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1.  Bifidobacteria strains isolated from stools of iron deficient infants can efficiently sequester iron 
BMC Microbiology  2015;15(1):3.
Background
Bifidobacteria is one of the major gut commensal groups found in infants. Their colonization is commonly associated with beneficial effects to the host through mechanisms like niche occupation and nutrient competition against pathogenic bacteria. Iron is an essential element necessary for most microorganisms, including bifidobacteria and efficient competition for this micronutrient is linked to proliferation and persistence. For this research we hypothesized that bifidobacteria in the gut of iron deficient infants can efficiently sequester iron. The aim of the present study was to isolate bifidobacteria in fecal samples of iron deficient Kenyan infants and to characterize siderophore production and iron internalization capacity.
Results
Fifty-six bifidobacterial strains were isolated by streaking twenty-eight stool samples from Kenyan infants, in enrichment media. To target strains with high iron sequestration mechanisms, a strong iron chelator 2,2-dipyridyl was supplemented to the agar media. Bifidobacterial isolates were first identified to species level by 16S rRNA sequencing, yielding B. bifidum (19 isolates), B. longum (15), B. breve (11), B. kashiwanohense (7), B. pseudolongum (3) and B. pseudocatenulatum (1). While most isolated bifidobacterial species are commonly encountered in the infantile gut, B. kashiwanohense was not frequently reported in infant feces. Thirty strains from culture collections and 56 isolates were characterized for their siderophore production, tested by the CAS assay. Siderophore activity ranged from 3 to 89% siderophore units, with 35 strains (41%) exhibiting high siderophore activity, and 31 (36%) and 20 (23%) showing intermediate or low activity. The amount of internalized iron of 60 bifidobacteria strains selected for their siderophore activity, was in a broad range from 8 to118 μM Fe. Four strains, B. pseudolongum PV8-2, B. kashiwanohense PV20-2, B. bifidum PV28-2a and B. longum PV5-1 isolated from infant stool samples were selected for both high siderophore activity and iron internalization.
Conclusions
A broad diversity of bifidobacteria were isolated in infant stools using iron limited conditions, with some strains exhibiting high iron sequestration properties. The ability of bifidobacteria to efficiently utilize iron sequestration mechanism such as siderophore production and iron internalization may confer an ecological advantage and be the basis for enhanced competition against enteropathogens.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12866-014-0334-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12866-014-0334-z
PMCID: PMC4320568  PMID: 25591860
Bifidobacteria; Iron; Siderophore; Nutrient competition; CAS assay
2.  Performance and Cost Efficiency of KRAS Mutation Testing for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer in Routine Diagnosis: The MOKAECM Study, a Nationwide Experience 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e68945.
Purpose
Rapid advances in the understanding of cancer biology have transformed drug development thus leading to the approval of targeted therapies and to the development of molecular tests to select patients that will respond to treatments. KRAS status has emerged as a negative predictor of clinical benefit from anti-EGFR antibodies in colorectal cancer, and anti-EGFR antibodies use was limited to KRAS wild type tumors. In order to ensure wide access to tumor molecular profiling, the French National Cancer Institute (INCa) has set up a national network of 28 regional molecular genetics centers. Concurrently, a nationwide external quality assessment for KRAS testing (MOKAECM) was granted to analyze reproducibility and costs.
Methods
96 cell-line DNAs and 24 DNA samples from paraffin embedded tumor tissues were sent to 40 French laboratories. A total of 5448 KRAS results were collected and analyzed and a micro-costing study was performed on sites for 5 common methods by an independent team of health economists.
Results
This work provided a baseline picture of the accuracy and reliability of KRAS analysis in routine testing conditions at a nationwide level. Inter-laboratory Kappa values were >0.8 for KRAS results despite differences detection methods and the use of in-house technologies. Specificity was excellent with only one false positive in 1128 FFPE data, and sensitivity was higher for targeted techniques as compared to Sanger sequencing based methods that were dependent upon local expertise. Estimated reagent costs per patient ranged from €5.5 to €19.0.
Conclusion
The INCa has set-up a network of public laboratories dedicated to molecular oncology tests. Our results showed almost perfect agreements in KRAS testing at a nationwide level despite different testing methods ensuring a cost-effective equal access to personalized colorectal cancer treatment.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068945
PMCID: PMC3723748  PMID: 23935912
3.  High-density linkage mapping in a pine tree reveals a genomic region associated with inbreeding depression and provides clues to the extent and distribution of meiotic recombination 
BMC Biology  2013;11:50.
Background
The availability of a large expressed sequence tags (EST) resource and recent advances in high-throughput genotyping technology have made it possible to develop highly multiplexed SNP arrays for multi-objective genetic applications, including the construction of meiotic maps. Such approaches are particularly useful in species with a large genome size, precluding the use of whole-genome shotgun assembly with current technologies.
Results
In this study, a 12 k-SNP genotyping array was developed for maritime pine from an extensive EST resource assembled into a unigene set. The offspring of three-generation outbred and inbred mapping pedigrees were then genotyped. The inbred pedigree consisted of a classical F2 population resulting from the selfing of a single inter-provenance (Landes x Corsica) hybrid tree, whereas the outbred pedigree (G2) resulted from a controlled cross of two intra-provenance (Landes x Landes) hybrid trees. This resulted in the generation of three linkage maps based on SNP markers: one from the parental genotype of the F2 population (1,131 markers in 1,708 centimorgan (cM)), and one for each parent of the G2 population (1,015 and 1,110 markers in 1,447 and 1,425 cM for the female and male parents, respectively). A comparison of segregation patterns in the progeny obtained from the two types of mating (inbreeding and outbreeding) led to the identification of a chromosomal region carrying an embryo viability locus with a semi-lethal allele. Following selfing and segregation, zygote mortality resulted in a deficit of Corsican homozygous genotypes in the F2 population. This dataset was also used to study the extent and distribution of meiotic recombination along the length of the chromosomes and the effect of sex and/or genetic background on recombination. The genetic background of trees in which meiotic recombination occurred was found to have a significant effect on the frequency of recombination. Furthermore, only a small proportion of the recombination hot- and cold-spots were common to all three genotypes, suggesting that the spatial pattern of recombination was genetically variable.
