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1.  Thermosoftening of the Parker Flex-TipTM Tracheal Tube in Preparation for Nasotracheal Intubation 
Anesthesia Progress  2013;60(3):109-110.
The Parker Flex-Tip tracheal tube (PFTT, Parker Medical, Highlands Ranch, Colo) has a soft, flexible, curved tip with double Murphy eyes. Previous studies have shown that the PFTT reduces the incidence of epistaxis during nasotracheal intubation and the incidence of postintubation nasal pain, as compared to conventional tracheal tubes. Although thermosoftening is a well-known and effective technique for reducing epistaxis during nasotracheal intubation with conventional tracheal tubes, we occasionally encounter difficulties with advancing the tube through the nasal passage when the PFTT is thermosoftened prior to nasotracheal intubation. Consequently, when using the PFTT for nasotracheal intubation, the procedure of thermosoftening should be avoided.
PMCID: PMC3771198  PMID: 24010988
Thermosoftening; Tracheal tubes
2.  Dedifferentiated fat cells differentiate into osteoblasts in titanium fiber mesh 
Cytotechnology  2012;65(1):15-22.
Mature adipocyte-derived dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells rapidly differentiate into osteoblasts under three-dimensional culture conditions. However, it has not been demonstrated that DFAT cells can differentiate into osteoblasts in a rigid scaffold consisting of titanium fiber mesh (TFM). We examined the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation ability of DFAT cells using TFM as a scaffold. DFAT cells derived from rabbit subcutaneous fat were seeded into TFM and cultured in osteogenic medium containing dexamethasone, l-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate and β-glycerophosphate for 14 days. In scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, well-spread cells covered the titanium fibers on day 3, and appeared to increase in number from day 3 to 7. Numerous globular accretions were found and almost completely covered the fibers on day 14. Cell proliferation, as measured by DNA content in the TFM, was significantly higher on day 7 compared with that of day 1. Osteocalcin and calcium content in the TFM were significantly higher on day 14 compared to those of days 1, 3, and 7, indicating DFAT cells differentiated into osteoblasts. We theorize that globular accretions observed in SEM analysis may be calcified matrix resulting from osteocalcin secreted by osteoblasts binding calcium contained in fetal bovine serum. In this study, we demonstrated that DFAT cells differentiate into osteoblasts and deposit mineralized matrices in TFM. Therefore, the combination of DFAT cells and TFM may be an attractive option for bone tissue engineering.
PMCID: PMC3536869  PMID: 22526493
Dedifferentiated fat cells; Ceiling culture; Titanium fiber mesh; Bone tissue engineering
3.  The osteoblastic differentiation ability of human dedifferentiated fat cells is higher than that of adipose stem cells from the buccal fat pad 
Clinical Oral Investigations  2013;18(8):1893-1901.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the osteoblastic differentiation ability of dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells and adipose stem cells (ASCs) from the buccal fat pad (BFP).
Materials and methods
We isolated human DFAT cells and ASCs from the BFP of a patient who underwent oral and maxillofacial surgery and then analyzed their cell surface antigens by flow cytometry. Then, the cells were cultured in osteogenic medium for 14 days. Measurement of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), osteocalcin (OCN), and calcium deposition and alizarin red staining were performed to evaluate the osteoblastic differentiation ability of both cell types.
ASCs and DFAT cells were positive for CD90 and CD105 and negative for CD11b, CD34, and CD45. BAP (days 3 and 7), OCN (day 14), and calcium deposition (days 7 and 14) within DFAT cell cultures were significantly higher than those in ASC cultures. The alizarin red-stained area in DFAT cell cultures, which indicates mineralized matrix deposition, was stained more strongly than that in ASC cultures.
The cell surface antigens of ASCs and DFAT cells tend to be similar. Furthermore, the osteoblastic differentiation ability of human DFAT cells is higher than that of ASCs from the BFP.
Clinical relevance
Isolation of DFAT cells from the BFP has an esthetic advantage because the BFP can be obtained via the oral cavity without injury to the external body surface. Therefore, we consider that DFAT cells from the BFP are an ideal cell source for bone tissue engineering.
PMCID: PMC4212158  PMID: 24362590
Dedifferentiated fat cells; Adipose stem cells; Ceiling culture; Buccal fat pad; Osteoblastic differentiation; Bone tissue engineering
4.  Ventilation via Cut Nasotracheal Tube During General Anesthesia 
Anesthesia Progress  2013;60(1):11-14.
Many patients with disabilities need recurrent dental treatment under general anesthesia because of high caries prevalence and the nature of dental treatment. We evaluated the use of a nasal device as a possible substitute for flexible laryngeal mask airway to reduce the risk of unexpected failure accompanying intubation; we succeeded in ventilating the lungs with a cut nasotracheal tube (CNT) with its tip placed in the pharynx. We hypothesized that this technique would be useful during dental treatment under general anesthesia and investigated its usefulness as part of a minimally invasive technique. A prospective study was designed using general anesthesia in 37 dental patients with disabilities such as intellectual impairment, autism, and cerebral palsy. CNT ventilation was compared with mask ventilation with the patient in 3 positions: the neck in flexion, horizontal position, and in extension. The effect of mouth gags was also recorded during CNT ventilation. The percentages of cases with effective ventilation were similar for the 2 techniques in the neck extension and horizontal positions (89.2–97.3%). However, CNT ventilation was significantly more effective than mask ventilation in the neck flexion position (94.6 vs 45.9%; P < .0001). Mouth gags slightly reduced the rate of effective ventilation in the neck flexion position. Most dental treatments involving minor oral surgeries were performed using mouth gags during CNT ventilation. CNT ventilation was shown to be superior to mask ventilation and is useful during dental treatment under general anesthesia.
PMCID: PMC3601724  PMID: 23506278
General anesthesia; Cut nasotracheal tube.
5.  Modified i-gel Airway for Oral Surgery 
Anesthesia Progress  2011;58(3):124-125.
PMCID: PMC3167156  PMID: 21882988
6.  Changes in Blood Pressure During Induction of Anesthesia and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery by Type and Timing of Discontinuation of Antihypertensive Drugs 
Anesthesia Progress  2010;57(1):13-17.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an antihypertensive drug class and the timing of discontinuation of antihypertensive therapy on blood pressure during oral and maxillofacial surgery for 129 patients on antihypertensive therapy receiving general anesthesia. Blood pressures at loss of response to stimulation and 5–15 minutes after intubation were significantly lower than those before induction, although the type of antihypertensive therapy did not affect changes in blood pressure. No significant correlation was observed between systolic blood pressure (SBP) on the ward and change in SBP during surgery, though patients with higher blood pressure on the ward tended to exhibit larger differences between SBP on the ward and the lowest SBP during surgery. Frequency of use of vasopressors during surgery was significantly higher in patients who discontinued antihypertensive therapy on the day before surgery than in those who continued antihypertensive therapy on the day of surgery. These findings suggest that appropriate preoperative antihypertensive therapy is important for minimizing change in blood pressure during surgery and preventing perioperative complications. Patients undergoing antihypertensive therapy should be carefully monitored perioperatively by observation for interactions between antihypertensive and anesthetic agents and minimizing interruption schedules for antihypertensive therapy.
PMCID: PMC2844233  PMID: 20331334
Antihypertensive drugs; General anesthesia; Oral and maxillofacial surgery

Results 1-6 (6)