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author:("Kato, fumin")
1.  Factors responsible for deep-sowing tolerance in wheat seedlings: varietal differences in cell proliferation and the co-ordinated synchronization of epidermal cell expansion and cortical cell division for the gibberellin-mediated elongation of first internodes 
Annals of Botany  2011;108(3):439-447.
Background and Aims
A wheat cultivar, Triticum aestivum ‘Hong Mang Mai’, shows tolerance to deep-sowing conditions by extreme elongation of the first internode, likely mediated by the gibberellin (GA) response. To understand factors involved in the response of this deep-sowing-tolerant cultivar, cell expansion and division that confer elongation on the first internodes of wheat seedlings were investigated.
The lengths and numbers of epidermal and cortical cells of the first internodes in three wheat cultivars were measured. These parameters were compared in wheat seedlings treated with gibberellin A3 (GA3) or an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, uniconazole.
Key Results
The varietal differences in the elongation of the first internodes were due to differences in cell numbers resulting from the different abilities of cell division, but not cell expansion. In seedlings treated with GA3, the first internode of ‘Hong Mang Mai’ was 2-fold longer than the control. The GA-stimulated elongation of the first internodes was attributed to 2-fold increases in the number of cortical cells and length of epidermal cells. The different GA-responses observed in these two tissues were also detected in other cultivars, although the response was much lower than that noted in ‘Hong Mang Mai’. The seedlings treated with uniconazole exhibited reduced numbers of cortical cells and reduced lengths of epidermal cells, with both of these effects being more pronounced in ‘Hong Mang Mai’.
The deep-sowing-tolerant cultivar ‘Hong Mang Mai’ is able to elongate the first internode to a greater degree due to enhanced cell division and a heightened response to GA. In addition, cell expansion in the epidermis and cell division in the cortex are synchronized for the elongation of the first internodes. In response to GA, this well-co-ordinated synchronization yields the rapid elongation of the first internodes in wheat seedlings.
PMCID: PMC3158689  PMID: 21791455
Cell expansion; cell division; deep-sowing tolerance; first internode elongation; gibberellin (GA); ‘Hong Mang Mai’; Triticum aestivum; wheat
2.  Comparative determination of polymorphs of indomethacin in powders and tablets by chemometrical near-infrared spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffractometry 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2003;4(2):58-69.
The purpose of this research was to develop a rapid chemometrical method based on near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to determine indomethacin (IMC) polymorphic content in mixed pharmaceutical powder and tablets. Mixed powder samples with known polymorphic contents of forms α and γ were obtained from physical mixing of 50% of IMC standard polymorphic sample and 50% of excipient mixed powder sample consisting of lactose, corn starch, and hydroxypropyl-cellulose. The tablets were obtained by compressing the mixed powder at 245 MPa. X-ray powder diffraction profiles and NIR spectra were recorded for 6 kinds of standard materials with various polymorphic contents. The principal component regression analysis was performed based on normalized NIR spectra sets of mixed powder standard samples and tablets. The relationships between the actual and predicted polymorphic contents of form g in the mixed powder measured using x-ray powder diffraction and NIR spectroscopy show a straight line with a slope of 0.960 and 0.995, and correlation coefficient constants of 0.970 and 0.993, respectively. The predicted content values of unknown samples by x-ray powder diffraction and NIR spectroscopy were reproducible and in close agreement, but those by NIR spectroscopy had smaller SDs than those by x-ray powder diffraction. The results suggest that NIR spectroscopy provides a more accurate quantitative analysis of polymorphic content in pharmaceutical mixed powder and tablets than does conventional x-ray powder diffractometry.
PMCID: PMC2750597  PMID: 12916901
near-infrared spectroscopy; chemometrics; polymorph; indomethacin; x-ray powder diffractometry
3.  Physicochemical stability of cimetidine amorphous forms estimated by isothermal microcalorimetry 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2002;3(4):32-44.
The effect of humidity on the physicochemical properties of amorphous forms of cimetidine was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry, isothermal microcalorimetry, and x-ray diffraction analysis. Amorphous forms were obtained by the melting (amorphous form M [AM]) and the cotton candy (amorphous form C [AC]) methods. Thermal behaviors of AM and AC with or without seed crystals were measured using an isothermal microcalorimeter under various conditions of relative humidity (RH) and temperature, respectively. The crystallization kinetics of amorphous solids was analyzed based on 10 kinds of solid-state reaction models. AM transformed into form A at 11% RH, 50°C but transformed into a mixture of form A and monohydrate at 51% and 75% RH at 25°C. The mean crystallization times (MCTs) of the heat flow curve of AM and AC at 11% RH, 50°C were 47.82 and 32.00 hours, respectively, but at 11% RH, 25°C both were more than 4320 hours. In contrast, AC transformed into form A under all storage conditions. The MCTs of AC at 51% and 75% RH were 29.61 and 11.81 hours, respectively; whereas the MCTs of AM were 46.79 and 15.52 hours, respectively. The crystallization of amorphous solids followed the three-dimensional growth of nuclei (Avrami equation) with an induction period (IP). The IP for AM at 11% RH, 50°C was more than 2 times that for AC, but the difference in the crystal growth rate constant (CR) between AC and AM was within 10%. The IP for AM at 75% RH, 25°C was reduced to only 10% of the IP at 51% RH with increasing humidity, but the CR did not change significantly. In contrast, the IP for AC was slightly reduced at 75% RH compared with 51% RH, but the CR was about 5 times greater. At 75% RH, 25°C, the IP and CR of AM were about one-fourth the values of AC. This result suggests that the crystallization process consists of an initial stage during which the nuclei are formed and a final stage of growth.
PMCID: PMC2751338  PMID: 12916924
isothermal microcalorimetry; crystallization; amorphous; physicochemical stability; cimetidine
4.  Comparative evaluation of the degree of indomethacin crystallinity by chemoinfometrical fourie-transformed near-infrared spectroscopy and conventional powder X-ray diffractiometry 
AAPS PharmSci  2000;2(1):80-87.
A chemoinfometrical method for evaluating the degree of crystallinity based on fourie-transformed near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy was established and compared with the conventional powder X-ray diffraction method. Powder X-ray diffraction profiles and FT-NIR spectra were recorded for 11 kinds of standard materials with various degrees of crystallinity obtained by physically mixing crystalline and amorphous indomethacin (IMC). Chemoinfometric analysis was performed on the FT-NIR spectral data sets by multiple linear regression (MLR) (MLR-Set-Up Search program). The crystalline and amorphous forms showed significant NIR spectral peaks. MLR analysis was performed based on normalized NIR spectra sets for standard samples of known crystallinity. A calibration equation was determined to minimize the root mean square error of prediction. The predicted crystallinity values were reproducible and had a smaller standard deviation. The values of crystallinity predicted by X-ray powder diffractometry and FT-NIR spectrometry suggested a satisfactory correlation between the 2 techniques. The results indicated that FT-NIR spectroscopy provides for an accurate quantitative analysis of crystallinity compared with conventional X-ray diffractometry.
PMCID: PMC2751004  PMID: 11741225

Results 1-4 (4)