Conclusion
This study led to the development of classical genomic tools for this ecologically and economically important species. It also identified a chromosomal region bearing a semi-lethal recessive allele and demonstrated the genetic variability of recombination rate over the genome.
doi:10.1186/1741-7007-11-50
PMCID: PMC3660193  PMID: 23597128
Unigene; SNP array; Linkage mapping; Segregation distortion; Recombination; Maritime pine; Pinus pinaster
4.  Low incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in asymptomatic cirrhotic outpatients 
World Journal of Hepatology  2013;5(3):104-108.
AIM: To compare the incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic outpatients and inpatients undergoing therapeutic paracentesis
METHODS: From January 1 to May 31, 2004, 1041 patients from 70 different hospitals underwent 2123 therapeutic abdominal paracentesis (AP) performed as a outpatient procedure in 355 and as inpatient procedure in 686 cases respectively. The following parameters were compared prospectively between outpatients and inpatients: spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) prevalence, age, gender, cause of cirrhosis, symptoms, score and grade according to Child-Pugh classification, cirrhosis complications, antibiotics treatment, serum creatinine, platelet count and ascitic protein concentration.
RESULTS: SBP was observed in 91 patients. In the whole population the SBP prevalence was 8.7% (95%CI: 7.2-10.6) it was 11.7% (95%CI: 9.5-14.3) in inpatients and 3.1% (95%CI: 1.7-5.5) in outpatients (P < 0.00001). SBP prevalence was 8.3% (95%CI: 4.3-15.6) in symptomatic outpatients vs 1.2% (95%CI: 0.4-3.4) in asymptomatic outpatients (P < 0.002). Patients undergoing outpatient AP were significantly different from those undergoing inpatient AP; they were older (61.1 ± 11.1 years vs 59.4 ± 11.7 years; P = 0.028), cause of cirrhosis was less often alcohol (83 .7 vs 88.2%; P < 0.001), Child-Pugh score was lower (8.9 vs 10.1; P < 0.001) and more often B than C (63.7% vs 38%; P < 0.001). In addition, in outpatients the platelet count was higher (161 ± 93 Giga/L vs 143 ± 89 Giga/L; P = 0.003), serum total bilirubin concentration was lower (38.2 ± 60.7 μmol/L vs 96.3 ± 143.3 μmol/L; P < 0.0001), and ascitic protein concentration higher (17.9 ± 10.7 g/L vs 14.5 ± 10.9 g/L; P < 0.001) than in inpatients.
CONCLUSION: In asymptomatic cirrhotic outpatients, the incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is low thus exploratory paracentesis could be avoided in these patients without significant risk.
doi:10.4254/wjh.v5.i3.104
PMCID: PMC3612567  PMID: 23556041
Liver cirrhosis; Ascites; Ascitic fluid; Bacterial infections; Paracentesis; Peritonitis
5.  A national internet-linked based database for pediatric interstitial lung diseases: the French network 
Background
Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) in children represent a heterogeneous group of rare respiratory disorders that affect the lung parenchyma. After the launch of the French Reference Centre for Rare Lung Diseases (RespiRare®), we created a national network and a web-linked database to collect data on pediatric ILD.
Methods
Since 2008, the database has been set up in all RespiRare® centres. After patient's parents' oral consent is obtained, physicians enter the data of children with ILD: identity, social data and environmental data; specific aetiological diagnosis of the ILD if known, genetics, patient visits to the centre, and all medical examinations and tests done for the diagnosis and/or during follow up. Each participating centre has a free access to his own patients' data only, and cross-centre studies require mutual agreement. Physicians may use the system as a daily aid for patient care through a web-linked medical file, backed on this database.
Results
Data was collected for 205 cases of ILD. The M/F sex ratio was 0.9. Median age at diagnosis was 1.5 years old [0–16.9]. A specific aetiology was identified in 149 (72.7%) patients while 56 (27.3%) cases remain undiagnosed. Surfactant deficiencies and alveolar proteinosis, haemosiderosis, and sarcoidosis represent almost half of the diagnoses. Median length of follow-up is 2.9 years [0–17.2].
Conclusions
We introduce here the French network and the largest national database in pediatric ILDs. The diagnosis spectrum and the estimated incidence are consistent with other European databases. An important challenge will be to reduce the proportion of unclassified ILDs by a standardized diagnosis work-up. This database is a great opportunity to improve patient care and disease pathogenesis knowledge. A European network including physicians and European foundations is now emerging with the initial aim of devising a simplified European database/register as a first step to larger European studies.
doi:10.1186/1750-1172-7-40
PMCID: PMC3458912  PMID: 22704798
Interstitial lung disease; Network; Epidemiology; Database
6.  A saturated SSR/DArT linkage map of Musa acuminata addressing genome rearrangements among bananas 
BMC Plant Biology  2010;10:65.
Background
The genus Musa is a large species complex which includes cultivars at diploid and triploid levels. These sterile and vegetatively propagated cultivars are based on the A genome from Musa acuminata, exclusively for sweet bananas such as Cavendish, or associated with the B genome (Musa balbisiana) in cooking bananas such as Plantain varieties. In M. acuminata cultivars, structural heterozygosity is thought to be one of the main causes of sterility, which is essential for obtaining seedless fruits but hampers breeding. Only partial genetic maps are presently available due to chromosomal rearrangements within the parents of the mapping populations. This causes large segregation distortions inducing pseudo-linkages and difficulties in ordering markers in the linkage groups. The present study aims at producing a saturated linkage map of M. acuminata, taking into account hypotheses on the structural heterozygosity of the parents.
Results
An F1 progeny of 180 individuals was obtained from a cross between two genetically distant accessions of M. acuminata, 'Borneo' and 'Pisang Lilin' (P. Lilin). Based on the gametic recombination of each parent, two parental maps composed of SSR and DArT markers were established. A significant proportion of the markers (21.7%) deviated (p < 0.05) from the expected Mendelian ratios. These skewed markers were distributed in different linkage groups for each parent. To solve some complex ordering of the markers on linkage groups, we associated tools such as tree-like graphic representations, recombination frequency statistics and cytogenetical studies to identify structural rearrangements and build parsimonious linkage group order. An illustration of such an approach is given for the P. Lilin parent.
