Background and Aims
It is widely accepted that fruit-set in plants is related to source–sink ratio. Despite its critical importance to yield, prediction of fruit-set remains an ongoing problem in crop models. Functional–structural plant models are potentially able to simulate organ-level plasticity of plants. To predict fruit-set, the quantitative link between source–sink ratio and fruit-set probability is analysed here via a functional–structural plant model, GreenLab.
Two experiments, each with four plant densities, were carried out in a solar greenhouse during two growth seasons (started in spring and autumn). Dynamic fruit-set probability was estimated by frequent observation on inflorescences. Source and sink parameter values were obtained by fitting GreenLab outputs for the biomass of plant parts (lamina, petiole, internode, fruit), at both organ and plant level, to corresponding destructive measurements at six dates from real plants. The dynamic source–sink ratio was calculated as the ratio between biomass production and plant demand (sum of all organ sink strength) per growth cycle, both being outputs of the model.
Key Results and Conclusions
Most sink parameters were stable over multiple planting densities and seasons. From planting, source–sink ratio increased in the vegetative stage and reached a peak after fruit-set commenced, followed by a decrease of leaf appearance rate. Fruit-set probability was correlated with the source–sink ratio after the appearance of flower buds. The relationship between fruit-set probability and the most correlated source–sink ratio could be quantified by a single regression line for both experiments. The current work paves the way to predicting dynamic fruit-set using a functional structure model.
Tomato; Solanum lycopersicum; fruit-set probability; time step; source–sink ratio; sink strength; functional–structural plant model; inverse modelling; plant plasticity
Myleodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are premalignant diseases characterized by cytopenias, myeloid dysplasia, immune dysregulation with association to autoimmunity, and variable risk for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) transformation. Studies of Forkhead-box P3 (FoxP3)+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs) indicate that the number and/or activation state may influence cancer progression in these patients. Focusing on patients with a lower-risk for leukemia transformation, 18 (34.6%) of 52 patients studied displayed an altered Treg compartment compared to age-matched controls. Delineation of unique Treg subsets revealed that an increase in the absolute number of CD4(+)FoxP3(+)CD25(+)CD127(low)CD45RA(−)CD27(−) Tregs (effector memory Tregs; TregEM) was significantly associated with anemia (p=0.046), reduced hemoglobin (p=0.038), and blast counts ≥5% (p=0.006). In healthy donors, this TregEM population constitutes only 2% of all Tregs (1–6 Treg cells/μl) in peripheral blood, but when isolated, exhibit greater suppressive activity in vitro. With a median follow-up of 3.1 years (range-2.7 to 4.9) from sample acquisition, increased numbers of TregEM cells proved to have independent prognostic importance in survival estimates suggesting that enumeration of this Treg subset may be a more reliable indicator of immunological escape than FoxP3+ T-cells as a whole. Based on multivariate analyses, TregEM impacted survival independently from myeloblast characteristics, cytopenias, karyotype and comorbidities. Based on these findings, TregEM cell expansion may be synonymous with human Treg activation and indicate microenvironmental changes conducive to transformation in MDS.
The goal of the current study was to evaluate whether CYP2E1 plays a role in binge-ethanol induced steatosis and if autophagy impacts CYP2E1-mediated hepatotoxicity, oxidative stress and fatty liver formation produced by ethanol. Wild type (WT), CYP2E1 knockin (KI) and CYP2E1 knockout (KO) mice were gavaged with 3g/kg body wt ethanol twice a day for four days. This treatment caused fatty liver, elevation of CYP2E1 and oxidative stress in WT and KI mice but not KO mice. Autophagy was impaired in ethanol-treated KI mice compared to KO mice as reflected by a decline in the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and lower total LC-3 and Beclin-1 levels coupled to increases in P62, pAKT/AKT and mTOR. Inhibition of macroautophagy by administration of 3-methyladenine enhanced the binge ethanol hepatotoxicity, steatosis and oxidant stress in CYP2E1 KI, but not CYP2E1 KO mice. Stimulation of autophagy by rapamycin blunted the elevated steatosis produced by binge ethanol. Treatment of HepG2 E47 cells which express CYP2E1 with 100 mM ethanol for 8 days increased fat accumulation and oxidant stress but decreased autophagy. Ethanol had no effect on these reactions in HepG2 C34 cells which do not express CYP2E1. Inhibition of autophagy elevated ethanol toxicity, lipid accumulation and oxidant stress in the E47, but not C34 cells. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, and CYP2E1 inhibitor chlormethiazole blunted these effects of ethanol. These results indicate that CYP2E1 plays an important role in binge ethanol-induced fatty liver. We propose that CYP2E1-derived reactive oxygen species inhibit autophagy, which subsequently causes accumulation of lipid droplets. Inhibition of autophagy promotes binge ethanol induced hepatotoxicity, steatosis and oxidant stress via CYP2E1.
