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1.  Retraction of articles by T. Liu et al.  
Retraction of 29 articles by T. Liu et al..
A series of 29 papers by Liu et al. are retracted.
doi:10.1107/S1600536809049976
PMCID: PMC2980240  PMID: 21579904
2.  Expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor in keloid and hypertrophic scar 
Background
Keloid and hypertrophic scar (HS) are two pathological forms of excessive dermal fibrosis, which are due to aberrant wound-healing responses. Accumulating evidence suggests that aberrant activity of growth factors and increased numbers of growth factor receptors play an important role in the formation of pathological scar.
Aim
We examined the expression level of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-IR) in keloid, HS and normal skin.
Methods
IGF-IR expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and western blotting on tissues and fibroblasts from 30 patients, comprising 10 patients with keloid and 20 with HS (10 with immature and 10 with mature HS), and from 10 age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls.
Results
Immunoreactivity to IGF-IR was found in dermal fibroblasts of keloid (90%), immature HS, (80%) and mature HS (30%), but not in normal skin. There was no statistically significant difference in immunoreactivity scores between keloid and immature HS, but there was a significant difference (P < 0.01) between mature and immature HS. Real-time PCR and western blot analysis confirmed that there was high expression of IGF-IR in keloid and immature HS fibroblasts, but not in mature HS or normal skin fibroblasts. IGF-IR was expressed in the overlying epidermis, and there was no significant difference between the groups.
Conclusions
IGF-IR may be involved in the pathogenesis of keloid and HS. Given that IGF-IR are predominantly expressed on dermal fibroblasts, targeting of IGF-IR in fibroblasts may be of benefit to prevent scarring.
doi:10.1111/ced.12407
PMCID: PMC4232319  PMID: 25154292
4.  Simulation of fruit-set and trophic competition and optimization of yield advantages in six Capsicum cultivars using functional–structural plant modelling 
Annals of Botany  2010;107(5):793-803.
Background and aims
Many indeterminate plants can have wide fluctuations in the pattern of fruit-set and harvest. Fruit-set in these types of plants depends largely on the balance between source (assimilate supply) and sink strength (assimilate demand) within the plant. This study aims to evaluate the ability of functional–structural plant models to simulate different fruit-set patterns among Capsicum cultivars through source–sink relationships.
Methods
A greenhouse experiment of six Capsicum cultivars characterized with different fruit weight and fruit-set was conducted. Fruit-set patterns and potential fruit sink strength were determined through measurement. Source and sink strength of other organs were determined via the GREENLAB model, with a description of plant organ weight and dimensions according to plant topological structure established from the measured data as inputs. Parameter optimization was determined using a generalized least squares method for the entire growth cycle.
Key Results and Conclusions
Fruit sink strength differed among cultivars. Vegetative sink strength was generally lower for large-fruited cultivars than for small-fruited ones. The larger the size of the fruit, the larger variation there was in fruit-set and fruit yield. Large-fruited cultivars need a higher source–sink ratio for fruit-set, which means higher demand for assimilates. Temporal heterogeneity of fruit-set affected both number and yield of fruit. The simulation study showed that reducing heterogeneity of fruit-set was obtained by different approaches: for example, increasing source strength; decreasing vegetative sink strength, source–sink ratio for fruit-set and flower appearance rate; and harvesting individual fruits earlier before full ripeness. Simulation results showed that, when we increased source strength or decreased vegetative sink strength, fruit-set and fruit weight increased. However, no significant differences were found between large-fruited and small-fruited groups of cultivars regarding the effects of source and vegetative sink strength on fruit-set and fruit weight. When the source–sink ratio at fruit-set decreased, the number of fruit retained on the plant increased competition for assimilates with vegetative organs. Therefore, total plant and vegetative dry weights decreased, especially for large-fruited cultivars. Optimization study showed that temporal heterogeneity of fruit-set and ripening was predicted to be reduced when fruits were harvested earlier. Furthermore, there was a 20 % increase in the number of extra fruit set.
