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1.  Cholinergic Synaptic Transmissions Were Altered after Single Sevoflurane Exposure in Drosophila Pupa 
BioMed Research International  2015;2015:485709.
Purpose. Sevoflurane, one of the most used general anesthetics, is widely used in clinical practice all over the world. Previous studies indicated that sevoflurane could induce neuron apoptosis and neural deficit causing query in the safety of anesthesia using sevoflurane. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of sevoflurane on electrophysiology in Drosophila pupa whose excitatory neurotransmitter is acetylcholine early after sevoflurane exposure using whole brain recording technique. Methods. Wide types of Drosophila (canton-s flies) were allocated to control and sevoflurane groups randomly. Sevoflurane groups (1% sevoflurane; 2% sevoflurane; 3% sevoflurane) were exposed to sevoflurane and the exposure lasted 5 hours, respectively. All flies were subjected to electrophysiology experiment using patch clamp 24 hours after exposure. Results. The results showed that, 24 hours after sevoflurane exposure, frequency but not the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) was significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Furthermore, we explored the underlying mechanism and found that calcium currents density, which partially regulated the frequency of mEPSCs, was significantly reduced after sevoflurane exposure (P < 0.05). Conclusions. All these suggested that sevoflurane could alter the mEPSCs that are related to synaptic plasticity partially through modulating calcium channel early after sevoflurane exposure.
doi:10.1155/2015/485709
PMCID: PMC4331166
2.  A Sexually Dimorphic Corolla Appendage Affects Pollen Removal and Floral Longevity in Gynodioecious Cyananthus delavayi (Campanulaceae) 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(1):e0117149.
The floral traits of bisexual flowers may evolve in response to selection on both male and female functions, but the relative importance of selection associated with each of these two aspects is poorly resolved. Sexually dimorphic traits in plants with unisexual flowers may reflect gender-specific selection, providing opportunities for gaining an increased understanding of the evolution of specific floral traits. We examined sexually dimorphic patterns of floral traits in perfect and female flowers of the gynodioecious species Cyananthus delavayi. A special corolla appendage, the throat hair, was investigated experimentally to examine its influences on male and female function. We found that perfect flowers have larger corollas and much longer throat hairs than female flowers, while female ones have much exerted stigmas. The presence of throat hairs prolonged the duration of pollen presentation by restricting the amount of pollen removed by pollen-collecting bees during each visit. Floral longevity was negatively related to the rate of pollen removal. When pollen removal rate was limited in perfect flowers, the duration of the female phases diminished with the increased male phase duration. There was a weak negative correlation between throat hair length and seed number per fruit in female flowers, but this correlation was not significant in perfect flowers. These results suggest that throat hairs may enhance male function in terms of prolonged pollen presentation. However, throat hairs have no obvious effect on female function in terms of seed number per fruit. The marked sexual dimorphism of this corolla appendage in C. delavayi is likely to have evolved and been maintained by gender-specific selection.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0117149
PMCID: PMC4300179  PMID: 25603479
3.  Study on Antibacterial Effect of Medlar and Hawthorn Compound Extract In Vitro 
This paper evaluated the antibacterial effect of medlar and hawthorn compound extract in vitro. Water extract method and ethanol extraction method was adopted to prepare the compound extracts, and disc diffusion method and improved test tube doubling dilution method were used to conduct the antibacterial test on the two common pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia, in vitro. The results showed that medlar and hawthorn compound extract was moderately sensitive to Staphylococcus aureus, while its inhibiting effect on Klebsiella pneumoniae was particularly significant, moreover, the antibacterial effect of ethanol extract was better than water extract. Medlar and hawthorn compounds had good antibacterial effect on the two pathogenic bacteria.
PMCID: PMC3777602  PMID: 24146490
Medlar and hawthorn compound; content measuring; Antibacterial activity; Killing curve
4.  Floral closure induced by pollination in gynodioecious Cyananthus delavayi (Campanulaceae): effects of pollen load and type, floral morph and fitness consequences 
Annals of Botany  2011;108(7):1257-1268.
Background and aims
Pollination-induced floral changes, which have been widely documented in flowering plants, have been assumed to enhance the plant's reproductive success. However, our understanding of the causes and consequences of these changes is still limited. Using an alpine gynodioecious species, Cyananthus delavayi, we investigated the factors affecting floral closure and estimated the fitness consequences of floral closure.