Binge ethanol; Autophagy; Steatosis; hepatotoxicity; CYP2E1; Oxidative Stress
Recent evidences show that cationic fluxes play a pivotal role in cell apoptosis. In this study, the roles of Cl− channels in paclitaxel-induced apoptosis were investigated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-2Z cells. Chloride current and apoptosis were induced by paclitaxel and inhibited by chloride channel blockers. Paclitaxel-activated current possessed similar properties to volume-activated chloride current. After ClC-3 was knocked-down by ClC-3-siRNA, hypotonicity-activated and paclitaxel-induced chloride currents were obviously decreased, indicating that the chloride channel involved in paclitaxel-induced apoptosis may be ClC-3. In early apoptotic cells, ClC-3 was up-regulated significantly; over-expressed ClC-3 was accumulated in cell membrane to form intercrossed filaments, which were co-localized with α-tubulins; changes of ultrastructures and decrease of flexibility in cell membrane were detected by atomic force microscopy. These suggest that ClC-3 is a critical target of paclitaxel and the involvement of ClC-3 in apoptosis may be associated with its accumulation with membrane microtubules and its over activation.
Binge alcohol drinking induces hepatic steatosis. Recent studies showed that chronic ethanol-induced fatty liver was, at least in part, CYP2E1 dependent. The mechanism of acute alcohol induced steatosis and whether CYP2E1 plays any role is still unclear. Increasing oxidative stress by alcohol can activate the JNK MAP kinase signaling pathway, suggesting that JNK might be a target for prevention of alcohol induced steatosis. We used CYP2E1 knockout (KO) mice, a JNK inhibitor, and JNK1 or JNK2 knockout mice to test the role of CYP2E1, JNK, and the individual role of JNK1 and JNK2 in acute alcohol-induced steatosis. In wild type (WT) mice, acute alcohol activates CYP2E1 and increases oxidative stress, which reciprocally increases activation of the JNK signaling pathway. Acute alcohol–induced fatty liver and oxidative stress was blunted in CYP2E1 KO mice and by the JNK inhibitor in WT mice. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine decreased the acute alcohol induced oxidative stress, activation of JNK and the steatosis but not the activation of CYP2E1. Acute alcohol decreased autophagy and increased expression of SREBP, effects blocked by the JNK inhibitor. Acute alcohol–induced fatty liver was the same in either JNK1 or JNK2 KO mice as WT mice, thus either JNK1 or JNK2 per se is sufficient in induction of steatosis by acute alcohol.
acute alcohol elevation of CYP2E1, oxidative stress and activation of JNK interact to lower autophagy and increase lipogenic SREBP resulting in fatty liver.
oxidative stress; CYP2E1; JNK; autophagy; liver steatosis
The Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis), a marine mammal species inhabited in the waters of Southeast Asia, South Africa and Australia, has attracted much attention because of the dramatic decline in population size in the past decades, which raises the concern of extinction. So far, this species is poorly characterized at molecular level due to little sequence information available in public databases. Recent advances in large-scale RNA sequencing provide an efficient approach to generate abundant sequences for functional genomic analyses in the species with un-sequenced genomes.