Conclusions
We propose a synthetic map with 11 linkage groups containing 489 markers (167 SSRs and 322 DArTs) covering 1197 cM. This first saturated map is proposed as a "reference Musa map" for further analyses. We also propose two complete parental maps with interpretations of structural rearrangements localized on the linkage groups. The structural heterozygosity in P. Lilin is hypothesized to result from a duplication likely accompanied by an inversion on another chromosome. This paper also illustrates a methodological approach, transferable to other species, to investigate the mapping of structural rearrangements and determine their consequences on marker segregation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2229-10-65
PMCID: PMC2923539  PMID: 20388207
7.  Integrated databanks access and sequence/structure analysis services at the PBIL 
Nucleic Acids Research  2003;31(13):3393-3399.
The World Wide Web server of the PBIL (Pôle Bioinformatique Lyonnais) provides on-line access to sequence databanks and to many tools of nucleic acid and protein sequence analyses. This server allows to query nucleotide sequence banks in the EMBL and GenBank formats and protein sequence banks in the SWISS-PROT and PIR formats. The query engine on which our data bank access is based is the ACNUC system. It allows the possibility to build complex queries to access functional zones of biological interest and to retrieve large sequence sets. Of special interest are the unique features provided by this system to query the data banks of gene families developed at the PBIL. The server also provides access to a wide range of sequence analysis methods: similarity search programs, multiple alignments, protein structure prediction and multivariate statistics. An originality of this server is the integration of these two aspects: sequence retrieval and sequence analysis. Indeed, thanks to the introduction of re-usable lists, it is possible to perform treatments on large sets of data. The PBIL server can be reached at: http://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr.
PMCID: PMC168937  PMID: 12824334
8.  Validation of a Microbead-Based Format for Spoligotyping of Legionella pneumophila 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2014;52(7):2410-2415.
A 42-plex clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-based typing technique (spoligotyping) was recently developed at the French National Reference Center for Legionella. It allows the subtyping of the Legionella pneumophila sequence type 1/Paris pulsotype. In this report, we present the transfer of the membrane-based spoligotyping technique to a microbead-based multiplexed format. This microbead-based high-throughput assay uses devices such as Luminex 200 or the recently launched Magpix system (Luminex Corp., Austin, TX). We designated this new technique LP-SPOL (for L. pneumophila spoligotyping). We used two sets of samples previously subtyped by the membrane-based spoligotyping method to set up and validate the transfer on the two microbead-based systems. The first set of isolates (n = 56) represented the whole diversity of the CRISPR patterns known to date. These isolates were used for transfer setup (determination of spacer cutoffs for both devices). The second set of isolates (n = 245) was used to validate the transfer to the two microbead-based systems. The results obtained by the Luminex 200 system were 100% concordant with those obtained by the Magpix system for the 2 sets of isolates. In total, 10 discrepant results were observed when comparing the membrane-based method to the microbead-based method. These discrepancies were further resolved by repeating either the membrane-based or the microbead-based assay. This new assay is expected to play an emerging role for surveillance of L. pneumophila, starting with one of the most frequent genotypes, the sequence type 1/Paris pulsotype. However, the generalization of this typing method to all L. pneumophila strains is not feasible, since not all L. pneumophila strains contain CRISPRs.
doi:10.1128/JCM.00219-14
PMCID: PMC4097685  PMID: 24759720
9.  Unexpected biotic resilience on the Japanese seafloor caused by the 2011 Tōhoku-Oki tsunami 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:7517.
On March 11th, 2011 the Mw 9.0 2011 Tōhoku-Oki earthquake resulted in a tsunami which caused major devastation in coastal areas. Along the Japanese NE coast, tsunami waves reached maximum run-ups of 40 m, and travelled kilometers inland. Whereas devastation was clearly visible on land, underwater impact is much more difficult to assess. Here, we report unexpected results obtained during a research cruise targeting the seafloor off Shimokita (NE Japan), shortly (five months) after the disaster. The geography of the studied area is characterized by smooth coastline and a gradually descending shelf slope. Although high-energy tsunami waves caused major sediment reworking in shallow-water environments, investigated shelf ecosystems were characterized by surprisingly high benthic diversity and showed no evidence of mass mortality. Conversely, just beyond the shelf break, the benthic ecosystem was dominated by a low-diversity, opportunistic fauna indicating ongoing colonization of massive sand-bed deposits.