doi:10.1093/aob/mcq223
PMCID: PMC3077981  PMID: 21097946
Source–sink relationship; fruit-set pattern; functional–structural models; Capsicum annuum
5.  Energy Product Options for Eucalyptus Species Grown as Short Rotation Woody Crops 
Eucalyptus species are native to Australia but grown extensively worldwide as short rotation hardwoods for a variety of products and as ornamentals. We describe their general importance with specific emphasis on existing and emerging markets as energy products and the potential to maximize their productivity as short rotation woody crops. Using experience in Florida USA and similar locations, we document their current energy applications and assess their productivity as short-term and likely long-term energy and related products.
doi:10.3390/ijms9081361
PMCID: PMC2635734  PMID: 19325808
Eucalyptus; Eucalyptus grandis; Eucalyptus amplifolia; Corymbia torelliana; short rotation woody crops; ethanol; biofuels, silvichemicals
6.  catena-Poly[[(nitrato-κO)(1,10-phenanthroline-κ2 N,N′)manganese(II)]-μ-nitrato-κ2 O:O′] 
In the crystal structure of the title compound, [Mn(NO3)2(C12H8N2)]n, the MnII atoms are linked by nitrate ligands to form a chain. Each MnII atom is five-coordinated by two N atoms of a 1,10-phenanthroline ligand and three O atoms of two nitrates within a trigonal-bipyramidal coordination geometry. In the crystal structure, the chains are linked by hydrogen bonds into a polymeric ribbon structure.
doi:10.1107/S160053680706254X
PMCID: PMC2914918  PMID: 21200602
7.  Preconditioning rabbit cardiomyocytes: role of pH, vacuolar proton ATPase, and apoptosis. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1996;97(10):2391-2398.
Ischemic preconditioning signals through protein kinase C (PKC) to protect against myocardial infarction. This protection is characterized by diminished intracellular acidification. Acidification is also a feature of apoptosis, and several agents act to prevent apoptosis by preventing acidification through activation of ion channels and pumps to promote cytoplasmic alkalinization. We characterized metabolic inhibition, recovery, and preconditioning through a PKC-dependent pathway in cardiomyocytes isolated from adult rabbit hearts. Preconditioning reduced loss of viability assessed by morphology and reduced DNA nicking. Blockade of the vacuolar proton ATPase (VPATPase) prevented the effect of preconditioning to reduce metabolic inhibition-induced acidosis, loss of viability, and DNA nicking. The beneficial effect of Na+/H+ exchange inhibition, which is thought to be effective through reduced intracellular Na+ and Ca++, was also abrogated by VPATPase blockade, suggesting that acidification even in the absence of Na+/H+ exchange may lead to cell death. We conclude that a target of PKC in mediating preconditioning is activation of the VPATPase with resultant attenuation of intracellular acidification during metabolic inhibition. Inhibition of the "death protease," interleukin-1-beta converting enzyme or related enzymes, also protected against the injury that followed metabolic inhibition. This observation, coupled with the detection of DNA nicking in cells subjected to metabolic inhibition, suggests that apoptotic cell death may be preventable in this model of ischemia/reperfusion injury.
PMCID: PMC507321  PMID: 8636421
8.  The ability of simian virus 40 large T antigen to immortalize primary mouse embryo fibroblasts cosegregates with its ability to bind to p53. 
Journal of Virology  1991;65(12):6872-6880.
The large T antigen encoded by simian virus 40 (SV40) plays essential roles in the infection of permissive cells, leading to production of progeny virions, and in the infection of nonpermissive cells, leading to malignant transformation. Primary mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) are nonpermissive for SV40, and infection by wild-type SV40 leads to immortalization and transformation of a small percentage of infected cells. We examined the ability of an extensive set of mutants whose lesions affect SV40 large T antigen to immortalize MEFs. We found that immortalization activity was retained by all mutants whose lesions are located upstream of codon 346. This includes a mutant lacking amino acids 168 to 346. We previously showed (M. J. Tevethia, J. M. Pipas, T. Kierstead, and C. Cole, Virology 162:76-89, 1988) that sequences downstream of amino acid 626 are not required for immortalization of primary MEFs. Studies by Thompson et al. (D. L. Thompson, D. Kalderon, A. Smith, and M. Tevethia, Virology 178:15-34, 1990) indicate that all sequences upstream of residue 250, including the domain for binding of tumor suppressor protein Rb, are not required for transformation of MEFs. Together, these studies demonstrate that the immortalization activity of large T antigen for MEFs maps to sequences between 347 and 626. Several mutants with lesions between 347 and 626 retained the ability to immortalize at nearly the wild-type frequency, while others, with small insertions at amino acid 409 or 424 or a deletion of residues 587 to 589, failed to immortalize. The abilities of mutant T antigens to form a complex with tumor suppressor protein p53 were examined. We found that all mutants able to immortalize retained the ability to complex with p53, while all mutants which lost the ability to immortalize were no longer able to bind p53. This suggests that inactivation of the growth-suppressive properties of p53 is essential for immortalization of MEFs.
