiligo. Age of onset analysis of the disease suggests that the haplotypes: AACAT, AACCT, AATCC and AATCT had a profound effect in the early onset of the disease. Moreover, the analysis suggests that female patients had an early onset of vitiligo. Overall, our results suggest that TNF-α promoter polymorphisms may be genetic risk factors for susceptibility and progression of the disease. The up-regulation of TNF-α transcript and protein levels in individuals with susceptible haplotypes advocates the crucial role of TNF-α in autoimmune pathogenesis of vitiligo.
It has been debated how different farming systems influence the composition of soil bacterial communities, which are crucial for maintaining soil health. In this research, we applied high-throughput pyrosequencing of V1 to V3 regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes to gain further insight into how organic and conventional farming systems and crop rotation influence bulk soil bacterial communities. A 2×2 factorial experiment consisted of two agriculture management systems (organic versus conventional) and two crop rotations (flax-oat-fababean-wheat versus flax-alfalfa-alfalfa-wheat) was conducted at the Glenlea Long-Term Crop Rotation and Management Station, which is Canada’s oldest organic-conventional management study field. Results revealed that there is a significant difference in the composition of bacterial genera between organic and conventional management systems but crop rotation was not a discriminator factor. Organic farming was associated with higher relative abundance of Proteobacteria, while Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi were more abundant in conventional farming. The dominant genera including Blastococcus, Microlunatus, Pseudonocardia, Solirubrobacter, Brevundimonas, Pseudomonas, and Stenotrophomonas exhibited significant variation between the organic and conventional farming systems. The relative abundance of bacterial communities at the phylum and class level was correlated to soil pH rather than other edaphic properties. In addition, it was found that Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were more sensitive to pH variation.
Salmonella Typhi is a human restricted pathogen with a significant number of individuals as asymptomatic carriers of the bacterium. Salmonella infection can be effectively controlled if a reliable method for identification of these carriers is developed. In this context, the availability of whole genomes of carrier strains through high- throughput sequencing and further downstream analysis by comparative genomics approaches is very promising. Herein we describe the genome sequence of a Salmonella Typhi isolate representing an asymptomatic carrier individual during a prolonged outbreak of typhoid fever in Kelantan, Malaysia. Putative genomic coordinates relevant in pathogenesis and persistence of this carrier strain are identified and discussed.
For women with recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTI), the contribution of antibiotic use versus patient-related factors in determining the presence of antimicrobial resistance in faecal and urinary Escherichia coli, obtained from the same patient population, has not been assessed yet. Within the context of the ‘Non-antibiotic prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infections’ (NAPRUTI) study, the present study assessed determinants of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolated from urinary and faecal samples of women with rUTIs collected at baseline. Potential determinants of resistance were retrieved from self-administered questionnaires. From 434 asymptomatic women, 433 urinary and 424 faecal samples were obtained. E. coli was isolated from 146 (34%) urinary samples and from 336 (79%) faecal samples, and subsequently tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Multivariable analysis showed trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) use three months prior to inclusion to be associated with urine E. coli resistance to amoxicillin (OR 3.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.3–9.9), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (OR 4.4, 1.5–13.3), trimethoprim (OR 3.9, 1.4–10.5) and SXT (OR 3.2, 1.2–8.5), and with faecal E. coli resistance to trimethoprim (OR 2.0, 1.0–3.7). The number of UTIs in the preceding year was correlated with urine E. coli resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (OR 1.11, 1.01–1.22), trimethoprim (OR 1.13, 1.03–1.23) and SXT (OR 1.10, 1.01–1.19). Age was predictive for faecal E. coli resistance to amoxicillin (OR 1.02, 1.00–1.03), norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin (both OR 1.03, 1.01–1.06). In conclusion, in women with rUTI different determinants were found for urinary and faecal E. coli resistance. Previous antibiotic use and UTI history were associated with urine E. coli resistance and age was a predictor of faecal E. coli resistance. These associations could best be explained by cumulative antibiotic use.
The remarkable advance in sequencing technology and the rising interest in medical and environmental microbiology, biotechnology, and synthetic biology resulted in a deluge of published microbial genomes. Yet, genome annotation, comparison, and modeling remain a major bottleneck to the translation of sequence information into biological knowledge, hence computational analysis tools are continuously being developed for rapid genome annotation and interpretation. Among the earliest, most comprehensive resources for prokaryotic genome analysis, the SEED project, initiated in 2003 as an integration of genomic data and analysis tools, now contains >5,000 complete genomes, a constantly updated set of curated annotations embodied in a large and growing collection of encoded subsystems, a derived set of protein families, and hundreds of genome-scale metabolic models. Until recently, however, maintaining current copies of the SEED code and data at remote locations has been a pressing issue. To allow high-performance remote access to the SEED database, we developed the SEED Servers (http://www.theseed.org/servers): four network-based servers intended to expose the data in the underlying relational database, support basic annotation services, offer programmatic access to the capabilities of the RAST annotation server, and provide access to a growing collection of metabolic models that support flux balance analysis. The SEED servers offer open access to regularly updated data, the ability to annotate prokaryotic genomes, the ability to create metabolic reconstructions and detailed models of metabolism, and access to hundreds of existing metabolic models. This work offers and supports a framework upon which other groups can build independent research efforts. Large integrations of genomic data represent one of the major intellectual resources driving research in biology, and programmatic access to the SEED data will provide significant utility to a broad collection of potential users.
Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine, which regulates balance between TH1 and TH2 immune response, immunoglobulin class switching and humoral immunity. Polymorphisms in this gene have been reported to affect the risk of infectious and autoimmune diseases.
We have analyzed three regulatory IL-4 polymorphisms; -590C>T, -34C>T and 70 bp intron-3 VNTR, in 4216 individuals; including: (1) 430 ethnically matched case-control groups (173 severe malaria, 101 mild malaria and 156 asymptomatic); (2) 3452 individuals from 76 linguistically and geographically distinct endogamous populations of India, and (3) 334 individuals with different ancestry from outside India (84 Brazilian, 104 Syrian, and 146 Vietnamese).
The -590T, -34T and intron-3 VNTR R2 alleles were found to be associated with reduced malaria risk (P<0.001 for -590C>T and -34C>T, and P = 0.003 for VNTR). These three alleles were in strong LD (r2>0.75) and the TTR2 (-590T, -34T and intron-3 VNTR R2) haplotype appeared to be a susceptibility factor for malaria (P = 0.009, OR = 0.552, 95% CI = 0.356 –0.854). Allele and genotype frequencies differ significantly between caste, nomadic, tribe and ancestral tribal populations (ATP). The distribution of protective haplotype TTR2 was found to be significant (χ23 = 182.95, p-value <0.001), which is highest in ATP (40.5%); intermediate in tribes (33%); and lowest in caste (17.8%) and nomadic (21.6%).
Our study suggests that the IL-4 polymorphisms regulate host susceptibility to malaria and disease progression. TTR2 haplotype, which gives protection against malaria, is high among ATPs. Since they inhabited in isolation and mainly practice hunter-gatherer lifestyles and exposed to various parasites, IL-4 TTR2 haplotype might be under positive selection.
Helicobacter pylori colonises the gastric mucosa of humans. The majority of organisms live in mucus. These organisms are an important reservoir for infection of the underlying epithelium. Cell culture models for H. pylori infection do not normally possess a mucus layer. The interaction of H. pylori with TFF1, a member of the trefoil factor family found in gastric mucin, is mediated by lipopolysaccharide. To test the hypothesis that the interaction of H. pylori with TFF1 promotes mucus colonization we characterised the interaction of H. pylori with a mucus secreting cell line, HT29-MTX-E12. An isogenic mutant of H. pylori with truncated core oligosaccharides was produced and binding to TFF1 and ability to colonise HT29-MTX-E12 cells determined. The adherent mucus layer of HT29-MTX-E12 cells contained the gastric mucin MUC5AC and trefoil factors, TFF1 and TFF3. H. pylori was found within the mucus layer in discrete clusters and in close association with TFF1. It also interacted with the membrane bound mucin MUC1 and replicated when co-cultured with the cells. An isogenic mutant of H. pylori with a truncated LPS core did not interact with TFF1, and colonization of HT29-MTX-E12 cells was reduced compared to the wild-type strain (p<0.05). Preincubation of cells with wild type LPS but not with truncated LPS resulted in reduced colonization by H. pylori. These results demonstrate that the interaction of TFF1 with H. pylori is important for colonization of gastric mucus and the core oligosaccharide of H. pylori LPS is critical for this interaction to occur. HT29-MTX-E12 cells are a useful system with which to study the interaction of bacteria with mucosal surfaces and the effect of such interactions on mediating colonization.
Legionellosis is mostly caused by Legionella pneumophila (Lp) and is defined by a severe respiratory illness with a case fatality rate ranging from 5 to 80%. In a previous study, we showed that a glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-binding adhesin of Lp, named Lcl, is produced during legionellosis and is unique to the L. pneumophila species. Importantly, a mutant depleted in Lcl (Δlpg2644) is impaired in adhesion to GAGs and epithelial cells and in biofilm formation. Here, we examine the molecular function(s) of Lcl and the transcriptional regulation of its encoding gene during different stages of the biofilm development. We show that the collagen repeats and the C-terminal domains of Lcl are crucial for the production of biofilm. We present evidence that Lcl is involved in the early step of surface attachment but also in intercellular interactions. Furthermore, we address the relationship between Lcl gene regulation during biofilm formation and quorum sensing (QS). In a static biofilm assay, we show that Lcl is differentially regulated during growth phases and biofilm formation. Moreover, we show that the transcriptional regulation of lpg2644, mediated by a prototype of QS signaling homoserine lactone (3OC12-HSL), may play a role during the biofilm development. Thus, transcriptional down-regulation of lpg2644 may facilitate the dispersion of Lp to reinitiate biofilm colonization on a distal surface.