We performed a de novo assembly of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin leucocyte transcriptome by Illumina sequencing. 108,751 high quality sequences from 47,840,388 paired-end reads were generated, and 48,868 and 46,587 unigenes were functionally annotated by BLAST search against the NCBI non-redundant and Swiss-Prot protein databases (E-value<10−5), respectively. In total, 16,467 unigenes were clustered into 25 functional categories by searching against the COG database, and BLAST2GO search assigned 37,976 unigenes to 61 GO terms. In addition, 36,345 unigenes were grouped into 258 KEGG pathways. We also identified 9,906 simple sequence repeats and 3,681 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms as potential molecular markers in our assembled sequences. A large number of unigenes were predicted to be involved in immune response, and many genes were predicted to be relevant to adaptive evolution and cetacean-specific traits.
This study represented the first transcriptome analysis of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin, an endangered species. The de novo transcriptome analysis of the unique transcripts will provide valuable sequence information for discovery of new genes, characterization of gene expression, investigation of various pathways and adaptive evolution, as well as identification of genetic markers.
Fucoidans, fucose-enriched sulfated polysaccharides isolated from brown algae and marine invertebrates, have been shown to exert anticancer activity in several types of human cancer, including leukemia and breast cancer and in lung adenocarcinoma cells. In the present study, the anticancer activity of the fucoidan extracted from the brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida was investigated in human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells, and the underlying mechanisms of action were investigated. SMMC-7721 cells exposed to fucoidan displayed growth inhibition and several typical features of apoptotic cells, such as chromatin condensation and marginalization, a decrease in the number of mitochondria, and in mitochondrial swelling and vacuolation. Fucoidan-induced cell death was associated with depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), accumulation of high intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and accompanied by damage to the mitochondrial ultrastructure, depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, Δψm) and caspase activation. Moreover, fucoidan led to altered expression of factors related to apoptosis, including downregulating Livin and XIAP mRNA, which are members of the inhibitor of apoptotic protein (IAP) family, and increased the Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio. These findings suggest that fucoidan isolated from U. pinnatifida induced apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells via the ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway.
apoptosis; fucoidan; hepatocellular carcinoma; reactive oxygen species
Normative information is important for appropriate interpretation of cognitive test scores as a critical component of dementia diagnosis in the elderly population. A cross-sectional evaluation of 1826 participants aged 65 years and older from four rural counties in China was conducted using six cognitive instruments including tests of global cognitive function (the Community Screening Instrument for Dementia), Memory (Word List Learning and Recall tasks from the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease, IU Story), Language (Animal Fluency Test), and executive function (IU Token). Multiple regression models adjusting for demographic variables were used to provide standardized residuals z-scores and corresponding percentile ranking for each cognitive test. In all cognitive tests, older age was associated with worse test performance while exposure to education was related to better cognitive test performance. We also detected a significant gender difference with men scoring better than women and a significant gender by education interaction on two tests. The interaction indicates that gender difference in test scores was much smaller in participants with more education than those who had less or no education. These demographically adjusted, regression-based norms can be a useful tool to clinicians involved with differential diagnosis of cognitive and memory disorders in older adults in rural China.
Normative Study; Neuropsychological Test; Age; Gender; Education; Regression- Based Norms
TLR4 agonists can be used as adjuvants to trigger innate immune responses of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as dendritic cells (DCs) to enhance vaccine-specific immunity. Adjuvant effects of TLR4 agonists are mediated by downstream signaling controlled by both MyD88 and TRIF adapter proteins. In this study, we investigated the adjuvanting capacity of glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA), a chemically synthesized TLR4 agonist, to boost antigen-specific immunity elicited by DC-directed lentiviral vectors (DC-LV). We found that stimulation by this agonist in vitro can activate DCs in a TLR4-dependent manner. The agonist can significantly boost DC-LV-induced humoral and cellular immune responses, resulting in better antitumor reactions in response to tumor challenges. We observed that the adjuvant-mediated enhancement of cytotoxic CD8+ T cell responses is CD4+ T cell-dependent and determined that in vitro the agonist stimulation involves the participation of both MyD88 and TRIF pathways to activate DCs. In vivo immunization study however revealed that adjuvant effects depend more on the MyD88 signaling as TRIF-/- mice but not MyD88-/- mice were able to maintain the enhanced CD8+ T cell responses upon DC-LV immunization. Thus, our study supports the use of this TLR4 agonist as a potent adjuvant candidate for boosting DC-LV immunization.
