Dexmedetomidine has a sedative analgesic property without respiratory depression. This study evaluated the efficacy of dexmedetomidine as an appropriate sedative drug for monitored anesthesia care (MAC) in outpatients undergoing cataract surgery on both eyes compared with combination of propofol and alfentanil.
Thirty-one eligible patients were randomly divided into two groups on the first operation day. Dexmedetomidine was administered in group D at 0.6 µg/kg/h, and propofol and alfentanil was infused concomitantly in group P at a rate of 2 mg/kg/h and 20 µg/kg/h, respectively. Sedation was titrated at Ramsay sedation score 3. Iowa satisfaction with anesthesia scale (ISAS) of the patients was evaluated postoperatively. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), respiration rate (RR), and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) were recorded throughout the surgery. For the second operation, the group assignments were exchanged.
Postoperative ISAS was 50.3 (6.2) in group D and 42.7 (8.7) in group P, which was statistically significant (P < 0.001). SBP was significantly lower in group D compared with group P from the beginning of the operation. HR, RR, and SpO2 were comparable between the two groups. There were 8 cases (25.8%) of hypertension in group P, and 1 case (3.2%) in group D (P < 0.05). In contrast, 1 case (3.2%) of hypotension and 1 case (3.2%) of bradycardia occurred in group D.
Compared with the combined use of propofol and alfentanil, dexmedetomidine could be used appropriately for MAC in cataract surgery with better satisfaction from the patients and a more stable cardiovascular state.
Cataract; Dexmedetomidine; Monitored anesthesia care; Propofol
Bupivacaine inhibits cardiac conduction and contractility. Insulin enhances cardiac repolarization and myocardial contractility. We hypothesizes that insulin therapy would be effective in resuscitating bupivacaine-induced cardiac toxicity in rabbits. Twelve rabbits were tracheally intubated and midline sternotomy was performed under general anesthesia. Cardiovascular collapse (CVC) was induced by an IV bolus injection of bupivacaine 10 mg/kg. The rabbits were treated with either saline (control) or insulin injection, administered as a 2 U/kg bolus. Internal cardiac massage was performed until the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and the time to the return of sinus rhythm (ROSR) was also noted in both groups. Arterial blood pressure, and electrocardiography were continuously monitored for 30 min and plasma bupivacaine concentrations at every 5 min. The ROSC, ROSR and normalization of QRS duration were attained faster in the insulin-treated group than in the control group. At the ROSC, there was a significant difference in bupivacaine concentration between two groups. Insulin facilitates the return of myocardial contractility and conduction from bupivacaine-induced CVC in rabbits. However, recovery of cardiac conduction is dependent mainly on the change of plasma bupivacaine concentrations.
The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of sevoflurane after severe forebrain ischemic injury. We also examined the relationship between the duration of ischemia and neuronal cell death.
Male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-380 g) were subjected to 6 (each n = 6) or 10 min (each n = 10) of near-complete forebrain ischemia while anesthetized with either 50 mg/kg of zoletil given intraperitoneally or inhaled sevoflurane (2.3%). Ischemia was induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion plus hemorrhagic hypotension (26-30 mmHg). Histologic outcomes were measured 7 days after ischemia in CA1 pyramidal cells of the rat hippocampus.
The mean percentage of necrotic cells in the hippocampal CA1 area decreased in the sevoflurane group compared to the zoletil group (25% vs. 40% after 6 min ischemia, respectively: P = 0.004 and 44% vs. 54% after 10 min of ischemia, respectively P = 0.03). The percentage of apoptotic cells was similar in all groups. The percentage of necrotic cells in each anesthetic groups was significantly higher in the 10 min ischemia group compared to the 6 min ischemia group (P = 0.004 in the sevoflurane group, P = 0.03 in the zoletil group).
The present data show that sevoflurane has neuroprotective effects in rats subjected to near-complete cerebral ischemia. Longer duration of ischemia is associated with more neuronal injury when compared to ischemia of shorter duration.