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is a zoonotic pathogen, a very slow growing bacterium which is difficult to isolate and passage in conventional laboratory culture. Although its association with Johne’s disease or paratuberculosis of cattle is well established, it has been only putatively linked to Crohn’s disease in humans. Further, MAP has been recently suggested to be a trigger for other autoimmune diseases such as type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Recently, some studies have indicated that exposure to MAP is associated with elevated levels of antibodies against MAP lysate although the exact mechanism and significance of the same remains unclear. Further, the cytokine profiles relevant in MAP associated diseases of humans and their exact role in the pathophysiology are not clearly known. We performed in vitro cytokine analyses after exposing different cultured human cells to the whole cell lysate of MAP and found that MAP lysate induces secretion of cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Also, it induces secretion of IL-8 by cultured human stomach adenocarcinoma cells (AGS) and PANC-1(human pancreatic carcinoma cell line) cells. We also found that MAP lysate induced cytotoxicity in PANC-1cells. Collectively, these results provide a much needed base-line data set of cytokines broadly signifying a MAP induced cellular response by human cells.
Understanding the evolutionary and genomic mechanisms responsible for turning the soil-derived saprophytic mycobacteria into lethal intracellular pathogens is a critical step towards the development of strategies for the control of mycobacterial diseases. In this context, Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) is of specific interest because of its unique immunological and evolutionary significance. Evolutionarily, it is the progenitor of opportunistic pathogens belonging to M. avium complex and is endowed with features that place it between saprophytic and pathogenic species. Herein, we have sequenced the complete MIP genome to understand its unique life style, basis of immunomodulation and habitat diversification in mycobacteria. As a case of massive gene acquisitions, 50.5% of MIP open reading frames (ORFs) are laterally acquired. We show, for the first time for Mycobacterium, that MIP genome has mosaic architecture. These gene acquisitions have led to the enrichment of selected gene families critical to MIP physiology. Comparative genomic analysis indicates a higher antigenic potential of MIP imparting it a unique ability for immunomodulation. Besides, it also suggests an important role of genomic fluidity in habitat diversification within mycobacteria and provides a unique view of evolutionary divergence and putative bottlenecks that might have eventually led to intracellular survival and pathogenic attributes in mycobacteria.
Survival and persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in the intestinal mucosa is associated with host immune tolerance. However, the initial events during MAP interaction with its host that lead to pathogen survival, granulomatous inflammation, and clinical disease progression are poorly defined. We hypothesize that immune tolerance is initiated upon initial contact of MAP with the intestinal Peyer's patch. To test our hypothesis, ligated ileal loops in neonatal calves were infected with MAP. Intestinal tissue RNAs were collected (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 hrs post-infection), processed, and hybridized to bovine gene expression microarrays. By comparing the gene transcription responses of calves infected with the MAP, informative complex patterns of expression were clearly visible. To interpret these complex data, changes in the gene expression were further analyzed by dynamic Bayesian analysis, and genes were grouped into the specific pathways and gene ontology categories to create a holistic model. This model revealed three different phases of responses: i) early (30 min and 1 hr post-infection), ii) intermediate (2, 4 and 8 hrs post-infection), and iii) late (12 hrs post-infection). We describe here the data that include expression profiles for perturbed pathways, as well as, mechanistic genes (genes predicted to have regulatory influence) that are associated with immune tolerance. In the Early Phase of MAP infection, multiple pathways were initiated in response to MAP invasion via receptor mediated endocytosis and changes in intestinal permeability. During the Intermediate Phase, perturbed pathways involved the inflammatory responses, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and cell-cell signaling. During the Late Phase of infection, gene responses associated with immune tolerance were initiated at the level of T-cell signaling. Our study provides evidence that MAP infection resulted in differentially regulated genes, perturbed pathways and specifically modified mechanistic genes contributing to the colonization of Peyer's patch.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are the leading bacterial cause of diarrhea to humans and farm animals. These ETEC strains produce heat-labile toxin (LT) and/or heat-stable toxins that include type I (STa), type II (STb), and enteroaggregative heat-stable toxin 1 (EAST1). LT, STa, and STb (in pigs) are proven the virulence determinants in ETEC diarrhea. However, significance of EAST1 in ETEC-associated diarrheal has not been determined, even though EAST1 is highly prevalent among ETEC strains.