adjuvant; TLR4 agonist; dendritic cells; MyD88; TRIF; lentiviral vector
Epidemiologic and clinical studies routinely collect longitudinal measures of multiple outcomes, including biomarker measures, cognitive functions, and clinical symptoms. These longitudinal outcomes can be used to establish the temporal order of relevant biological processes and their association with the onset of clinical symptoms. Univariate change point models have been used to model various clinical endpoints, such as CD4 count in studying the progression of HIV infection and cognitive function in the elderly. We propose to use bivariate change point models for two longitudinal outcomes with a focus on the correlation between the two change points. We consider three types of change point models in the bivariate model setting: the broken-stick model, the Bacon–Watts model, and the smooth polynomial model. We adopt a Bayesian approach using a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling method for parameter estimation and inference. We assess the proposed methods in simulation studies and demonstrate the methodology using data from a longitudinal study of dementia.
random change point model; longitudinal bivariate outcomes; Bayesian method
By suppressing expression of TRAF6 and IRAK1, miR-146a regulates NF-κB activation in T cells through a negative feedback loop and controls the resolution of T cell responses in mice.
T cell responses in mammals must be tightly regulated to both provide effective immune protection and avoid inflammation-induced pathology. NF-κB activation is a key signaling event induced by T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. Dysregulation of NF-κB is associated with T cell–mediated inflammatory diseases and malignancies, highlighting the importance of negative feedback control of TCR-induced NF-κB activity. In this study we show that in mice, T cells lacking miR-146a are hyperactive in both acute antigenic responses and chronic inflammatory autoimmune responses. TCR-driven NF-κB activation up-regulates the expression of miR-146a, which in turn down-regulates NF-κB activity, at least partly through repressing the NF-κB signaling transducers TRAF6 and IRAK1. Thus, our results identify miR-146a as an important new member of the negative feedback loop that controls TCR signaling to NF-κB. Our findings also add microRNA to the list of regulators that control the resolution of T cell responses.
The outcomes of surgical treatment and related complications of post-tubercular kyphotic (PTK) deformity of the cervical spine or the cervico-thoracic spine were evaluated.
From January 2005 to October 2010, 12 cases with PTK (7 males, 5 females) with an average age of 30 years (range 21–43 years) formed the study group. There were ten patients with cervical deformities and two with cervico-thoracic kyphosis. Neurological function of all the patients was evaluated by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score and visual analogue scale (VAS) score. Two patients with severe cervico-thoracic deformity received modified skeleton traction pre-operatively. Ten patients underwent anterior debridement and reconstruction, using iliac crest or cages with autografts, while two patients with cervico-thoracic kyphosis received posterior instrumentation and fusion.
The mean pre-operative focal kyphotic angle was 42.58° (range 30–67°), reducing to −8° (range −15–11°) postoperatively (at the last follow-up visit). The average operating time was 117.50 min (80–200 min) with an average blood loss of 110 ml (range 50–300 ml). Neurological assessment of all the patients, using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score and visual analogue scale (VAS) score, was improved significantly after surgery. All patients had solid fusion and no major complication was observed in the follow-up.
One-stage anterior debridement, instrumentation and fusion for cervical spinal TB and single posterior instrumentation for cervico-thoracic spinal TB followed by chemotherapy is practical to correct PTK. The procedure has the advantage of lower blood loss, effective kyphosis correction and minimal complications. To patients with severe deformity, skeletal traction seemed indispensible.
In nature, B cells produce surface immunoglobulin and secreted antibody from the same immunoglobulin gene via alternative splicing of the pre-messenger RNA. Here we present a novel system for genetically programming B cells to direct the simultaneous formation of membrane-bound and secreted immunoglobulins that we term a “Molecular Rheostat”, based on the use of mutated “self-cleaving” 2A peptides. The Molecular Rheostat is designed so that the ratio of secreted to membrane-bound immunoglobulins can be controlled by selecting appropriate mutations in the 2A peptide. Lentiviral transgenesis of Molecular Rheostat constructs into B cell lines enables the simultaneous expression of functional b12-based IgM-like BCRs that signal to the cells and mediate the secretion of b12 IgG broadly neutralizing antibodies that can bind and neutralize HIV-1 pseudovirus. We show that these b12-based Molecular Rheostat constructs promote the maturation of EU12 B cells in an in vitro model of B lymphopoiesis. The Molecular Rheostat offers a novel tool for genetically manipulating B cell specificity for B-cell based gene therapy.