doi:10.1038/srep07517
PMCID: PMC4268652  PMID: 25515588
10.  Multicenter Outbreak of Infections by Saprochaete clavata, an Unrecognized Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen 
Vaux, Sophie | Criscuolo, Alexis | Desnos-Ollivier, Marie | Diancourt, Laure | Tarnaud, Chloé | Vandenbogaert, Matthias | Brisse, Sylvain | Coignard, Bruno | Dromer, Françoise | Garcia-Hermoso, Dea | Blanc, Catherine | Hoinard, Damien | Lortholary, Olivier | Bretagne, Stéphane | Thiolet, Jean-Michel | de Valk, Henriette | Courbil, Rémi | Chabanel, Anne | Simonet, Marion | Maire, Francoise | Jbilou, Saadia | Tiberghien, Pierre | Blanchard, Hervé | Venier, Anne-Gaëlle | Bernet, Claude | Simon, Loïc | Sénéchal, Hélène | Pouchol, Elodie | Angot, Christiane | Ribaud, Patricia | Socié, G. | Flèche, M. | Brieu, Nathalie | Lagier, Evelyne | Chartier, Vanessa | Allegre, Thierry | Maulin, Laurence | Lanic, Hélène | Tilly, Hervé | Bouchara, Jean-Philippe | Pihet, Marc | Schmidt, Aline | Kouatchet, Achille | Vandamme, Yves-Marie | Ifrah, Norbert | Mercat, Alain | Accoceberry, Isabelle | Albert, Olivier | Leguay, Thibaut | Rogues, Anne-Marie | Bonhomme, Julie | Reman, Oumédaly | Lesteven, Claire | Poirier, Philippe | Chabrot, Cécile Molucon | Calvet, Laure | Baud, Olivier | Cambon, Monique | Farkas, Jean Chistophe | Lafon, Bruno | Dalle, Frédéric | Caillot, Denis | Lazzarotti, Aline | Aho, Serge | Combret, Sandrine | Facon, Thierry | Sendid, Boualem | Loridant, Séverine | Louis, Terriou | Cazin, Bruno | Grandbastien, Bruno | Bourgeois, Nathalie | Lotthé, Anne | Cartron, Guillaume | Ravel, Christophe | Colson, Pascal | Gaudard, Philippe | Bonmati, Caroline | Simon, Loic | Rabaud, Christian | Machouart, Marie | Poisson, Didier | Carp, Diana | Meunier, Jérôme | Gaschet, Anne | Miquel, Chantal | Sanhes, Laurence | Ferreyra, Milagros | Leibinger, Franck | Geudet, Philippe | Toubas, Dominique | Himberlin, Chantal | Bureau-Chalot, Florence | Delmer, Alain | Favennec, Loïc | Gargala, Gilles | Michot, Jean-Baptiste | Girault, Christophe | David, Marion | Leprêtre, Stéphane | Jardin, Fabrice | Honderlick, Pierre | Caille, Vincent | Cerf, Charles | Cassaing, Sophie | Recher, Christian | Picard, Muriel | Protin, Caroline | Huguet, Françoise | Huynh, Anne | Ruiz, Jean | Riu-Poulenc, Béatrice | Letocart, Philippe | Marchou, Bruno | Verdeil, Xavier | Cavalié, Laurent | Chauvin, Pamela | Iriart, Xavier | Valentin, Alexis | Bouvet, Emmanuelle | Delmas-Marsalet, Béatrice | Jeblaoui, Asma | Kassis-Chikhani, Najiby | Mühlethaler, Konrad | Zimmerli, Stefan | Zalar, Polona | Sánchez-Reus, Ferran | Gurgui, Merce
mBio  2014;5(6):e02309-14.
ABSTRACT
Rapidly fatal cases of invasive fungal infections due to a fungus later identified as Saprochaete clavata were reported in France in May 2012. The objectives of this study were to determine the clonal relatedness of the isolates and to investigate possible sources of contamination. A nationwide alert was launched to collect cases. Molecular identification methods, whole-genome sequencing (WGS), and clone-specific genotyping were used to analyze recent and historical isolates, and a case-case study was performed. Isolates from thirty cases (26 fungemias, 22 associated deaths at day 30) were collected between September 2011 and October 2012. Eighteen cases occurred within 8 weeks (outbreak) in 10 health care facilities, suggesting a common source of contamination, with potential secondary cases. Phylogenetic analysis identified one clade (clade A), which accounted for 16/18 outbreak cases. Results of microbiological investigations of environmental, drug, or food sources were negative. Analysis of exposures pointed to a medical device used for storage and infusion of blood products, but no fungal contamination was detected in the unused devices. Molecular identification of isolates from previous studies demonstrated that S. clavata can be found in dairy products and has already been involved in monocentric outbreaks in hematology wards. The possibility that S. clavata may transmit through contaminated medical devices or can be associated with dairy products as seen in previous European outbreaks is highly relevant for the management of future outbreaks due to this newly recognized pathogen. This report also underlines further the potential of WGS for investigation of outbreaks due to uncommon fungal pathogens.
IMPORTANCE
Several cases of rapidly fatal infections due to the fungus Saprochaete clavata were reported in France within a short period of time in three health care facilities, suggesting a common source of contamination. A nationwide alert collected 30 cases over 1 year, including an outbreak of 18 cases over 8 weeks. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was used to analyze recent and historical isolates and to design a clade-specific genotyping method that uncovered a clone associated with the outbreak, thus allowing a case-case study to analyze the risk factors associated with infection by the clone. The possibility that S. clavata may transmit through contaminated medical devices or can be associated with dairy products as seen in previous European outbreaks is highly relevant for the management of future outbreaks due to this newly recognized pathogen.
doi:10.1128/mBio.02309-14
PMCID: PMC4271555  PMID: 25516620
11.  Constitutional and somatic deletions of the Williams-Beuren syndrome critical region in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma 
Here, we report and investigate the genomic alterations of two novel cases of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) in children with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS), a multisystem disorder caused by 7q11.23 hemizygous deletion. Additionally, we report the case of a child with NHL and a somatic 7q11.23 deletion. Although the WBS critical region has not yet been identified as a susceptibility locus in NHL, it harbors a number of genes involved in DNA repair. The high proportion of pediatric NHL reported in WBS is intriguing. Therefore, the role of haploinsufficiency of genes located at 7q11.23 in lymphomagenesis deserves to be investigated.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13045-014-0082-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13045-014-0082-4
PMCID: PMC4228180  PMID: 25388916
Williams-Beuren syndrome; Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; 7q11.23; Cancer predisposition; DNA repair
12.  Viral Etiology of Respiratory Tract Infections in Children at the Pediatric Hospital in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e110435.
Background
Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children in Africa. The circulation of viruses classically implicated in ARIs is poorly known in Burkina Faso. The aim of this study was to identify the respiratory viruses present in children admitted to or consulting at the pediatric hospital in Ouagadougou.
Methods
From July 2010 to July 2011, we tested nasal aspirates of 209 children with upper or lower respiratory infection for main respiratory viruses (respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), metapneumovirus, adenovirus, parainfluenza viruses 1, 2 and 3, influenza A, B and C, rhinovirus/enterovirus), by immunofluorescence locally in Ouagadougou, and by PCR in France. Bacteria have also been investigated in 97 samples.
Results
153 children (73.2%) carried at least one virus and 175 viruses were detected. Rhinoviruses/enteroviruses were most frequently detected (rhinovirus n = 88; enterovirus n = 38) and were found to circulate throughout the year. An epidemic of RSV infections (n = 25) was identified in September/October, followed by an epidemic of influenza virus (n = 13), mostly H1N1pdm09. This epidemic occurred during the period of the year in which nighttime temperatures and humidity were at their lowest. Other viruses tested were detected only sporadically. Twenty-two viral co-infections were observed. Bacteria were detected in 29/97 samples with 22 viral/bacterial co-infections.
