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1.  In-silico analysis of water and carbon relations under stress conditions. A multi-scale perspective centered on fruit 
Fruit development, from its early stages, is the result of a complex network of interacting processes, on different scales. These include cell division, cell expansion but also nutrient transport from the plant, and exchanges with the environment. In the presence of nutrient limitation, in particular, the plant reacts as a whole, by modifying its architecture, metabolism, and reproductive strategy, determining the resources available for fruit development, which in turn affects the overall source-sink balance of the system. Here, we present an integrated model of tomato that explicitly accounts for early developmental changes (from cell division to harvest), and use it to investigate the impact of water deficit and carbon limitation on nutrient fluxes and fruit growth, in both dry and fresh mass. Variability in fruit response is analyzed on two different scales: among trusses at plant level, and within cell populations at fruit level. Results show that the effect of stress on individual cells strongly depends on their age, size, and uptake capabilities, and that the timing of stress application, together with the fruit position on the plant, is crucial in determining the final phenotypic outcome. Water deficit and carbon depletion impacted either source size, source activity, or sink strength with contrasted effects on fruit growth. An important prediction of the model is the major role of symplasmic transport of carbon in the early stage of fruit development, as a catalyst for cell and fruit growth.
PMCID: PMC3856696  PMID: 24367372
model; development; cell division; cell expansion; symplasm; plant architecture; tomato; stress
2.  Characterization of the interactions between architecture and source–sink relationships in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus) using the GreenLab model 
Annals of Botany  2010;107(5):765-779.
Background and Aims
This study aimed to characterize the interaction between architecture and source–sink relationships in winter oilseed rape (WOSR): do the costs of ramification compromise the source–sink ratio during seed filling? The GreenLab model is a good candidate to address this question because it has been already used to describe interactions between source–sink relationships and architecture for other species. However, its adaptation to WOSR is a challenge because of the complexity of its developmental scheme, especially during the reproductive phase.
Equations were added in GreenLab to compute expansion delays for ramification, flowering of each axis and photosynthesis of pods including the energetic cost of oil synthesis. Experimental field data were used to estimate morphological parameters while source–sink parameters of the model were estimated by adjustment of model outputs to the data. Ecophysiological outputs were used to assess the sources/sink relationships during the whole growth cycle.
Key Results
First results indicated that, at the plant scale, the model correctly simulates the dynamics of organ growth. However, at the organ scale, errors were observed that could be explained either by secondary growth that was not incorporated or by uncertainties in morphological parameters (durations of expansion and life). Ecophysiological outputs highlighted the dramatic negative impact of ramification on the source–sink ratio, as well as the decrease in this ratio during seed filling despite pod envelope photosynthesis that allowed significant biomass production to be maintained.
This work is a promising first step in the construction of a structure–function model for a plant as complex as WOSR. Once tested for other environments and/or genotypes, the model can be used for studies on WOSR architectural plasticity.
PMCID: PMC3077979  PMID: 20980324
Biological system modelling; source–sink relationships; ramification; GreenLab model; energetic cost; oleaginous seeds; Brassica napus; winter oilseed rape

Results 1-2 (2)