CYP2E1 induction and TNF-α production are key risk factors in alcoholic liver injury. Increased oxidative stress from CYP2E1 induction by pyrazole in vivo sensitizes the liver to TNF-α-induced hepatotoxicity by a mechanism involving activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and mitochondrial damage. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether JNK1 or JNK2 plays a role in this potentiated hepatotoxicity. Wild type (wt), jnk1−/− and jnk2−/− mice were used to identify changes of hepatotoxicity, damage to mitochondria and production of oxidative stress following pyrazole plus TNF-α treatment. Increased serum ALT, inflammatory infiltration and central necrosis were observed in the jnk2−/− and wt mice treated with pyrazole plus TNF-α, but not in the jnk1−/− mice. Pyrazole elevated the activity and protein level of CYP2E1 in all mice. There was a significant increase of malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal adducts, 3-nitrotyrosine and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the jnk2−/− and wt mice compared to the jnk1−/− mice upon pyrazole plus TNF-α treatment, or compared to mice treated with either pyrazole alone or TNF-α alone. The antioxidants catalase, GPx-4, thioredoxin and glutathione were lowered and cytochrome c was released from the mitochondria in the jnk2−/− and wt mice. Mitochondrial production of superoxide was increased in the jnk2−/− and wt mice compared to the jnk1−/− mice upon pyrazole plus TNF-α treatment. Electron microscopy showed altered mitochondrial structure in the jnk2−/− and wt but not the jnk1−/− mice.
JNK1 plays a role in the hepatotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress mediated by pyrazole plus TNF-α treatment. These findings raise the question as to the potential mechanisms of JNK1 activation related to alcoholic liver injury.
Cytochrome P450 2e1; c-Jun N-terminal kinase; Oxidative stress; Liver injury; Mitochondrial damage
Despite the knowledge of many genetic alterations present in osteosarcoma, the complexity of this disease precludes placing its biology into a simple conceptual framework. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) catalyzes the cross-linking of elastin and collagen, which is essential for the structural integrity and function of bone tissue. In the current study, we performed genomic sequencing on all seven exons -including the intron-exon splice sites, and the putative promoter region of LOX gene - followed by luciferase reporter assay to analyze the function of newly identified polymorphisms. Associations between LOX polymorphisms and osteosarcoma were then evaluated. Our sequencing data revealed three polymorphisms (−22G/C, 225C/G, and 473G/A) in the exons and promoter region of LOX. The −22G/C polymorphism lies in the downstream core promoter element (DPE) region and caused a decrease in promoter activity of LOX. The prevalence of the −22C allele and 473A allele were significantly increased in osteosarcoma patients compared to controls (odds ratio [OR] = 3.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.94−7.78, p = 4.18×10−5, and OR = 1.38, 95%CI = 1.07−1.78, p = 0.013; p 0.0167 was considered significant after Bonferroni correction). Analyzing haplotype showed that the frequency of CCG haplotype (−22, 225, 473) was significantly higher in osteosarcoma cases than in healthy controls after Bonferroni correction (p = 4.46×10−4). These results indicate that the −22G/C polymorphism may affect the expression of LOX, and that −22G/C and 473G/A polymorphisms may be new risk factors for osteosarcoma. These findings reveal a potential new pathway by which genetic polymorphisms may affect human diseases.