Conclusions
This study, the first of its type in Burkina Faso, warrants further investigation to confirm the seasonality of RSV infection and to improve local diagnosis of influenza. The long-term objective is to optimize therapeutic management of infected children.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0110435
PMCID: PMC4215928  PMID: 25360527
13.  A multicentre, randomised, controlled trial to assess the safety, ease of use, and reliability of hyaluronic acid/carboxymethylcellulose powder adhesion barrier versus no barrier in colorectal laparoscopic surgery 
Trials  2014;15(1):413.
Background
Intra-peritoneal adhesions are frequent following abdominal surgery and are the most common cause of small bowel obstructions. A hyaluronic acid/carboxymethylcellulose (HA/CMC) film adhesion barrier has been shown to reduce adhesion formation in abdominal surgery. An HA/CMC powder formulation was developed for application during laparoscopic procedures.
Methods
This was an exploratory, prospective, randomised, single-blind, parallel-group, Phase IIIb, multicentre study conducted at 15 hospitals in France to assess the safety of HA/CMC powder versus no adhesion barrier following laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Subjects ≥18 years of age who were scheduled for colorectal laparoscopy (Mangram contamination class I‒III) within 8 weeks of selection were eligible, regardless of aetiology. Participants were randomised 1:1 to the HA/CMC powder or no adhesion barrier group using a centralised randomisation list. Patients assigned to HA/CMC powder received a single application of 1 to 10 g on adhesion-prone areas. In the no adhesion barrier group, no adhesion barrier or placebo was applied. The primary safety assessments were the incidence of adverse events, serious adverse events, and surgical site infections (SSIs) for 30 days following surgery. Between-group comparisons were made using Fisher’s exact test.
Results
Of those randomised to the HA/CMC powder (n = 105) or no adhesion barrier (n = 104) groups, one patient in each group discontinued prior to the study end (one death in each group). Adverse events were more frequent in the HA/CMC powder group versus the no adhesion barrier group (63% vs. 39%; P <0.001), as were serious adverse events (28% vs. 11%; P <0.001). There were no statistically significant differences between the HA/CMC powder group and the no adhesion barrier group in SSIs (21% vs. 14%; P = 0.216) and serious SSIs (12% vs. 9%; P = 0.38), or in the most frequent serious SSIs of pelvic abscess (5% and 2%; significance not tested), anastomotic fistula (3% and 4%), and peritonitis (2% and 3%).
Conclusions
This exploratory study found significantly higher rates of adverse events and serious adverse events in the HA/CMC powder group compared with the no adhesion barrier group in laparoscopic colorectal resection.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00813397. Registered 19 December 2008.
doi:10.1186/1745-6215-15-413
PMCID: PMC4233044  PMID: 25348087
Adhesion barrier; Colorectal surgery; Laparoscopy; Surgical adhesions; Surgical site infection
14.  Computational Design of Protein-Based Inhibitors of Plasmodium vivax Subtilisin-Like 1 Protease 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e109269.
Background
Malaria remains a major global health concern. The development of novel therapeutic strategies is critical to overcome the selection of multiresistant parasites. The subtilisin-like protease (SUB1) involved in the egress of daughter Plasmodium parasites from infected erythrocytes and in their subsequent invasion into fresh erythrocytes has emerged as an interesting new drug target.
Findings
Using a computational approach based on homology modeling, protein–protein docking and mutation scoring, we designed protein–based inhibitors of Plasmodium vivax SUB1 (PvSUB1) and experimentally evaluated their inhibitory activity. The small peptidic trypsin inhibitor EETI-II was used as scaffold. We mutated residues at specific positions (P4 and P1) and calculated the change in free-energy of binding with PvSUB1. In agreement with our predictions, we identified a mutant of EETI-II (EETI-II-P4LP1W) with a Ki in the medium micromolar range.
Conclusions
Despite the challenges related to the lack of an experimental structure of PvSUB1, the computational protocol we developed in this study led to the design of protein-based inhibitors of PvSUB1. The approach we describe in this paper, together with other examples, demonstrates the capabilities of computational procedures to accelerate and guide the design of novel proteins with interesting therapeutic applications.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0109269
PMCID: PMC4208747  PMID: 25343504
15.  Synergistic effects of Bifidobacterium thermophilum RBL67 and selected prebiotics on inhibition of Salmonella colonization in the swine proximal colon PolyFermS model 
Gut Pathogens  2014;6(1):44.
Background
Probiotics and prebiotics are promising strategies to counteract Salmonella prevalence in swine. In the present study, we investigated the effects of prebiotics (fructo- (FOS), galacto- (GOS) and mannan- (MOS) oligosaccharides) and the bacteriocinogenic Bifidobacterium thermophilum RBL67 (RBL67) on Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium N-15 (N-15) colonization using the PolyFermS in vitro continuous fermentation model simulating the swine proximal colon.
Material and methods
The PolyFermS model was designed with a first-stage reactor containing immobilized fecal pig microbiota. This reactor continuously inoculated five parallel second-stage reactors, a control and four treatment reactors, all operated with proximal colon conditions. FOS and GOS (5.2 g/day), and MOS (half dosage) and RBL67 (108 copy numbers/mL applied daily) were tested on the ability of N-15 to colonize reactors, inoculated with the same microbiota. Reactor effluents were collected daily and analyzed for microbial composition (quantitative PCR and 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene pool) and main metabolites (HPLC).
Results
RBL67 and N-15 were shown to stably colonize the system. Colonization of N-15 was strongly inhibited by FOS and GOS, whereas addition of RBL67 alone or combined with MOS showed intermediate results. However, the effect of FOS and GOS was enhanced when prebiotics were combined with a daily addition of RBL67. FOS and GOS increased the total short chain fatty acid production, especially acetate and propionate. RBL67 combined with FOS additionally stimulated butyrate production.
