Considering the high incidence of Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) in the
population aged 15-30 years and the fact that students are exposed to stressful
psychosocial factors, the purposes of this study were: to verify clinical symptoms
and jaw functionality in college students with TMD according to the
anxiety/depression (A/D) level and to evaluate the correlation between A/D and
functionality, maximum mouth opening (MMO) and pain and muscle activity.
Material and Methods
Nineteen students with TMD diagnosed according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria
for Temporomandibular Disorders underwent two assessments during an academic
semester. The evaluations were based on questionnaires (MFIQ - Mandibular Function
Impairment Questionnaire; HADS - Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), clinical
measurements (MMO without pain, MMO and assisted MMO; palpation of joint and
masticatory muscles), and electromyography. The HADS scores obtained in the two
assessments were used to classify all data as either "high" or "low" A/D. Data
normality, differences and correlations were tested with the Shapiro-Wilk test,
Student's t-test (or the Wilcoxon test), and Spearman test, respectively. The
alpha level was set at 0.05.
None of the clinical variables were significantly different when comparing low and
high A/D data. In low A/D there was a significant correlation between HADS score
and: MFIQ (P=0.005, r=0.61), and MMO without pain (P=0.01, r=-0.55).
Variation in A/D level did not change clinical symptoms or jaw functionality in
college students with TMD. Apparently, there is a correlation between TMJ
functionality and A/D level, which should be further investigated, taking into
account the source of the TMD and including subjects with greater functional