Despite tremendous efforts, development of an effective vaccine against HIV has proved an elusive goal. Recently, however, numerous antibodies have been identified that are capable of neutralizing the vast majority of circulating HIV strains1–5. These antibodies all exhibit an unusually high level of somatic mutation6, presumably due to extensive affinity maturation over the course of continuous exposure to an evolving antigen7. While substantial effort has focused on the design of immunogens capable of eliciting antibodies de novo that would target similar epitopes8–10, it remains uncertain whether a conventional vaccine will be able to elicit analogs of the existing broadly neutralizing antibodies. As an alternative to immunization, vector-mediated gene transfer could be used to engineer secretion of the existing broadly neutralizing antibodies into the circulation. Here we describe a practical implementation of this approach, vectored immunoprophylaxis (VIP), which in mice induces lifelong expression of these monoclonal antibodies at high concentrations from a single intramuscular injection. This is achieved using a specialized adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector optimized for the production of full-length antibody from muscle tissue. We show that humanized mice receiving VIP appear to be fully protected from HIV infection even when challenged intravenously with very high doses of replication-competent virus. Our results suggest that successful translation of this approach to humans may produce effective prophylaxis against HIV.
HIV; antibody; prophylaxis; vaccine; AAV; humanized mice; T lymphocyte; VIP; engineered immunity
Thioredoxin is an important reducing molecule in biological systems. Increasing CYP2E1 activity induces oxidative stress and cell toxicity. However, whether thioredoxin protects cells against CYP2E1 induced oxidative stress and toxicity is unknown. SiRNA were used to knockdown either cytosolic (TRX-1) or mitochondrial thioredoxin (TRX-2) in HepG2 cells expressing CYP2E1 (E47 cells) or without expressing CYP2E1 (C34 cells). Cell viability decreased 40–60% in E47 but not C34 cells with 80–90% knockdown of either TRX-1 or TRX-2. Depletion of either thioredoxin also potentiated the toxicity by either a glutathione synthesis inhibitor or TNFα in E47 cells. Generation of reactive oxygen species and 4-HNE protein adducts increased in E47 but not C34 cells with either thioredoxin knockdown. GSH was decreased and adding GSH completely blocked E47 cell death induced by either thioredoxin knockdown. Lowering TRX-1 or TRX-2 in E47 cells caused an early activation of ASK-1, followed by phosphorylation of JNK1 after 48 hrs of siRNA treatment. JNK inhibitor caused a partial recovery of E47 cell viability after thioredoxin knockdown. In conclusion, knockdown of TRX-1 or TRX-2 sensitizes cells to CYP2E1 induced oxidant stress partially via ASK-1 and JNK1 signaling pathways. Both TRX-1 and TRX-2 are important for defense against CYP2E1-induced oxidative stress.
thioredoxin; CYP2E1; HepG2 cells; oxidative stress; cell toxicity
miR-182 is one of the most significantly up-regulated miRNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Metastasis suppressor 1 (MTSS1), one target gene of miR-182, plays an important role in the metastasis of cancers. However, it remains unclear what role does function and mechanism of miR-182 and MTSS1play in HCC.
miR-182 expression was tested in 86 cases of paired HCC and normal tissues by real-time PCR and the relationships between miR-182 expression and clinicopathological parameters were analyzed. The expression of MTSS1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blot in the above tissues and its correlation with miR-182 expression was analyzed. Moreover, western blot and invasion assays were performed after transfection of pre-miR-182 or anti-miR-182 to HCC cell lines. In addition, luciferase assays was performed to confirm the regulation of miR-182 on MTSS1.
Compared with normal tissue, miR-182 was up-regulated and MTSS1 was down-regulated in HCC tissues. Moreover, the over-expression of miR-182 was correlated with intrahepatic metastasis (p = 0.034) and poor prognosis (p = 0.039) of HCC patients. There was a negative correlation between miR-182 and MTSS1 expression in both HCC tissues (r = −0.673, p < 0.01) and HCC cell lines (r = −0.931, p = 0.021). Furthermore, the up-regulation of miR-182 resulted in the down-regulation of MTSS1 and increased invasive potential of HUH-1, and reverse results were also confirmed when the expression of miR-182 was inhibited. In addition, the results of the luciferase assay demonstrated the targeted regulation of miR-182 on MTSS1.
miR-182 could promote metastasis of HCC and inhibit the expression of MTSS1. miR-182 and MTSS1 are potential prognostic markers and/or therapeutic targets in HCC.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; miR-182; Metastasis suppressor 1; Metastasis
The complex molecule of the tetranuclear cubane-type title compound, [Cu4I4(C11H12N2O2)4], has crystallographically imposed fourfold inversion symmetry. The CuI ions are coordinated in a distorted tetrahedral geometry by an N atom of a benzimidazole ring system and three μ3-iodide ions, forming a Cu4I4 core. In the crystal, complex molecules are connected into a three-dimensional network by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving H and O atoms of adjacent ethoxycarbonyl groups.
