Background and Aims
A wheat cultivar, Triticum aestivum ‘Hong Mang Mai’, shows tolerance to deep-sowing conditions by extreme elongation of the first internode, likely mediated by the gibberellin (GA) response. To understand factors involved in the response of this deep-sowing-tolerant cultivar, cell expansion and division that confer elongation on the first internodes of wheat seedlings were investigated.
The lengths and numbers of epidermal and cortical cells of the first internodes in three wheat cultivars were measured. These parameters were compared in wheat seedlings treated with gibberellin A3 (GA3) or an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, uniconazole.
The varietal differences in the elongation of the first internodes were due to differences in cell numbers resulting from the different abilities of cell division, but not cell expansion. In seedlings treated with GA3, the first internode of ‘Hong Mang Mai’ was 2-fold longer than the control. The GA-stimulated elongation of the first internodes was attributed to 2-fold increases in the number of cortical cells and length of epidermal cells. The different GA-responses observed in these two tissues were also detected in other cultivars, although the response was much lower than that noted in ‘Hong Mang Mai’. The seedlings treated with uniconazole exhibited reduced numbers of cortical cells and reduced lengths of epidermal cells, with both of these effects being more pronounced in ‘Hong Mang Mai’.
The deep-sowing-tolerant cultivar ‘Hong Mang Mai’ is able to elongate the first internode to a greater degree due to enhanced cell division and a heightened response to GA. In addition, cell expansion in the epidermis and cell division in the cortex are synchronized for the elongation of the first internodes. In response to GA, this well-co-ordinated synchronization yields the rapid elongation of the first internodes in wheat seedlings.