Brain ischemia; Hippocampus; Inhalation anesthetics; Neuron
With ultrasound guidance, the success rate of brachial plexus block (BPB) is 95-100% and the anesthetic time has become a more important factor than before. Many investigators have compared ultrasound guidance with the nerve stimulation technique, but there are few studies comparing different approaches via the same ultrasound guidance. We compared the axillary BPB with the infraclavicular BPB under ultrasound guidance.
Twenty-two ASA physical status I-II patients presenting with elective forearm surgery were prospectively randomized to receive an axillary BPB (group AX) or an infraclavicular BPB (group IC) with ultrasound guidance. Both groups received a total of 20 ml of 1.5% lidocaine with 5 µg/ml epinephrine and 0.1 mEq/ml sodium bicarbonate. Patients were then evaluated for block onset and block performance time was also recorded.
Group IC demonstrated a reduction in performance time vs. group AX (622 ± 139 sec vs. 789 ± 131 sec, P < 0.05). But, the onset time was longer in group IC than in group AX (7.7 ± 8.8 min vs. 1.4 ± 2.3 min, P < 0.05). All blocks were successful in both groups.
Under ultrasound guidance, infraclavicular BPB was faster to perform than the axillary approach. But the block onset was slower with the infraclavicular approach.
Brachial plexus; Nerve block; Ultrasound
In an era of medical cost containment, cost-effectiveness has become a major focus in healthcare. The effect of a new policy on the use of low fresh gas flow during maintenance of general anesthesia with volatile anesthetics was evaluated.
The numbers and duration of general anesthesia cases using sevoflurane 5 weeks prior to and 15 weeks after policy implementation were retrieved from the electronic medical records database. The number of sevoflurane bottles consumed was also assessed. The anesthesia hours per bottle of sevoflurane were compared before and after policy implementation.
The number of anesthesia hours performed per bottle of sevoflurane increased by 38.3%. The effect varied over time and tended to fade with time.
The implementation of a low fresh gas flow rate policy effectively reduces the amount of sevoflurane consumed for the same duration of anesthesia.
Anesthetic consumption; Cost-effectiveness; Low-flow anesthesia; Volatile anesthetics
Pamidronate is a potent inhibitor of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Recently, the drug has been known to relieve bone pain. We hypothesized that direct epidural administration of pamidronate could have various advantages over oral administration with respect to dosage, side effects, and efficacy. Therefore, we evaluated the neuronal safety of epidurally-administered pamidronate.
Twenty-seven rats weighing 250-350 g were equally divided into 3 groups. Each group received an epidural administration with either 0.3 ml (3.75 mg) of pamidronate (group P), 0.3 ml of 40% alcohol (group A), or 0.3 ml of normal saline (group N). A Pinch-toe test, motor function evaluation, and histopathologic examination of the spinal cord to detect conditions such as chromatolysis, meningeal inflammation, and neuritis, were performed on the 2nd, 7th, and 21st day following administration of each drug.
All rats in group A showed an abnormal response to the pinch-toe test and decreased motor function during the entire evaluation period. Abnormal histopathologic findings, including neuritis and meningeal inflammation were observed only in group A rats. Rats in group P, with the exception of 1, and group N showed no significant sensory/motor dysfunction over a 3-week observation period. No histopathologic changes were observed in groups P and N.
Direct epidural injection of pamidronate (about 12.5 mg/kg) showed no neurotoxic evidence in terms of sensory/motor function evaluation and histopathologic examination.
epidural injection; neurotoxicity; pamidronate
We introduce a new, simple portable inhalational induction device (PD) that provides co-operative inhalational induction of anaesthesia using N2O and subsequent sevoflurane in the preanaesthetic induction area in children.
Forty-five children (30 to 94 months old age, <35 kg) who were scheduled to undergo simple operations were assigned randomly to one of three regimens. Patients were encouraged by their parents to inhale N2O followed by sevoflurane (PD N2O-sevo group) or sevoflurane (PD sevo group) using a portable inhalational induction device in the preanaesthetic induction area until they were unable to respond to their names. They were then transferred to the operating room while maintaining inhalation of sevoflurane via the device. The control group underwent conventional inhalational induction in the operating room with the parents in attendance.
