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1.  Eco-geographically divergent diploids, Caucasian clover (Trifolium ambiguum) and western clover (T. occidentale), retain most requirements for hybridization 
Annals of Botany  2011;108(7):1269-1277.
Background and Aims
DNA sequence similarities and hybridization patterns in Trifolium (clovers) section Trifoliastrum suggest that rapid radiation from a common ancestral source led to this complex of diverse species distributed across Europe, western Asia and North Africa. Two of the most geographically and ecologically divergent of these species are the rhizomatous T. ambiguum from high altitudes in eastern Europe and western Asia and the stoloniferous T. occidentale from sea level in western Europe. Attempts were made to hybridize these species to ascertain whether, despite this separation, gene flow could be achieved, indicating the retention of the genetic factors necessary for hybridization.
Methods
Three F1 hybrids formed after embryo rescue were described, characterized by conventional and molecular cytogenetics, subjected to fertility tests and progeny generations were developed.
Results and Conclusions
Partially fertile hybrids between Trifolium ambiguum and T. occidentale were obtained for the first time. The F1 hybrids produced seeds after open-pollination, and also produced triploid progeny in backcrosses to T. occidentale from the functioning of unreduced gametes in the hybrids. These plants were fertile and produced progeny with T. occidentale and with T. repens. Meiotic chromosome pairing in the F1 showed six to eight bivalents per pollen mother cell, indicating pairing between the parental genomes. A chromosome-doubled form of one hybrid, produced using colchicine, showed some multivalents, indicative of interspecific chromosome pairing. The hybrid plants were robust and combined phenotypic characteristics of both species, having stolons, thick roots and a few rhizomes. Results show that despite separation by the entire breadth of Europe, the speciation process is incomplete, and these taxa have partially retained most of the genetic compatibilities needed for hybridization (possibly except for endosperm development, which was not tested). The fertile progeny populations could lead to new clover breeding strategies based on new hybrid forms.
doi:10.1093/aob/mcr226
PMCID: PMC3197454  PMID: 21880661
Trifolium ambiguum; T. occidentale; T. repens; interspecific hybridization; Caucasian clover; western clover; white clover; introgression; genetic bridge; unreduced gametes; speciation
2.  Experimental evidence for the ancestry of allotetraploid Trifolium repens and creation of synthetic forms with value for plant breeding 
BMC Plant Biology  2012;12:55.
Background
White clover (Trifolium repens) is a ubiquitous weed of the temperate world that through use of improved cultivars has also become the most important legume of grazed pastures world-wide. It has long been suspected to be allotetraploid, but the diploid ancestral species have remained elusive. Putative diploid ancestors were indicated by DNA sequence phylogeny to be T. pallescens and T. occidentale. Here, we use further DNA evidence as well as a combination of molecular cytogenetics (FISH and GISH) and experimental hybridization to test the hypothesis that white clover originated as a hybrid between T. pallescens and T. occidentale.
Results
T. pallescens plants were identified with chloroplast trnL intron DNA sequences identical to those of white clover. Similarly, T. occidentale plants with nuclear ITS sequences identical to white clover were also identified. Reciprocal GISH experiments, alternately using labeled genomic DNA probes from each of the putative ancestral species on the same white clover cells, showed that half of the chromosomes hybridized with each probe. F1 hybrids were generated by embryo rescue and these showed strong interspecific chromosome pairing and produced a significant frequency of unreduced gametes, indicating the likely mode of polyploidization. The F1 hybrids are inter-fertile with white clover and function as synthetic white clovers, a valuable new resource for the re-incorporation of ancestral genomes into modern white clover for future plant breeding.