Images
PMCID: PMC250785  PMID: 1658380
9.  Mapping the transcriptional transactivation function of simian virus 40 large T antigen. 
Journal of Virology  1991;65(6):2778-2790.
T antigen is able to transactivate gene expression from the simian virus 40 (SV40) late promoter and from several other viral and cellular promoters. Neither the mechanisms of transactivation by T antigen nor the regions of T antigen required for this activity have been determined. To address the latter point, we have measured the ability of a set of SV40 large T antigen mutants to stimulate gene expression in CV-1 monkey kidney cells from the SV40 late promoter and Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter. Transactivation, although reduced, was retained by an N-terminal 138-amino-acid fragment of T antigen. Mutants with alterations at various locations within the N-terminal 85 amino acids transactivated the RSV LTR promoter less well than did wild-type T antigen. Most of these were also partially defective in their ability to transactivate the SV40 late promoter. Two mutants with lesions in the DNA-binding domain that were unable to bind to SV40 DNA were completely defective for transactivation of both promoter, while a third mutant with a lesion in the DNA-binding domain which retained origin-binding activity transactivated both promoters as well as did wild-type T antigen. Only a low level of transactivation was seen with mutant T antigens which had lesions in or near the zinc finger region (amino acids 300 to 350). Mutations which caused defects in ATPase activity, host range/helper function, binding to p53, binding to the retinoblastoma susceptibility protein, or nuclear localization had little or no effect on transactivation. These results suggest that N-terminal portion of T antigen possesses an activation activity. The data are consistent with the idea that the overall conformation of T antigen is important for transactivation and that mutations in other regions that reduce or eliminate transactivation do so by altering the conformation or orientation of the N-terminal region so that its ability to interact with various targets is diminished or abolished.
Images
PMCID: PMC240892  PMID: 1851853
10.  Linker insertion mutants of simian virus 40 large T antigen that show trans-dominant interference with wild-type large T antigen map to multiple sites within the T-antigen gene. 
Journal of Virology  1989;63(11):4777-4786.
Linker insertion mutants affecting the simian virus 40 (SV40) large tumor (T) antigen were constructed by inserting a 12-base-pair oligonucleotide linker into restriction endonuclease cleavage sites located within the early region of SV40. One mutant, with the insertion at amino acid 5, was viable in CV-1p and BSC-1 cells, indicating that sequences very close to the amino terminus of large T could be altered without affecting the lytic infection cycle of SV40. All other mutants affecting large T were not viable. In complementation assays between the linker insertion mutants and either a late-gene mutant, dlBC865, or a host range/helper function (hr/hf) mutant, dlA2475, delayed complementation was seen with the 6 of the 10 nonviable mutants. Of these 10 mutants, 5 formed plaques 3 to 4 days later than in control complementations, while complementation by one of the mutants, inA2827, with an insertion at amino acid 520, was delayed more than 1 week. Most mutants which showed delayed complementation replicated less well in Cos-1 cells than did a control mutant, dlA1209, which produced no T antigen. The replication of inA2827(aa520) was reduced by more than 90%. Similar interference with viral DNA replication was seen when CV-1, HeLa, or 293 cells were cotransfected with an origin-defective plasmid encoding wild-type large T antigen and with inA2827(aa520). Only one of the mutant T antigens, inA2807(aa303), was unstable. These results indicate that some of the mutant T antigens interfered with functions of wild-type T required for viral DNA replication. However, not all of the mutants which showed delayed complementation also showed interference with viral DNA replication. This indicates that mutant large T antigens may interfere trans dominantly with multiple activities of wild-type large T antigen.
Images
PMCID: PMC251115  PMID: 2552152

Results 1-10 (10)