Conclusions
Our study demonstrates the suitability of the porcine PolyFermS in vitro model to study nutritional effects of pro- and prebiotics on gut microbiota composition and activity. It can further be used to monitor Salmonella colonization. The inhibition effects of FOS and GOS on N-15 colonization are partly due to an increased acetate production, while further antimicrobial mechanisms may contribute to an enhanced inhibition with prebiotic-RBL67 combinations. A future direction of this work could be to understand the anti-Salmonella effects of Bifidobacterium thermophilum RBL67 in the presence of prebiotics to unravel the mechanism of this probiotic:pathogen interaction.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13099-014-0044-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13099-014-0044-y
PMCID: PMC4215022  PMID: 25364390
Bifidobacterium thermophilum RBL67; Swine; Intestinal fermentation model; Prebiotics; Probiotics; Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium N-15
16.  Mutations in CECR1 associated with a neutrophil signature in peripheral blood 
Background
A reduction of ADA2 activity due to autosomal recessive loss of function mutations in CECR1 results in a newly described vasculopathic phenotype reminiscent of polyarteritis nodosa, with manifestations ranging from fatal systemic vasculitis with multiple strokes in children to limited cutaneous disease in middle-aged individuals. Evidence indicates that ADA2 is essential for the endothelial integrity of small vessels. However, CECR1 is not expressed, nor is the ADA2 protein detectable, in cultured human endothelial cells, thus implicating additional cell types or circulating factors in disease pathogenesis.
Methods
Considering the phenotypic overlap of ADA2 deficiency with the type I interferonopathy Aicardi-Goutières syndrome due to mutations in SAMHD1, we looked for the presence of an interferon signature in the peripheral blood of two newly ascertained ADA2-deficient patients.
Results
We identified biallelic CECR1 mutations in two patients consistent with ADA2 deficiency. Both patients demonstrated an upregulation of interferon stimulated gene transcripts in peripheral blood. More strikingly however, genome-wide analysis revealed a marked overexpression of neutrophil-derived genes, suggesting that the vasculitis seen in ADA2 deficiency may be an indirect effect resulting from chronic and marked activity of neutrophils.
Conclusions
We hypothesise that ADA2 may act as a regulator of neutrophil activation, and that a reduction of ADA2 activity results in significant endothelial damage via a neutrophil-driven process.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1546-0096-12-44) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/1546-0096-12-44
PMCID: PMC4181355  PMID: 25278816
Adenosine deaminase; ADA2; CECR1; Neutrophil signature; Type I interferon; Aicardi-Goutières syndrome; SAMHD1
17.  jvenn: an interactive Venn diagram viewer 
BMC Bioinformatics  2014;15(1):293.
Background
Venn diagrams are commonly used to display list comparison. In biology, they are widely used to show the differences between gene lists originating from different differential analyses, for instance. They thus allow the comparison between different experimental conditions or between different methods. However, when the number of input lists exceeds four, the diagram becomes difficult to read. Alternative layouts and dynamic display features can improve its use and its readability.
Results
jvenn is a new JavaScript library. It processes lists and produces Venn diagrams. It handles up to six input lists and presents results using classical or Edwards-Venn layouts. User interactions can be controlled and customized. Finally, jvenn can easily be embeded in a web page, allowing to have dynamic Venn diagrams.
Conclusions
jvenn is an open source component for web environments helping scientists to analyze their data. The library package, which comes with full documentation and an example, is freely available at http://bioinfo.genotoul.fr/jvenn.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-15-293
PMCID: PMC4261873  PMID: 25176396
Venn; Edward-Venn; Vizualisation; jquery; JavaScript
18.  Increased oxidative metabolism and myoglobin expression in zebrafish muscle during chronic hypoxia 
Biology Open  2014;3(8):718-727.
ABSTRACT
Fish may be extremely hypoxia resistant. We investigated how muscle fibre size and oxidative capacity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) adapt during severe chronic hypoxia. Zebrafish were kept for either 3 or 6 weeks under chronic constant hypoxia (CCH) (10% air/90%N2 saturated water). We analyzed cross-sectional area (CSA), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, capillarization, myonuclear density, myoglobin (Mb) concentration and Mb mRNA expression of high and low oxidative muscle fibres. After 3 weeks of CCH, CSA, SDH activity, Mb concentration, capillary and myonuclear density of both muscle fibre types were similar as under normoxia. In contrast, staining intensity for Mb mRNA of hypoxic high oxidative muscle fibres was 94% higher than that of normoxic controls (P<0.001). Between 3 and 6 weeks of CCH, CSA of high and low oxidative muscle fibres increased by 25 and 30%, respectively. This was similar to normoxic controls. Capillary and myonuclear density were not changed by CCH. However, in high oxidative muscle fibres of fish maintained under CCH, SDH activity, Mb concentration as well as Mb mRNA content were higher by 86%, 138% and 90%, respectively, than in muscle fibres of fish kept under normoxia (P<0.001). In low oxidative muscle fibres, SDH activity, Mb and Mb mRNA content were not significantly changed. Under normoxia, the calculated interstitial oxygen tension required to prevent anoxic cores in muscle fibres (PO2crit) of high oxidative muscle fibres was between 1.0 and 1.7 mmHg. These values were similar at 3 and 6 weeks CCH. We conclude that high oxidative skeletal muscle fibres of zebrafish continue to grow and increase oxidative capacity during CCH. Oxygen supply to mitochondria in these fibres may be facilitated by an increased Mb concentration, which is regulated by an increase in Mb mRNA content per myonucleus.
doi:10.1242/bio.20149167
PMCID: PMC4133725  PMID: 25063194
Chronic hypoxia; Endurance; Skeletal muscle; Adaptation; Acclimatization; Acclimation; Mitochondrial density; Hypertrophy; Myoglobin; Capillarization; Critical oxygen tension
19.  Targeting Chelatable Iron as a Therapeutic Modality in Parkinson's Disease 
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling  2014;21(2):195-210.
