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1.  An Inductive, Scaffold-Based, Regenerative Medicine Approach to Reconstruction of the Temporomandibular Joint Disk 
A device composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) was investigated as an inductive template in vivo for reconstruction of the TMJ disk following discectomy.
A scaffold material composed of porcine derived ECM was configured to mimic the shape and size of the TMJ. This device was implanted in a canine model of bilateral TMJ discectomy. Following discectomy, one side was repaired with an ECM scaffold material and the contralateral side was left empty as a control. At 6 months post-implantation the joint space was opened, the joints evaluated for signs of gross pathologic degenerative changes, and newly formed tissue was excised for histologic, biochemical, and biomechanical analysis.
The results show that implantation of an initially acellular material supported the formation of site-appropriate, functional host tissue which resembled that of the native TMJ disk. Further, this prevented gross degenerative changes in the temporal fossa and mandibular condyle. No tissue formation and mild to severe gross pathologic changes were observed in the contralateral controls.
These results suggest that an ECM based bioscaffold may represent an off-the-shelf solution for TMJ disk replacement.
PMCID: PMC3368066  PMID: 22365981
2.  Recovery Following Sedation with Midazolam or Diazepam Alone or in Combination with Fentanyl for Outpatient Surgery 
Anesthesia Progress  1986;33(5):230-234.
Midazolam is a new water-soluble benzodiazepine with a much shorter pharmacologic half-life than diazepam. Despite this shorter pharmacologic half-life, several reports indicate that patients do not recover more rapidly after sedation with midazolam than with diazepam. The purpose of this study was to compare recovery of patients sedated with either midazolam or diazepam alone or in combination with fentanyl using the digit symbol substitution test (DSST) and Trieger test. Patients were randomly divided into treatment groups and recovery tests were administered to the patients prior to sedation and at 60, 120, and 180 minutes after achieving a standardized sedative endpoint. Patients who received midazolam alone had significantly fewer numbers of correct reponses on the DSST than patients who received midazolam plus fentanyl or diazepam with or without fentanyl. When midazolam was combined with fentanyl there was no significant difference between results obtained on the DSST when compared with either diazepam group. Comparisons between all groups using dots missed or millimeter deviation on the Trieger test showed no statistical difference between any groups. These data indicate that midazolam as a single IV agent has a slightly prolonged recovery phase compared to diazepam. The addition of fentanyl to the sedation regimen allows reduction in the midazolam dose resulting in a recovery time comparable to that of diazepam.
PMCID: PMC2177484  PMID: 3465258

Results 1-2 (2)