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1.  Effect of Lidocaine- and Prilocaine-Based Topical Anesthetics on the Inflammatory Exudates in Subcutaneous Tissue of Rats 
Anesthesia Progress  2012;59(2):57-61.
The aim of this present study was to evaluate the irritative potential of 2 topical anesthetics used in intrapocket anesthesia for periodontal scaling/root planing when applied in subcutaneous tissue of rats. Sixty animals were divided into 4 groups: group 1, saline solution (control); group 2, poloxamer gel (thermosetting vehicle); group 3, lidocaine and prilocaine poloxamer thermosetting gel; group 4: EMLA, a lidocaine and prilocaine dermatological cream. Injections of 2% Evans blue were administrated intravenously into the lateral caudal vein. In order to analyze vascular permeability, the tested substances were injected intradermally. The rats were sacrificed 3, 6, and 9 hours after injection of the substances. The dorsal skin was dissected and removed. The vascular permeability was evaluated by the measurement of area of dye extravasation and the dye was subsequently extracted after immersion in formamide. Statistical analyses were made by ANOVA with Bonferroni's post hoc test and Pearson correlation. The 2 methods to analyze the exudative phase of the inflammatory process showed statistically significant difference among the groups and periods of evaluation (P < .05). Both methods had a significant correlation (P < .0001). Under the tested conditions, the anesthetic agents showed mild initial inflammatory response when implanted in subcutaneous connective tissue.
doi:10.2344/11-23.1
PMCID: PMC3403582  PMID: 22822991
Biocompatibility testing; Anesthetics local; Lidocaine; Prilocaine
2.  Efficacy of Anesthetic Agents to Delay Pain Onset After Periodontal Surgery 
Anesthesia Progress  2011;58(2):57-60.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of 2 anesthetic agents on patients' postoperative pain perception after periodontal surgery. For this parallel-group, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial, 36 open flap debridement surgeries were performed on patients who presented with periodontal disease with clinical signs of inflammation after nonsurgical treatment on at least 1 quadrant. Patients were allocated to 1 of the following groups: group 1, 2% lidocaine with 1 ∶ 100,000 epinephrine; group 2, 2% mepivacaine with 1 ∶ 100,000 norepinephrine. Pain intensity was assessed using the visual analog scale during the first 8 hours after surgery. All patients received 750-mg acetaminophen tablets, which they were instructed to take as a rescue medication if necessary. The results demonstrated that postoperative pain intensity was statistically lower in group 2 than in group 1 at the 1-, 2-, and 3-hour periods after surgery, although the pain intensity for all groups could be considered mild. In conclusion, patients in both groups reported similar mild pain after periodontal surgery.
doi:10.2344/0003-3006-58.2.57
PMCID: PMC3198127  PMID: 21679040
Anesthetic solution; Pain, postoperative; Lidocaine; Mepivacaine
3.  Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves’ extract from Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam 
Pharmacognosy Magazine  2011;7(26):165-170.
Background:
Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., popularly known as sweet potato (SP), has played an important role as an energy and a phytochemical source in human nutrition and animal feeding. Ethnopharmacological data show that SP leaves have been effectively used in herbal medicine to treat inflammatory and/or infectious oral diseases in Brazil. The aim of this research was to evaluate the phytochemical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves’ extract of SP leaves.
Materials and Methods:
The screening was performed for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. The color intensity or the precipitate formation was used as analytical responses to these tests. The total antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the phosphomolybdenum complex method. Antimicrobial activity was made by agar disk and agar well diffusion tests.
Results:
The phytochemical screening showed positive results for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. Total contents of 345.65, 328.44, and 662.02 mg were respectively obtained for alkaloids, anthraquinones, and phenolic compounds in 100 g of the dry sample. The total antioxidant capacity was 42.94% as compared to ascorbic acid. For antimicrobial studies, no concentration of the SP freeze dried extract was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans in both agar disk and agar well diffusion tests.
Conclusions:
SP leaves demonstrated the presence of secondary metabolites with potential biological activities. No antimicrobial activity was observed.
doi:10.4103/0973-1296.80682
PMCID: PMC3113358  PMID: 21716926
Antimicrobial activity; antioxidant activity; convolvulaceae; phenolic content; sweet potato

Results 1-3 (3)