Results showed good clinical outcomes of anterior corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) for patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) during a short term follow-up; however, studies assessing long term results are relatively scarce. In this study we intended to assess the long term clinical and radiographic outcomes, find out the factors that may affect the long term clinical outcome and evaluate the incidence of adjacent segment disease (ASD).
This is a retrospective study of 145 consecutive CSM patients on ACCF treatment with a minimum follow-up of 5 years. Clinical data were collected from medical and operative records. Patients were evaluated by using the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scoring system preoperatively and during the follow-up. X-rays results of cervical spine were obtained from all patients. Correlations between the long term clinical outcome and various factors were also analyzed.
Ninety-three males and fifty-two females completed the follow-up. The mean age at operation was 51.0 years, and the mean follow-up period was 102.1 months. Both postoperative sagittal segmental alignment (SSA) and the sagittal alignment of the whole cervical spine (SACS) increased significantly in terms of cervical lordosis. The mean increase of JOA was 3.8±1.3 postoperatively, and the overall recovery rate was 62.5%. Logistic regression analysis showed that preoperative duration of symptoms >12 months, high-intensity signal in spinal cord and preoperative JOA score ≤9 were important predictors of the fair recovery rate (≤50%). Repeated surgery due to ASD was performed in 7 (4.8%) cases.
ACCF with anterior plate fixation is a reliable and effective method for treating CSM in terms of JOA score and the recovery rate. The correction of cervical alignment and the repeated surgery rate for ASD are also considered to be satisfactory.
Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has been available in China for 8 years. This technique makes it possible to screen for a wide range of previously unscreened inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) using a single test. This 3-year pilot study investigated the screening, diagnosis, treatment and outcomes of IEM in symptomatic infants and children.
All children encountered in the Newborn Screening Center of Zhejiang Province during a 3-year period with symptoms suspicious for IEM were screened for metabolic diseases. Dried blood spots were collected and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. The diagnoses were further confirmed by clinical symptoms and biochemical analysis. Neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency, ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency and primary carnitine deficiency were confirmed by DNA analysis.
A total of 11,060 symptomatic patients (6,720 boys, 4,340 girls) with a median age of 28.8 months (range: 0.04-168.2 months) were screened. Among these, 62 were diagnosed with IEM, with a detection rate of 0.56%. Thirty-five were males and 27 females and the median age was 3.55 months (range 0.07-143.9 months). Of the 62 patients, 27 (43.5%) had aminoacidemias, 26 (41.9%) had organic acidemias and nine (14.5%) had fatty acid oxidation disorders.
Because most symptomatic patients are diagnosed at an older age, mental retardation and motor delay are difficult to reverse. Additionally, poor medication compliance reduces the efficacy of treatment. More extensive newborn screening is thus imperative for ensuring early diagnosis and enhancing the treatment efficacy of IEM.
Tandem mass spectrometry; Inborn errors of metabolism; Aminoacidemia; Fatty acid oxidation disorders; Organic acidemia
Mice lacking miR-146a exhibit exaggerated inflammatory responses, autoimmunity, and increased rate of tumorigenesis.
Excessive or inappropriate activation of the immune system can be deleterious to the organism, warranting multiple molecular mechanisms to control and properly terminate immune responses. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), ∼22-nt-long noncoding RNAs, have recently emerged as key posttranscriptional regulators, controlling diverse biological processes, including responses to non-self. In this study, we examine the biological role of miR-146a using genetically engineered mice and show that targeted deletion of this gene, whose expression is strongly up-regulated after immune cell maturation and/or activation, results in several immune defects. Collectively, our findings suggest that miR-146a plays a key role as a molecular brake on inflammation, myeloid cell proliferation, and oncogenic transformation.