Patients in the PD N2O-sevo group had a higher co-operative inhalation frequency than the patients in the PD sevo or the control group. Anaesthesia induction in the PD N2O-sevo and the PD sevo groups were faster than in the control group. Parent satisfaction score (0-100) was higher for the PD N2O-sevo group than for the control group.
A new portable inhalational induction device allows faster induction in co-operation with parents present in the preanaesthetic induction area compared to conventional inhalational induction in the unfamiliar operating room with the parents in attendance.
Inhalation induction; Nitrous oxide; Potable instrumentation; Sevoflurane
The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal dose of remifentanil for minimizing hemodynamic changes during intubation and reducing propofol-induced pain in elderly patients.
In a randomized prospective study, 60 patients (ASA I-II, elder than 65 years) were enrolled to determine which of two target remifentanil blood concentrations (3 ng/ml, 5 ng/ml) was required to blunt hemodynamic changes during intubation and to reduce propofol-induced pain. After the target effect site concentration of remifentanil had been reached, the target controlled infusion of propofol was started and propofol-induced pain was recorded. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded at baseline, just before intubation and 1, 3, 5 min after intubation.
There were no significant differences in the hemodynamic parameters between two groups, but not in arterial pressure at just before intubation and 1 minute after intubation. However, the group R5 (5 ng/ml) showed significantly less intense pain induced by propofol than in the group R3 (3 ng/ml).
The results suggest that the group R5 provide more relief in propofol induced pain than the group R3, but showed great possibility of hypotension and bradycardia in both groups, which means it should be used with cautions in the elderly patients.
Blood pressure; Heart rate; Propofol; Remifentanil
To determine if a combination of ferucarbotran-enhanced T2*weighted-gradient echo (T2*W-GRE) and T2-weighted turbo spin echo (T2W-TSE) images in gadolinium- and ferucarbotran-enhanced MRI has additive efficacy compared to each image alone for detecting small (≤ 2.0 cm) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) lesions in a group of cirrhotic patients and metastases in a group of non-cirrhotic patients.
Materials and Methods
Two readers retrospectively analyzed gadolinium- and ferucarbotran-enhanced T2*W-GRE, T2W-TSE, and combined T2*W-GRE/T2W-TSE images of 119 patients with 157 HCCs and 32 patients with 98 metastases. The diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity for each image set and the combined set were evaluated using the alternative-free response receiver operating characteristic method.
The mean area under the curve value of the combined set (0.966) tended to be better than that for each individual image set (T2W-TSE [0.910], T2*W-GRE [0.892]). Sensitivities in the combined set were higher than those in each individual image set for detecting HCC (mean, 93.0% versus 81.6% and 86.7%, respectively, p < 0.01). Sensitivities in the combined set and the T2W-TSE set were the same for detecting metastases, and both were higher than the sensitivity seen in the T2*W-GRE set (mean, 97.5% versus 85.2%, p < 0.01).
Combining ferucarbotran-enhanced T2*W-GRE and T2W-TSE has additive efficacy for detecting HCC in cirrhotic patients, but T2W-TSE is preferred for detecting metastases in non-cirrhotic patients.
Liver, neoplasm; Liver, MR; Liver, cirrhosis; Magnetic resonance (MR), contrast media
To compare phase-inversion sonography during the liver-specific phase of contrast enhancement using a microbubble contrast agent with conventional B-mode sonography for the detection of VX2 liver tumors.
Materials and Methods
Twenty-three rabbits, 18 of which had VX2 liver tumor implants, received a bolus injection of 0.6 g of Levovist (200 mg/ml). During the liver-specific phase of this agent, they were evaluated using both conventional sonography and contrast-enhanced phase-inversion harmonic imaging (CE-PIHI). Following sacrifice of the animals, pathologic analysis was performed and the reference standard thus obtained. The conspicuity, size and number of the tumors before and after contrast administration, as determined by a sonographer, were compared between the two modes and with the pathologic findings.
