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author:("Ahmed, bauman")
7.  Anesthesia for Pars Plana Vitrectomy with Insulin Needle, Is It Possible? 
Peribulbar block is commonly used for ocular posterior segment surgery. This work aimed to compare the efficacy of using 12.5 mm to 25 mm standard needle length in performing single injection peribulbar block for retinal surgery. Peribulbar block was performed in 120 patients using either standard 25 mm or 12.5 mm 30 G needle (insulin needle). While applying digital pressure around the needle hub, 8–10 mL of local anesthetic are injected. Ocular movement was assessed at 5 and 10 min using simple akinesia score (0–8). If after 10 min score was >1, supplementary injection was given. Visual analogue scale (0–10) was used at the end of the procedure to assess surgeons' satisfaction and patients' intraoperative pain. No differences in akinesia score at 5 & 10 min (P = 0.34 and 0.36, resp.). Initial volume injected was comparable between groups (P = 0.31), however total volume of local anesthesia and supplementary injections were significantly higher in 12.5 mm group (P = 0.03 and 0.01, resp.). No difference as regard surgeons' satisfaction and patients' intraoperative pain (P = 1.0 and 0.18, resp.). Peribulbar block with 12.5 mm needle together with digital compression is a suitable alternative to the standard block with 25 mm needle length for retinal surgery.
PMCID: PMC3423654  PMID: 22919376
8.  Ocular phenylephrine 2.5% continues to be dangerous 
BMJ Case Reports  2009;2009:bcr08.2008.0795.
Phenylephrine 10% is used for pupillary dilatation and capillary decongestion. It had been advised to use a 2.5% concentration instead of 10% to guard against systemic reactions. Here, a case of severe systemic manifestation following conjuctival application of 2.5% phenylephrine is described.
A healthy adult was admitted for pterygium excision under ophthalmic blockade. Vital signs remained normal until a sponge soaked with phenylephrine 2.5% was applied over the excised pterygium to control bleeding. The patient developed bradycardia (heart rate of 30 bpm) and hypotension (pressure 80/40 mmHg), so intravenous atropine was given. This was followed by tachycardia (heart rate of 150 bpm) and hypertension (pressure 240/130 mmHg) and ECG showed ischaemic changes. Treatment included propofol, labetalol, frusamide, morphine and dexamethasone. The next day, a 12-lead ECG showed no ischaemic changes and the myocardial infarction screen was negative. Fundus examination showed no sign of papilloedema. This report emphasises that phenylephrine 2.5% is still dangerous, with unpredictable response.
PMCID: PMC3029574  PMID: 21686626

Results 1-8 (8)