Conclusions
Evidence from DNA sequence analyses, molecular cytogenetics, interspecific hybridization and breeding experiments supports the hypothesis that a diploid alpine species (T. pallescens) hybridized with a diploid coastal species (T. occidentale) to generate tetraploid T. repens. The coming together of these two narrowly adapted species (one alpine and the other maritime), along with allotetraploidy, has led to a transgressive hybrid with a broad adaptive range.
doi:10.1186/1471-2229-12-55
PMCID: PMC3443075  PMID: 22530692
Trifolium repens; White clover; Allopolyploid; Interspecific hybridization
3.  The renin-angiotensin system mediates the effects of stretch on conduction velocity, connexin43 expression and redistribution in intact ventricle 
Introduction
In disease states such as heart failure, myocardial infarction and hypertrophy, changes in the expression and location of Connexin43 (Cx43) occur (Cx43 remodeling), and may predispose to arrhythmias. Stretch may be an important stimulus to Cx43 remodeling; however, it has only been investigated in neonatal cell cultures, which have different physiological properties to adult myocytes. We hypothesized that localized stretch in vivo causes Cx43 remodeling, with associated changes in conduction, mediated by the renin/angiotensin system (RAS).
Methods and Results
In an open-chest canine model a device was used to stretch part of the right ventricle (RV) by 22% for 6 hours. Activation mapping using a 312-electrode array was performed before and after stretch. Regional stretch did not change longitudinal conduction velocity (post-stretch vs. baseline: 51.5±5.2 vs. 55.3±8.1cm/s p=0.24, n=11), but significantly reduced transverse conduction velocity (28.7±2.5 vs. 35.4±5.4cm/s, p<0.01). It also reduced total Cx43 expression, by Western blotting, compared to a nonstretched area RV of the same animal (86.1±32.2 vs. 100±19.4%, p<0.02, n=11). Cx43 labeling redistributed to the lateral cell borders. Stretch caused a small but significant increase in the proportion of the dephosphorylated form of Cx43 (stretch 9.95±1.4% vs. control 8.74±1.2%, p<0.05).
Olmesartan, an angiotensin-II blocker, prevented the stretch induced changes in Cx43 levels, localization and conduction.
Conclusion
Myocardial stretch in vivo has opposite effects to that in neonatal myocytes in vitro. Stretch in vivo causes conduction changes associated with Cx43 remodeling that are likely caused by local stretch-induced activation of the RAS.
doi:10.1111/j.1540-8167.2010.01802.x
PMCID: PMC2937061  PMID: 20487124
Conduction; stretch; gap junctions
4.  Resistance Reactions to Meloidogyne trifoliophila in Trifolium repens and T. semipilosum 
Journal of Nematology  2004;36(4):499-504.
The predominant root-knot nematode in New Zealand pastures is Meloidogyne trifoliophila, and a recurrent selection program in Trifolium repens has developed resistance to this species. No data are available, however, on the mechanisms of resistance in T. repens or resistant genotypes of T. semipilosum. The development of M. trifoliophila in roots of T. repens and T. semipilosum was examined weekly after a 2-day inoculation with eggs. More second-stage juveniles (J2) were found in two resistant genotypes of T. repens than in two susceptible ones 1 week after inoculation. J2 did not develop further in resistant genotypes, but in susceptible plants development proceeded to the adult stage, visible at 4 weeks after inoculation. The mode of action of resistance to M. trifoliophila in T. repens and in T. semipilosum was compared after a 24-hour inoculation with J2. Numbers of J2 per root tip ranged from 0 to 12 with a median of one for each species. At 24 hours after inoculation (HAI), similar numbers of J2 were seen in the cortex oriented toward the root tip in both resistant and susceptible genotypes of both plant species. At 48 HAI, accumulations of J2 were seen in the meristem in both resistant and susceptible genotypes of both plant species. At 72 HAI, differences in nematode responses were evident between resistant and susceptible genotypes of both plant species; in susceptible roots, J2 heads were embedded in the developing stele. At this time, a browning reaction in resistant genotypes of both plant species indicated a hypersensitive response, and differences in the reaction were recorded between T. repens and T. semipilosum. More study is needed to determine whether the resistance reaction in T. semipilosum is suitable for introgression or insertion into T. repens.
PMCID: PMC2620795  PMID: 19262831
hypersensitive response; invasion; Kenya white clover; Meloidogyne trifoliophila; penetration; resistance; root-knot nematode; Trifolium repens; Trifolium semipilosum; white clover

Results 1-4 (4)