CE-PIHI demonstrated marked hepatic parenchymal enhancement in all rabbits. For VX2 tumors detected at both conventional US and CE- PIHI, conspicuity was improved by contrast-enhanced PIHI. On examination of gross specimens, 52 VX2 tumors were identified. Conventional US correctly detected 18 of the 52 (34.6%), while PIHI detected 35 (67.3%) (p < 0.05). In particular, conventional US detected only three (8.3%) of the 36 tumors less than 10 mm in diameter, but CE-PIHI detected 19 such tumors (52.8%) (p < 0.05).
Compared to conventional sonography, PIHI performed during the liver-specific phase after intravenous injection of Levovist is markedly better at detecting VX2 liver tumors.
Animals, liver neoplasms; Liver neoplasms, US; Ultrasound (US), contrast media; Ultrasound (US), harmonic study
To determine whether hypertonic saline (HS, 36% NaCl) injection prior to or during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) can increase the extent of thermally mediated coagulation in in-vivo rabbit liver tissue, and also to establish the ideal injection time in relation to RFA in order to maximize its effect on the extent of radiofrequency (RF)-induced coagulation.
Materials and Methods
In 26 rabbits, 43 RFA lesions were produced using a 17-gauge internally cooled electrode with a 1-cm active tip under ultrasound (US) guidance. Rabbits were assigned to one of three groups: Group A: RFA alone (n=8); Group B: RFA after the instillation of 1 mL HS (n=8); Group C: RFA after and during the instillation of 0.5 mL HS (n=10). RF energy (30 W) was applied for 3 minutes, and changes occurring in tissue impedance, current, power output, and the temperature of the electrode tip were automatically measured. After RFA, contrast-enhanced spiral CT was performed, and in each group the maximum diameters of the thermal lesions in gross specimens were compared. Technical success and the complications arising were evaluated by CT and on the basis of autopsy findings.
All procedures were technically successful. There were six procedure-related complications (6/26; 23%), including five localized perihepatic hematomas and one thermal injury to the stomach. With instillation of HS in group B rabbits, markedly decreased tissue impedance (73Ω ± 5) and increased current (704 mA ± 41) were noted, compared to RF ablation without saline infusion (116.3Ω ± 13, 308 mA ± 80). With instillation of the solution before RFA (group B), coagulation necrosis was greater (14.9 mm ± 3.8) than in rabbits not injected (group A: 11.5 mm ± 2.4; Group A vs. B: p < .05) and in those injected before and during RFA (group C: 12.5 mm ± 3.1; Group B vs. C: p > .05).
RFA using HS instillation can increase the volume of RFA-induced necrosis of the liver with a single application, thereby simplifying and accelerating the treatment of larger lesions. In addition, HS instillation before RFA more effectively achieves coagulation necrosis than HS instillation before and during RFA.
Experimental study; Liver, interventional procedures; Radiofrequency ablation
To compare the performance of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 1.5T and dual-phase spiral computed tomography (CT) for the depiction of small hypervascular hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs).
Materials and Methods
Forty-three patients with 70 small nodular HCCs (5-20 mm; mean, 13.7 mm) were examined. Diagnosis was based on the results of surgical biopsy in 22 patients and by the combined assessment of MR imaging, lipiodol CT, alpha feto-protein levels, and angiographic findings in 21. MR imaging consisted of respiratory-triggered turbo spin-echo T2-weighted imaging, T1-weighted fast low-angle shot, and T2*-weighted fast imaging with steady-state precession imaging before and after SPIO enhancement. CT imaging was performed with 5-mm collimation and 1:1.4 pitch, and began 30 and 65 secs after the injection of 150 mL of contrast medium at a rate of 3 mL/sec. Two blinded observers reviewed all images independently on a segment-by-segment basis. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis.
