The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the osteoblastic differentiation ability of dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells and adipose stem cells (ASCs) from the buccal fat pad (BFP).
Materials and methods
We isolated human DFAT cells and ASCs from the BFP of a patient who underwent oral and maxillofacial surgery and then analyzed their cell surface antigens by flow cytometry. Then, the cells were cultured in osteogenic medium for 14 days. Measurement of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), osteocalcin (OCN), and calcium deposition and alizarin red staining were performed to evaluate the osteoblastic differentiation ability of both cell types.
ASCs and DFAT cells were positive for CD90 and CD105 and negative for CD11b, CD34, and CD45. BAP (days 3 and 7), OCN (day 14), and calcium deposition (days 7 and 14) within DFAT cell cultures were significantly higher than those in ASC cultures. The alizarin red-stained area in DFAT cell cultures, which indicates mineralized matrix deposition, was stained more strongly than that in ASC cultures.
The cell surface antigens of ASCs and DFAT cells tend to be similar. Furthermore, the osteoblastic differentiation ability of human DFAT cells is higher than that of ASCs from the BFP.
Isolation of DFAT cells from the BFP has an esthetic advantage because the BFP can be obtained via the oral cavity without injury to the external body surface. Therefore, we consider that DFAT cells from the BFP are an ideal cell source for bone tissue engineering.