Abstract
Aims: The pathophysiological role of iron in Parkinson's disease (PD) was assessed by a chelation strategy aimed at reducing oxidative damage associated with regional iron deposition without affecting circulating metals. Translational cell and animal models provided concept proofs and a delayed-start (DS) treatment paradigm, the basis for preliminary clinical assessments. Results: For translational studies, we assessed the effect of oxidative insults in mice systemically prechelated with deferiprone (DFP) by following motor functions, striatal dopamine (HPLC and MRI-PET), and brain iron deposition (relaxation-R2*-MRI) aided by spectroscopic measurements of neuronal labile iron (with fluorescence-sensitive iron sensors) and oxidative damage by markers of protein, lipid, and DNA modification. DFP significantly reduced labile iron and biological damage in oxidation-stressed cells and animals, improving motor functions while raising striatal dopamine. For a pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, early-stage Parkinson's patients on stabilized dopamine regimens enrolled in a 12-month single-center study with DFP (30 mg/kg/day). Based on a 6-month DS paradigm, early-start patients (n=19) compared to DS patients (n=18) (37/40 completed) responded significantly earlier and sustainably to treatment in both substantia nigra iron deposits (R2* MRI) and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor indicators of disease progression (p<0.03 and p<0.04, respectively). Apart from three rapidly resolved neutropenia cases, safety was maintained throughout the trial. Innovation: A moderate iron chelation regimen that avoids changes in systemic iron levels may constitute a novel therapeutic modality for PD. Conclusions: The therapeutic features of a chelation modality established in translational models and in pilot clinical trials warrant comprehensive evaluation of symptomatic and/or disease-modifying potential of chelation in PD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 195–210.
doi:10.1089/ars.2013.5593
PMCID: PMC4060813  PMID: 24251381
20.  Evidence of Dengue Virus Transmission and Factors Associated with the Presence of Anti-Dengue Virus Antibodies in Humans in Three Major Towns in Cameroon 
Background
Dengue is not well documented in Africa. In Cameroon, data are scarce, but dengue infection has been confirmed in humans. We conducted a study to document risk factors associated with anti-dengue virus Immunoglobulin G seropositivity in humans in three major towns in Cameroon.
Methodology/Principal Findings
A cross sectional survey was conducted in Douala, Garoua and Yaounde, using a random cluster sampling design. Participants underwent a standardized interview and were blood sampled. Environmental and housing characteristics were recorded. Randomized houses were prospected to record all water containers, and immature stages of Aedes mosquitoes were collected. Sera were screened for anti-dengue virus IgG and IgM antibodies. Risk factors of seropositivity were tested using logistic regression methods with random effects.
Anti-dengue IgG were found from 61.4% of sera in Douala (n = 699), 24.2% in Garoua (n = 728) and 9.8% in Yaounde (n = 603). IgM were found from 0.3% of Douala samples, 0.1% of Garoua samples and 0.0% of Yaounde samples. Seroneutralization on randomly selected IgG positive sera showed that 72% (n = 100) in Douala, 80% (n = 94) in Garoua and 77% (n = 66) in Yaounde had antibodies specific for dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2).
Age, temporary house walls materials, having water-storage containers, old tires or toilets in the yard, having no TV, having no air conditioning and having travelled at least once outside the city were independently associated with anti-dengue IgG positivity in Douala. Age, having uncovered water containers, having no TV, not being born in Garoua and not breeding pigs were significant risk factors in Garoua. Recent history of malaria, having banana trees and stagnant water in the yard were independent risk factors in Yaounde.
Conclusion/Significance
In this survey, most identified risk factors of dengue were related to housing conditions. Poverty and underdevelopment are central to the dengue epidemiology in Cameroon.
Author Summary
General awareness of dengue fever in Africa, and particularly in Cameroon, is weak. Many acute febrile illnesses are considered as malaria, although not laboratory confirmed, and the diagnosis of dengue fever is seldom evoked while its laboratory confirmation is even more seldom obtained. On the basis of anti-dengue virus IgG seropositivity in humans, our survey demonstrated that dengue virus transmission occurred in the three main towns of the country. Although the findings varied according to the location, identified risk factors of anti-dengue virus seropositivity were commonly related to housing conditions. Taking into account the risk factors identified in Douala, practical ways to lower the risk of dengue virus transmission are long term development and improvement of sanitation and education. We concluded that poverty and underdevelopment are central to the problem of dengue virus transmission in urban areas in Cameroon.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002950
PMCID: PMC4091864  PMID: 25009996
21.  Common subclinical hypothyroidism during Whipple’s disease 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2014;14:370.
Background
Classic Whipple’s disease is caused by T. whipplei and likely involves genetic predispositions, such as the HLA alleles DRB1*13 and DQB1*06, that are more frequently observed in patients. T. whipplei carriage occurs in 2-4% of the general population in France. Subclinical hypothyroidism, characterized by high levels of TSH and normal free tetra-iodothyronine (fT4) dosage, has been rarely associated with specific HLA factors.
Methods
We retrospectively tested TSHus in 80 patients and 42 carriers. In cases of dysthyroidism, we tested the levels of free-T4 and anti-thyroid antibodies, and the HLA genotypes were also determined for seven to eight patients.
Results
In this study, 72-74% of patients and carriers were male, and among the 80 patients, 14 (17%) individuals had a high level of TSH, whereas none of the carriers did (p < 0 · 01). In the 14 patients with no clinical manifestations, the T4 levels were normal, and no specific antibodies were present. Four patients treated with antibiotics, without thyroxine supplementation, showed normal levels of TSHus after one or two years. One patient displayed a second episode of subclinical hypothyroidism during a Whipple’s disease relapse five years later, but the subclinical hypothyroidism regressed after antibiotic treatment. HLA typing revealed nine alleles that appeared more frequently in patients than in the control cohort, but none of these differences reached significance due to the small size of the patient group.
Conclusion
Regardless of the substratum, classic Whipple’s disease could lead to subclinical hypothyroidism. We recommend systematically testing the TSH levels in patients with Whipple’s disease.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-370
PMCID: PMC4099391  PMID: 24996424
Tropheryma whipplei; Whipple’s disease; Subclinical hypothyroidism; HLA
22.  Influence of FCGRT gene polymorphisms on pharmacokinetics of therapeutic antibodies 
mAbs  2013;5(4):614-619.