Methods
The timings of floral closure and fertilization were determined. The effects of pollen load, pollen type (cross- or self-pollen) and floral morph (female or perfect flower) on the occurrence of floral closure were examined. Ovule fertilization and seed production were examined to investigate the causes and consequences of floral closure. Flowers were manipulated to prevent closing to detect potential benefits for female fitness.
Key Results
Floral closure, which could be induced by a very low pollen load, occurred within 4–7 h after pollination, immediately following fertilization. The proportion of closed flowers was influenced by pollen load and floral morph, but not by pollen type. Floral closure was more likely to occur in flowers with a higher proportion of fertilized ovules, but there was no significant difference in seed production between closed and open flowers. Those flowers in which closure was induced by natural pollination had low fruit set and seed production. Additionally, seed production was not influenced by closing-prevented manipulation when sufficient pollen deposition was received.
Conclusions
The occurrence of floral closure may be determined by the proportion of fertilized ovules, but this response can be too sensitive to ensure sufficient pollen deposition and can, to some extent, lead to a cost in female fitness. These results implied that the control of floral receptivity by the recipient flowers does not lead to an optimal fitness gain in C. delavayi.
doi:10.1093/aob/mcr224
PMCID: PMC3197452  PMID: 21900256
Cyananthus delavayi; female fitness; floral closure; floral longevity; gynodioecy; pollination; post-pollination phenomenon; sexual conflict
5.  Retrolinkin cooperates with endophilin A1 to mediate BDNF–TrkB early endocytic trafficking and signaling from early endosomes 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2011;22(19):3684-3698.
Both retrolinkin and its interaction partner endophilin A1 are required for BDNF-induced dendrite outgrowth of cultured hippocampal neurons. They function sequentially in an early endocytic trafficking pathway for BDNF-activated TrkB, which provides spatiotemporal control of downstream ERK signaling from endosomes.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) binds to its cell surface receptor TrkB to regulate differentiation, development, synaptic plasticity, and functional maintenance of neuronal cells. Binding of BDNF triggers TrkB dimerization and autophosphorylation, which provides docking sites for adaptor proteins to recruit and activate downstream signaling molecules. The molecular mechanisms underlying BDNF–TrkB endocytic trafficking crucial for spatiotemporal control of signaling pathways remain to be elucidated. Here we show that retrolinkin, a transmembrane protein, interacts with endophilin A1 and mediates BDNF-activated TrkB (pTrk) trafficking and signaling in CNS neurons. We find that activated TrkB colocalizes and interacts with the early endosome marker APPL1. Both retrolinkin and endophilin A1 are required for BDNF-induced dendrite development and acute extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation from early endosomes. Suppression of retrolinkin expression not only blocks BDNF-triggered TrkB internalization, but also prevents recruitment of endophilin A1 to pTrk vesicles trafficking through APPL1-positive endosomes. These findings reveal a novel mechanism for BDNF–TrkB to regulate signaling both in time and space through a specific membrane trafficking pathway.
doi:10.1091/mbc.E11-04-0308
PMCID: PMC3183022  PMID: 21849472
6.  N′-(2,4-Dichloro­benzyl­idene)-2-fluoro­benzohydrazide 
The mol­ecule of the title compound, C14H9Cl2FN2O, exists in a trans configuration with respect to the methyl­idene unit and the benzene rings form a dihedral angle of 8.1 (2)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked through N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into C(4) chains propagating in [100].
doi:10.1107/S1600536810053249
PMCID: PMC3051578  PMID: 21522946
7.  catena-Poly[[dichloridozinc(II)]-μ-1,4-bis­(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzene] 
In the title one-dimensional coordination polymer, [ZnCl2(C12H10N4)]n, the ZnII atom (site symmetry 2) is coordinated by two chloride ions and two 1,4-bis­(imidazol-1-yl)benzene ligands, generating a distorted tetra­hedral ZnCl2N2 geometry for the metal ion. The bridging ligand, which is completed by crystallographic inversion symmetry, links the ZnII atoms into zigzag chains propagating in [101]. Within the ligand, the dihedral angle between the central benzene ring and terminal imidazole ring is 27.82 (13)°.
doi:10.1107/S1600536810044429
PMCID: PMC3011715  PMID: 21589220

Results 1-7 (7)