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1.  Validity and Reliability of the Interval Scale of Anxiety Response 
Anesthesia Progress  1987;34(6):202-206.
The Interval Scale of Anxiety Response (ISAR) is shown to be a valid and reliable instrument for measuring situation dental anxiety in adults. The ISAR demonstrates differences that are known or expected between various population subgroups. Thus, significantly higher scores, indicating greater levels of anxiety, are reported by women compared with men; by hospital clinic patients compared with private practice patients; by occasional compared with regular users of dental care; by those with lower educational levels; and by those patients undergoing exodontia compared with patients having other dental procedures. Younger adults also report significantly higher anxiety scores during treatment than older adults. The ISAR is also significantly associated with other measures of anxiety and pain, and with a measure of dentistrated difficulty of extraction. Reliability is assessed favorably and present-time administration is found to improve ISAR accuracy over its retrospective use.
PMCID: PMC2190041  PMID: 3481516
2.  Development of an Interval Scale of Anxiety Response 
Anesthesia Progress  1986;33(5):220-224.
This paper reports the development of an interval scale of anxiety response. Magnitude estimation procedures were used with three different groups of subjects to develop a suitable scale of seven anxiety descriptors. The ratio of the highest to lowest descriptor magnitudes was 21 to 1. Analyses of the descriptor sets in the various groups indicated high reliability of meaning and high objectivity. In addition, high agreement on meaning was shown for groups of differing education and socioeconomic status. A preliminary study using the scale indicates appropriate preliminary construct validity. Further reliability and validity research is needed. This scale may be useful for assessing anxiety response changes in a variety of contexts.
PMCID: PMC2177487  PMID: 3465256

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