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1.  A Sexually Dimorphic Corolla Appendage Affects Pollen Removal and Floral Longevity in Gynodioecious Cyananthus delavayi (Campanulaceae) 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(1):e0117149.
The floral traits of bisexual flowers may evolve in response to selection on both male and female functions, but the relative importance of selection associated with each of these two aspects is poorly resolved. Sexually dimorphic traits in plants with unisexual flowers may reflect gender-specific selection, providing opportunities for gaining an increased understanding of the evolution of specific floral traits. We examined sexually dimorphic patterns of floral traits in perfect and female flowers of the gynodioecious species Cyananthus delavayi. A special corolla appendage, the throat hair, was investigated experimentally to examine its influences on male and female function. We found that perfect flowers have larger corollas and much longer throat hairs than female flowers, while female ones have much exerted stigmas. The presence of throat hairs prolonged the duration of pollen presentation by restricting the amount of pollen removed by pollen-collecting bees during each visit. Floral longevity was negatively related to the rate of pollen removal. When pollen removal rate was limited in perfect flowers, the duration of the female phases diminished with the increased male phase duration. There was a weak negative correlation between throat hair length and seed number per fruit in female flowers, but this correlation was not significant in perfect flowers. These results suggest that throat hairs may enhance male function in terms of prolonged pollen presentation. However, throat hairs have no obvious effect on female function in terms of seed number per fruit. The marked sexual dimorphism of this corolla appendage in C. delavayi is likely to have evolved and been maintained by gender-specific selection.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0117149
PMCID: PMC4300179  PMID: 25603479
2.  Clinicopathologic characteristics of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in patients with positive serum a-fetoprotein 
AIM: To explore clinicopathologic characteristics of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) in patients with positive serum a-fetoprotein (AFP).
METHODS: One hundred and thirty one patients who underwent surgical dissection for pathologically confirmed ICC were divided into a positive AFP (> 20 ng/mL) group (n = 32) and a negative AFP group (n = 99), whose clinicopathologic features were analyzed and compared.
RESULTS: The positive rate of HBsAg and liver cirrhosis of the positive AFP group was higher than that of the negative AFP group, while the positive rate of CA19-9 (> 37 U/mL) and the lymph node metastasis rate was lower.
CONCLUSION: ICC patients with positive AFP share many clinicopathologic similarities with hepatocellular carcinoma.
doi:10.3748/wjg.14.2251
PMCID: PMC2703855  PMID: 18407604
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma; A-fetoprotein; Hepatitis B virus; Liver cirrhosis; Hepatic stem cells
3.  Blockade of NF-κB nuclear translocation results in the inhibition of the invasiveness of human gastric cancer cells 
Oncology Letters  2013;6(2):432-436.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 inhibitor, SN50, on the invasiveness and mechanisms of SGC7901 human gastric carcinoma cell xenografts in nude mice. Nude mice were randomly divided into model control and SN50 treatment groups. On days 5, 10 and 15 following treatment, the tumor samples were observed and a selection of parameters were recorded, including the level of tumor growth inhibition, the pathological changes in the tumor specimens, the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases type-1 (TIMP-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the apoptosis indices in the tumor samples. The results demonstrated that treating the tumor with SN50 for 5, 10 and 15 days inhibited carcinoma growth in comparison with the control group. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining indicated that the level of inhibition increased progressively, in correlation with apoptosis. The expression of the MMP-9, PCNA and VEGF proteins was observed to be downregulated, while that of the TIMP-1 protein was shown to be upregulated, using immunohistochemical staining. In conclusion, the NF-κB p65 inhibitor, SN50, inhibited the invasiveness of the gastric cancer cells by downregulating the protein expression of MMP-9, PCNA and VEGF and upregulating the protein expression of TIMP-1. It was further suggested that SN50 may be a molecular target of anti-invasion therapy for gastric cancer, and that the inhibition of the NF-κB p65 signaling pathway may be considered as a potential strategy for treating gastric cancer.
doi:10.3892/ol.2013.1390
PMCID: PMC3789044  PMID: 24137341
NF-κB p65; SN50; gastric cancer; invasiveness
4.  Floral closure induced by pollination in gynodioecious Cyananthus delavayi (Campanulaceae): effects of pollen load and type, floral morph and fitness consequences 
Annals of Botany  2011;108(7):1257-1268.
