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1.  High spectral and spatial resolution X-ray transmission radiography and tomography using a Color X-ray Camera 
High resolution X-ray radiography and computed tomography are excellent techniques for non-destructive characterization of an object under investigation at a spatial resolution in the micrometer range. However, as the image contrast depends on both chemical composition and material density, no chemical information is obtained from this data. Furthermore, lab-based measurements are affected by the polychromatic X-ray beam, which results in beam hardening effects. New types of X-ray detectors which provide spectral information on the measured X-ray beam can help to overcome these limitations. In this paper, an energy dispersive CCD detector with high spectral resolution is characterized for use in high resolution radiography and tomography, where a focus is put on the experimental conditions and requirements of both measurement techniques.
PMCID: PMC3864699  PMID: 24357889
Computed tomography; Color X-ray Camera; pnCCD; Spectral X-ray imaging
2.  Influence of Pore Structure on the Effectiveness of a Biogenic Carbonate Surface Treatment for Limestone Conservation ▿  
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2011;77(19):6808-6820.
A ureolytic biodeposition treatment was applied to five types of limestone in order to investigate the effect of pore structure on the protective performance of a biogenic carbonate surface treatment. Protective performance was assessed by means of transport and degradation processes, and the penetration depth of the treatment was visualized by microtomography. Pore size governs bacterial adsorption and hence the location and amount of carbonate precipitated. This study indicated that in macroporous stone, biogenic carbonate formation occurred to a larger extent and at greater depths than in microporous stone. As a consequence, the biodeposition treatment exhibited the greatest protective performance on macroporous stone. While precipitation was limited to the outer surface of microporous stone, biogenic carbonate formation occurred at depths of greater than 2 mm for Savonnières and Euville. For Savonnières, the presence of biogenic carbonate resulted in a 20-fold decreased rate of water absorption, which resulted in increased resistance to sodium sulfate attack and to freezing and thawing. While untreated samples were completely degraded after 15 cycles of salt attack, no damage was observed in biodeposition-treated Savonnières. From this study, it is clear that biodeposition is very effective and more feasible for macroporous stones than for microporous stones.
PMCID: PMC3187100  PMID: 21821746
3.  High-resolution proxies for wood density variations in Terminalia superba 
Annals of Botany  2010;107(2):293-302.
Background and Aims
Density is a crucial variable in forest and wood science and is evaluated by a multitude of methods. Direct gravimetric methods are mostly destructive and time-consuming. Therefore, faster and semi- to non-destructive indirect methods have been developed.
Profiles of wood density variations with a resolution of approx. 50 µm were derived from one-dimensional resistance drillings, two-dimensional neutron scans, and three-dimensional neutron and X-ray scans. All methods were applied on Terminalia superba Engl. & Diels, an African pioneer species which sometimes exhibits a brown heart (limba noir).
Key Results
The use of X-ray tomography combined with a reference material permitted direct estimates of wood density. These X-ray-derived densities overestimated gravimetrically determined densities non-significantly and showed high correlation (linear regression, R2 = 0·995). When comparing X-ray densities with the attenuation coefficients of neutron scans and the amplitude of drilling resistance, a significant linear relation was found with the neutron attenuation coefficient (R2 = 0·986) yet a weak relation with drilling resistance (R2 = 0·243). When density patterns are compared, all three methods are capable of revealing the same trends. Differences are mainly due to the orientation of tree rings and the different characteristics of the indirect methods.
High-resolution X-ray computed tomography is a promising technique for research on wood cores and will be explored further on other temperate and tropical species. Further study on limba noir is necessary to reveal the causes of density variations and to determine how resistance drillings can be further refined.
PMCID: PMC3025726  PMID: 21131386
High-resolution X-ray tomography; neutron imaging; drilling resistance; Terminalia superba; wood density

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