The mechanisms by which alcohol causes cell injury are not clear. A major mechanism is the role of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in alcohol toxicity. Many pathways have been suggested to play a role in how alcohol induces oxidative stress. Considerable attention has been given to alcohol elevated production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and TNFα and to alcohol induction of CYP2E1. These two pathways are not exclusive of each other; however, interactions between them, have not been extensively evaluated. Increased oxidative stress from induction of CYP2E1 sensitizes hepatocytes to LPS and TNFα toxicity and oxidants, activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and p38 and JNK MAP kinases, and mitochondrial dysfunction are downstream mediators of this CYP2E1-LPS/TNFα-potentiated hepatotoxicity. This paper will summarize studies showing potentiated interactions between these two risk factors in promoting liver injury and the mechanisms involved including activation of the mitogen-activated kinase kinase kinase ASK-1. Decreasing either cytosolic or mitochondrial thioredoxin in HepG2 cells expressing CYP2E1 causes loss of cell viability and elevated oxidative stress via an ASK-1/JNK-dependent mechanism. We hypothesize that similar interactions occur as a result of ethanol induction of CYP2E1 and TNFα.
The inflammatory enzyme indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) participates in immune tolerance and promotes immune escape of IDO+ tumors. A recent hypothesis suggested that IDO may contribute to the differentiation of new T regulatory cells (Tregs) from naive CD4+ T cells. In this study we investigated the role of IDO in induction of immunosuppression in breast cancer by increasing the apoptosis of T cells and the proportion of Tregs.
An IDO expression plasmid was constructed and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were stably transfected with human IDO. Purified CD3+ T cells were isolated from the peripheral blood monouclear cells of breast cancer patients. After co-culturing IDO expressing or untransfected (control) CHO cells with T cells, T cells apoptosis were determined by flow cytometry analysis and annexin-V and PI staining. The proportion of the regulatory T cell (Tregs [CD4 + CD25 + CD127-]) subset was measured by flow cytometry analysis. T cells total RNA and cellular protein samples were isolated for detecting Foxp3 gene and protein expression.
IDO transgenic CHO cells yielded high levels of IDO enzymatic activity, resulting in complete depletion of tryptophan from the culture medium. We found that apoptosis occurred in 79.07 ± 8.13% of CD3+T cells after co-cultured with IDO+ CHO cells for 3 days and the proportion of CD4 + CD25 + CD127- T cells increased from 3.43 ± 1.07% to 8.98 ± 1.88% (P < 0.05) as well. The specific inhibitor of IDO,1-MT efficiently reversed enhancement of T cells apoptosis and amplification of Tregs in vitro. Increased expression of Foxp3, a key molecular marker of Tregs, was confirmed by RT-PCR, real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis at the same time.
These results suggest that IDO helps to create a tolerogenic milieu in breast tumors by directly inducing T cell apoptosis and enhancing Treg-mediated immunosuppression.
Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2; 3-Dioxygenase; breast neoplasms; immune tolerance; CHO Cells; regulatory T-Lymphocytes
Glutaric aciduria type I (GA I; MIM 231670) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. This article reports our experience in the diagnosis, treatment and outcome of GA I patients in Zhejiang Province, China.
A total of 129,415 newborns (accounting for approximately one-tenth of the annual births in Zhejiang Province) and 9640 high-risk infants were screened for inborn errors of metabolism in the Neonatal Screening Center of Zhejiang Province during a 3-year period. Tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for diagnosis of the patients. Dietary modification, carnitine supplementation and aggressive treatment of intercurrent illnesses were adapted for GA I patients.
Three infants were diagnosed with GA I by high-risk screening (detection rate: 1/3,213) and 2 were diagnosed by newborn screening (incidence: 1/64,708). Four patients (3 by high-risk screening and 1 by neonatal screening) undergoing MRI examination showed remarkable changes on T2-weighted image. Four patients accepted timely treatment, and in the patient diagnosed by neonatal screening, treatment was delayed until hypotonia appeared 3 months later. Neuropsychological assessment showed mental and motor retardation in 3 patients after treatment, including the patient diagnosed by neonatal screening.
Individualized timely treatment and close monitoring of GA I patients needs to be optimized in China. Appropriate communication with parents may help to achieve successful management of GA I patients.
glutaric aciduria type I; newborn screening; diet modification; outcome