Background and aims
Pollination-induced floral changes, which have been widely documented in flowering plants, have been assumed to enhance the plant's reproductive success. However, our understanding of the causes and consequences of these changes is still limited. Using an alpine gynodioecious species, Cyananthus delavayi, we investigated the factors affecting floral closure and estimated the fitness consequences of floral closure.
Methods
The timings of floral closure and fertilization were determined. The effects of pollen load, pollen type (cross- or self-pollen) and floral morph (female or perfect flower) on the occurrence of floral closure were examined. Ovule fertilization and seed production were examined to investigate the causes and consequences of floral closure. Flowers were manipulated to prevent closing to detect potential benefits for female fitness.
Key Results
Floral closure, which could be induced by a very low pollen load, occurred within 4–7 h after pollination, immediately following fertilization. The proportion of closed flowers was influenced by pollen load and floral morph, but not by pollen type. Floral closure was more likely to occur in flowers with a higher proportion of fertilized ovules, but there was no significant difference in seed production between closed and open flowers. Those flowers in which closure was induced by natural pollination had low fruit set and seed production. Additionally, seed production was not influenced by closing-prevented manipulation when sufficient pollen deposition was received.
Conclusions
The occurrence of floral closure may be determined by the proportion of fertilized ovules, but this response can be too sensitive to ensure sufficient pollen deposition and can, to some extent, lead to a cost in female fitness. These results implied that the control of floral receptivity by the recipient flowers does not lead to an optimal fitness gain in C. delavayi.
doi:10.1093/aob/mcr224
PMCID: PMC3197452  PMID: 21900256
Cyananthus delavayi; female fitness; floral closure; floral longevity; gynodioecy; pollination; post-pollination phenomenon; sexual conflict
5.  Aqua­(hexa­methyl­enetetra­mine-κN)bis­(methanol-κO)bis­(thio­cyanato-κN)cobalt(II) 
In the title complex, [Co(NCS)2(C6H12N4)(CH4O)2(H2O)], the six-coordinated Co atom has a slightly distorted octa­hedral geometry. The molecules are linked by intermolecular O—H⋯S and O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming a three- dimensional crystal structure. Intramolecular C—H⋯N and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds are also present.
doi:10.1107/S160053680802357X
PMCID: PMC2960658  PMID: 21201625
6.  Improved Succinic Acid Production in the Anaerobic Culture of an Escherichia coli pflB ldhA Double Mutant as a Result of Enhanced Anaplerotic Activities in the Preceding Aerobic Culture▿  
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2007;73(24):7837-7843.
Escherichia coli NZN111 is a pflB ldhA double mutant which loses its ability to ferment glucose anaerobically due to redox imbalance. In this study, two-stage culture of NZN111 was carried out for succinic acid production. It was found that when NZN111 was aerobically cultured on acetate, it regained the ability to ferment glucose with succinic acid as the major product in subsequent anaerobic culture. In two-stage culture carried out in flasks, succinic acid was produced at a level of 11.26 g/liter from 13.4 g/liter of glucose with a succinic acid yield of 1.28 mol/mol glucose and a productivity of 1.13 g/liter·h in the anaerobic stage. Analyses of key enzyme activities revealed that the activities of isocitrate lyase, malate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxykinase were greatly enhanced while those of pyruvate kinase and PEP carboxylase were reduced in the acetate-grown cells. The two-stage culture was also performed in a 5-liter fermentor without separating the acetate-grown NZN111 cells from spent medium. The overall yield and concentration of succinic acid reached 1.13 mol/mol glucose and 28.2 g/liter, respectively, but the productivity of succinic acid in the anaerobic stage dropped to 0.7 g/liter·h due to cell autolysis and reduced anaplerotic activities. The results indicate the great potential to take advantage of cellular regulation mechanisms for improvement of succinic acid production by a metabolically engineered E. coli strain.
doi:10.1128/AEM.01546-07
PMCID: PMC2168152  PMID: 17951436

Results 1-6 (6)