In this study, we constructed E. coli strains to express EAST1 toxin as the only toxin and studied them in cell lines and five-day old gnotobiotic piglets to determine significance of EAST1 toxin. Data from in vitro studies indicated that EAST1 did not stimulate an increase of intracellular cyclic AMP or GMP levels in T-84 cells or porcine cell line IPEC-J2, nor did it enhance LT or STa toxin of ETEC strains in stimulation of cAMP or cGMP in T-84 cells. In addition, 5-day old gnotobiotic pigs challenged with E. coli strains expressing EAST1 as the only toxin did not developed diarrhea or signs of clinical disease during 72 h post-inoculation.
Results from this study indicated that EAST1 alone is not sufficient to cause diarrhea in five-day old gnotobiotic pigs, and suggest that EAST1 likely is not a virulence determinant in ETEC-associated diarrhea.
Small molecules with antioxidative properties have been implicated in amyloid disorders. Curcumin is the active ingredient present in turmeric and known for several biological and medicinal effects. Adequate evidence substantiates the importance of curcumin in Alzheimer's disease and recent evidence suggests its role in Prion and Parkinson's disease. However, contradictory effects have been suggested for Huntington's disease. This difference provided a compelling reason to investigate the effect of curcumin on glutamine-rich (Q-rich) and non-glutamine-rich (non Q-rich) amyloid aggregates in the well established yeast model system. Curcumin significantly inhibited the formation of htt72Q-GFP (a Q-rich) and Het-s-GFP (a non Q-rich) aggregates in yeast. We show that curcumin prevents htt72Q-GFP aggregation by down regulating Vps36, a component of the ESCRT-II (Endosomal sorting complex required for transport). Moreover, curcumin disrupted the htt72Q-GFP aggregates that were pre-formed in yeast and cured the yeast prion, [PSI+].
Periodontitis, one of the most common diseases in the world, is caused by a mixture of pathogenic bacteria and inflammatory host responses and often treated by antimicrobials as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP). Our study aims to elucidate explorative and descriptive temporal shifts in bacterial communities between patients treated by SRP alone versus SRP plus antibiotics. This is the first metagenomic study using an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Eight subgingival plaque samples from four patients with chronic periodontitis, taken before and two months after intervention were analyzed. Amplicons from the V6 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene were generated and sequenced each on a 314 chip. Sequencing reads were clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 3% distance), described by community metrics, and taxonomically classified. Reads ranging from 599,933 to 650,416 per sample were clustered into 1,648 to 2,659 non-singleton OTUs, respectively. Increased diversity (Shannon and Simpson) in all samples after therapy was observed regardless of the treatment type whereas richness (ACE) showed no correlation. Taxonomic analysis revealed different microbial shifts between both therapy approaches at all taxonomic levels. Most remarkably, the genera Porphyromonas, Tannerella, Treponema, and Filifactor all harboring periodontal pathogenic species were removed almost only in the group treated with SPR and antibiotics. For the species T. forsythia and P. gingivalis results were corroborated by real-time PCR analysis. In the future, hypothesis free metagenomic analysis could be the key in understanding polymicrobial diseases and be used for therapy monitoring. Therefore, as read length continues to increase and cost to decrease, rapid benchtop sequencers like the PGM might finally be used in routine diagnostic.
Influenza-vaccination rates among healthcare workers (HCW) remain low worldwide, even during the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic. In France, this vaccination is free but administered on a voluntary basis. We investigated the factors influencing HCW influenza vaccination.
In June–July 2010, HCW from wards of five French hospitals completed a cross-sectional survey. A multifaceted campaign aimed at improving vaccination coverage in this hospital group was conducted before and during the 2009 pandemic. Using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire, we assessed the relationships between seasonal (SIV) and pandemic (PIV) influenza vaccinations, and sociodemographic and professional characteristics, previous and current vaccination statuses, and 33 statements investigating 10 sociocognitive domains. The sociocognitive domains describing HCWs' SIV and PIV profiles were analyzed using the classification-and-regression–tree method.
Of the HCWs responding to our survey, 1480 were paramedical and 401 were medical with 2009 vaccination rates of 30% and 58% for SIV and 21% and 71% for PIV, respectively (p<0.0001 for both SIV and PIV vaccinations). Older age, prior SIV, working in emergency departments or intensive care units, being a medical HCW and the hospital they worked in were associated with both vaccinations; while work shift was associated only with PIV. Sociocognitive domains associated with both vaccinations were self-perception of benefits and health motivation for all HCW. For medical HCW, being a role model was an additional domain associated with SIV and PIV.
Both vaccination rates remained low. Vaccination mainly depended on self-determined factors and for medical HCW, being a role model.