The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) encoded by FCGRT is known to be involved in the pharmacokinetics (PK) of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Variability in the expression of FCGRT gene and consequently in the FcRn protein level could explain differences in PK observed between patients treated with mAbs. We studied whether the previously described variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) or copy number variation (CNV) of FCGRT are associated with individual variations of PK parameters of cetuximab. VNTR and CNV were assessed on genomic DNA of 198 healthy individuals and of 94 patients treated with the therapeutic mAb. VNTR and CNV were analyzed by allele-specific PCR and duplex real-time PCR with Taqman® technology, respectively. The relationship between FCGRT polymorphisms (VNTR and CNV) and PK parameters of patients treated with cetuximab was studied. VNTR3 homozygote patients had a lower cetuximab distribution clearance than VNTR2/VNTR3 and VNTR3/VNTR4 patients (p = 0.021). We observed no affects of VNTR genotype on elimination clearance. One healthy person (0.5%) and 1 patient (1.1%) had 3 copies of FCGRT. The PK parameters of this patient did not differ from those of patients with 2 copies. The FCGRT promoter VNTR may influence mAbs’ distribution in the body. CNV of FCGRT cannot be used as a relevant pharmacogenetic marker because of its low frequency.
doi:10.4161/mabs.24815
PMCID: PMC3906315  PMID: 23751752
FcRn; neonatal Fc receptor; DNA Copy Number Variation; therapeutic monoclonal antibodies; pharmacokinetics; therapeutic drug monitoring; cetuximab; genetic polymorphism
23.  Ultradeep Pyrosequencing and Molecular Modeling Identify Key Structural Features of Hepatitis B Virus RNase H, a Putative Target for Antiviral Intervention 
Journal of Virology  2014;88(1):574-582.
Last-generation nucleoside/nucleotide analogues are potent against hepatitis B virus (HBV) and have a high barrier to resistance. However, delayed responses have been observed in patients previously exposed to other drugs of the same class, long-term resistance is possible, and cure of infection cannot be achieved with these therapies, emphasizing the need for alternative therapeutic approaches. The HBV RNase H represents an interesting target because its enzyme activity is essential to the HBV life cycle. The goal of our study was to characterize the structure of the HBV RNase H by computing a 3-dimensional molecular model derived from E. coli RNase H and analyzing 2,326 sequences of all HBV genotypes available in public databases and 958,000 sequences generated by means of ultradeep pyrosequencing of sequences from a homogenous population of 73 treatment-naive patients infected with HBV genotype D. Our data revealed that (i) the putative 4th catalytic residue displays unexpected variability that could be explained by the overlap of the HBx gene and has no apparent impact on HBV replicative capacity and that (ii) the C-helix-containing basic protrusion, which is required to guide the RNA/DNA heteroduplex into the catalytic site, is highly conserved and bears unique structural properties that can be used to target HBV-specific RNase H inhibitors without cross-species activity. The model shows substantial differences from other known RNases H and paves the way for functional and structural studies as a prerequisite to the development of new inhibitors of the HBV cell cycle specifically targeting RNase H activity.
doi:10.1128/JVI.03000-13
PMCID: PMC3911741  PMID: 24173223
24.  Could baseline health-related quality of life (QoL) predict overall survival in metastatic colorectal cancer? The results of the GERCOR OPTIMOX 1 study 
Background
Health-related quality of life (QoL) has prognostic value in many cancers. A recent study found that the performance of prognostic systems for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) were improvable. We evaluated the independent prognostic value of QoL for overall survival (OS) and its ability to improve two prognostic systems’performance (Köhne and GERCOR models) for patients with mCRC.
Methods
The EQ-5D questionnaire was self-completed before randomization in the OPTIMOX1, a phase III trial comparing two strategies of FOLFOX chemotherapy which included 620 previously untreated mCRC patients recruited from January 2000 to June 2002 from 56 institutions in five countries. The improvement in models’ performance (after addition of QoL) was studied with Harrell’s C-index and the net reclassification improvement.
Results
Of the 620 patients, 249 (40%) completed QoL datasets. The Köhne model could be improved by LDH, mobility and pain/discomfort; the C-index rose from 0.54 to 0.67. The associated NRI for 12-month death was 0.23 [0.05; 0.46]. Mobility and pain/discomfort could be added to the GERCOR model: the C-index varied from 0.63 to 0.68. The NRI for 12 months death was 0.35 [0.12; 0.44].
Conclusions
Mobility and pain dimensions of EQ5D are independent prognostic factors and could be useful for staging and treatment assignment of mCRC patients. Presented at the 2011 ASCO Annual Meeting (#3632).
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-12-69
PMCID: PMC4029890  PMID: 24886671
25.  Evolution of Bacterial Protein-Tyrosine Kinases and Their Relaxed Specificity Toward Substrates 
Genome Biology and Evolution  2014;6(4):800-817.
It has often been speculated that bacterial protein-tyrosine kinases (BY-kinases) evolve rapidly and maintain relaxed substrate specificity to quickly adopt new substrates when evolutionary pressure in that direction arises. Here, we report a phylogenomic and biochemical analysis of BY-kinases, and their relationship to substrates aimed to validate this hypothesis. Our results suggest that BY-kinases are ubiquitously distributed in bacterial phyla and underwent a complex evolutionary history, affected considerably by gene duplications and horizontal gene transfer events. This is consistent with the fact that the BY-kinase sequences represent a high level of substitution saturation and have a higher evolutionary rate compared with other bacterial genes. On the basis of similarity networks, we could classify BY kinases into three main groups with 14 subgroups. Extensive sequence conservation was observed only around the three canonical Walker motifs, whereas unique signatures proposed the functional speciation and diversification within some subgroups. The relationship between BY-kinases and their substrates was analyzed using a ubiquitous substrate (Ugd) and some Firmicute-specific substrates (YvyG and YjoA) from Bacillus subtilis. No evidence of coevolution between kinases and substrates at the sequence level was found. Seven BY-kinases, including well-characterized and previously uncharacterized ones, were used for experimental studies. Most of the tested kinases were able to phosphorylate substrates from B. subtilis (Ugd, YvyG, and YjoA), despite originating from very distant bacteria. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that BY-kinases have evolved relaxed substrate specificity and are probably maintained as rapidly evolving platforms for adopting new substrates.
doi:10.1093/gbe/evu056
PMCID: PMC4007543  PMID: 24728941
phylogeny; bacterial protein kinases; kinase evolution; kinase classification; BY-kinases; kinase-substrate coevolution

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