The mean areas (Az) under the ROC curves were 0.85 for SPIO-enhanced MR imaging and 0.79 for dual-phase spiral CT (p < .05). The mean sensitivity of SPIO-enhanced MR imaging was significantly higher than that of CT (p < .05), i.e. 70.6% for MR imaging and 58.1% for CT. MR imaging had higher false-positive rates than dual-phase spiral CT, but the difference was not statistically significant (3.7% vs 3.3%) (p > .05).
SPIO-enhanced MR imaging is more sensitive than dual-phase spiral CT for the depiction of small hypervascular hepatocellular carcinomas.
Liver, CT; Liver, MR imaging; Liver, neoplasms; Magnetic resonance (MR), contrast agents
To determine the potential value of distributional-phase T1-weighted ferumoxides-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for tissue characterization of focal liver lesions.
Materials and Methods
Ferumoxides-enhanced MR imaging was performed using a 1.5-T system in 46 patients referred for evaluation of known or suspected hepatic malignancies. Seventy-three focal liver lesions (30 hepatocellular carcinomas [HCC], 12 metastases, 15 cysts, 13 hemangiomas, and three cholangiocarcinomas) were evaluated. MR imaging included T1-weighted double-echo gradient-echo (TR/TE: 150/4.2 and 2.1 msec), T2*-weighted gradient-echo (TR/TE: 180/12 msec), and T2-weighted turbo spin-echo MR imaging at 1.5 T before and after intravenous administration of ferumoxides (15 mmol/kg body weight). Postcontrast T1-weighted imaging was performed within eight minutes of infusion of the contrast medium (distributional phase). Both qualitative and quantitative analysis was performed.
During the distributional phase after infusion of ferumoxides, unique enhancement patterns of focal liver lesions were observed for hemangiomas, metastases, and hepatocellular carcinomas. On T1-weighted GRE images obtained during the distributional phase, hemangiomas showed a typical positive enhancement pattern of increased signal; metastases showed ring enhancement; and hepatocellar carcinomas showed slight enhancement. Quantitatively, the signal-to-noise ratio of hemangiomas was much higher than that of other tumors (p < .05) and was similar to that of intrahepatic vessels. This finding permitted more effective differentiation between hemangiomas and other malignant tumors.
T1-weighted double-echo FLASH images obtained soon after the infusion of ferumoxides, show characteristic enhancement patterns and improved the differentiation of focal liver lesions.
Liver neoplasms, diagnosis; Liver neoplasms, MR; Magnetic resonance (MR), contrast enhancement
To determine the ability of MR imaging to detect the pathological changes occurring in radiofrequency (RF) thermal lesions and to assess its accuracy in revealing the extent of tissue necrosis.
Materials and Methods
Using an RF electrode, thermal lesions were created in the livers of 18 rabbits. The procedure involved three phases. In the acute phase, six animals were killed the day after performing thermal ablation with RF energy, and two on day 3. In the subacute and chronic phases, eight rabbits underwent percutaneous hepatic RF ablation. After performing MR imaging, two animals were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, and 7 weeks after the procedure, and MR-pathologic correlation was performed.
In the acute phase, the thermal ablation lesions appeared at gross examination as well-circumscribed, necrotic areas, representing early change in the coagulative necrosis seen at microscopic examination. They were hypointense on T2-weighted images, and hyperintense on T1-weighted images. Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging showed that a thin hyperemic rim surrounded the central coagulative necrosis. In the subacute phase, ablated lesions also showed extensive coagulative necrosis and marked inflammation at microscopic examination. Beyond two weeks, the lesions showed gradual resorption of the necrotic area, with a peripheral fibrovascular rim. The size of lesions measured by MR imaging correlated well with the findings at gross pathologic examination.
MR imaging effectively demonstrates the histopathological tissue change occurring after thermal ablation, and accurately determines the extent of the target area.
Liver, MR; Liver, interventional procedure; Interventional procedures, experimental