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1.  Arabidopsis thaliana 
Plant Signaling & Behavior  2013;8(7):e24837.
The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a key component of the eukaryotic DNA replication machinery. It also plays an important role in DNA repair mechanisms. Despite the intense scientific research on yeast and human PCNA, information describing the function of this protein in plants is still very limited. In the previous study Arabidopsis PCNA2 but not PCNA1 was proposed to be functionally important in DNA polymerase η-dependent postreplication repair. In addition to the above study, PCNA2 but not PCNA1 was also shown to be necessary for Arabidopsis DNA polymerase λ-dependent oxidative DNA damage bypass. Taking into account the reported differences between PCNA1 and PCNA2, we tested the idea of a possible cooperation between PCNA1 and PCNA2 in the plant cell. In a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay an interaction between PCNA1 and PCNA2 was observed in the nucleus, as well as in the cytoplasm. This finding, together with our previous results, indicates that PCNA1 and PCNA2 may cooperate in planta by forming homo- and heterotrimeric rings. The observed interaction might be relevant when distinct functions for PCNA1 and PCNA2 are considered.
doi:10.4161/psb.24837
PMCID: PMC3909058  PMID: 23656863
Arabidopsis thaliana; PCNA; DNA replication; DNA repair; cell cycle
2.  Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA): a key factor in DNA replication and cell cycle regulation 
Annals of Botany  2010;107(7):1127-1140.
Background
PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) has been found in the nuclei of yeast, plant and animal cells that undergo cell division, suggesting a function in cell cycle regulation and/or DNA replication. It subsequently became clear that PCNA also played a role in other processes involving the cell genome.
Scope
This review discusses eukaryotic PCNA, with an emphasis on plant PCNA, in terms of the protein structure and its biochemical properties as well as gene structure, organization, expression and function. PCNA exerts a tripartite function by operating as (1) a sliding clamp during DNA synthesis, (2) a polymerase switch factor and (3) a recruitment factor. Most of its functions are mediated by its interactions with various proteins involved in DNA synthesis, repair and recombination as well as in regulation of the cell cycle and chromatid cohesion. Moreover, post-translational modifications of PCNA play a key role in regulation of its functions. Finally, a phylogenetic comparison of PCNA genes suggests that the multi-functionality observed in most species is a product of evolution.
Conclusions
Most plant PCNAs exhibit features similar to those found for PCNAs of other eukaryotes. Similarities include: (1) a trimeric ring structure of the PCNA sliding clamp, (2) the involvement of PCNA in DNA replication and repair, (3) the ability to stimulate the activity of DNA polymerase δ and (4) the ability to interact with p21, a regulator of the cell cycle. However, many plant genomes seem to contain the second, probably functional, copy of the PCNA gene, in contrast to PCNA pseudogenes that are found in mammalian genomes.
doi:10.1093/aob/mcq243
PMCID: PMC3091797  PMID: 21169293
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen; PCNA; cyclin; DNA replication; DNA repair; cell cycle
3.  Identification and functional analysis of PCNA1 and PCNA-like1 genes of Phaseolus coccineus 
Journal of Experimental Botany  2009;61(3):873-888.
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is an essential factor in DNA replication and in many other processes in eukaryotic cells. Genetic analysis of Phaseolus coccineus showed the presence of at least two PCNA-like genes in the runner bean genome. Two PCNA genes have previously been found in a few plant species including Arabidopsis, tobacco, and maize. In these species, genes were nearly identical. Two cDNAs of P. coccineus PCNA (PcPCNA1 and PcPCNA-like1) have been identified that differ distinctly from each other. Interestingly, both the genetic organization of PcPCNA1 and PcPCNA-like1 genes and their expression patterns were similar, but these were the only similarities between these genes and their products. The identity between PcPCNA1 and PcPCNA-like1 at the amino acid level was only 54%, with PcPCNA-like1 lacking motifs that are crucial for the activity typical of PCNA. Consequently, these two proteins showed different properties. PcPCNA1 behaved like a typical PCNA protein: it formed a homotrimer and stimulated the activity of human DNA polymerase delta. In addition, PcPCNA1 interacted with a p21 peptide and was recognized by an anti-human PCNA monoclonal antibody PC10. By contrast, PcPCNA-like1 was detected as a monomer and was unable to stimulate the DNA polymerase delta activity. PcPCNA-like1 also could not interact with p21 and was not recognized by the PC10 antibody. Our results suggest that PcPCNA-like1 either is unable to function alone and therefore might be a component of the heterotrimeric PCNA ring or may have other, yet unknown functions. Alternatively, the PcPCNA-like1 gene may represent a pseudogene.
doi:10.1093/jxb/erp354
PMCID: PMC2814116  PMID: 20007687
DNA polymerase delta; PCNA; Phaseolus coccineus; PRINS; RACE
4.  New Method for Typing Staphylococcus aureus Strains: Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Analysis of Polymorphism and Genetic Relationships of Clinical Isolates 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2003;41(4):1801-1804.
The PCR-based methodology applied to multiple-locus variable numbers of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis was recently shown to be a useful technique for the molecular typing of clinical isolates of several bacterial species. We have adopted this method for the molecular typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Five staphylococcal VNTR loci (sdr, clfA, clfB, ssp, and spa) were subjected to analysis, and it was shown that the method allows typing of S. aureus strains with the discriminatory power and reproducibility of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis while at the same time being rapid and applicable to analysis of large numbers of isolates.
doi:10.1128/JCM.41.4.1801-1804.2003
PMCID: PMC153872  PMID: 12682193

Results 1-4 (4)