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1.  Oral Mucosal Injection of a Local Anesthetic Solution Containing Epinephrine Enhances Muscle Relaxant Effects of Rocuronium 
Anesthesia Progress  2012;59(1):18-21.
The purpose of this study was to examine how submucosal injection of a clinically relevant dose of a lidocaine hydrochloride solution containing epinephrine affects the muscle relaxant effects of rocuronium bromide. Sixteen patients scheduled for orthognathic surgery participated in this study. All patients were induced with fentanyl citrate, a target-controlled infusion of propofol and rocuronium bromide. Anesthesia was maintained by total intravenous anesthesia. After nasotracheal intubation, an infusion of rocuronium bromide was started at 7 µg/kg/min, and the infusion rate was then adjusted to maintain a train of four (TOF) ratio at 10 to 15%. The TOF ratio just prior to oral mucosal injection of a 1% lidocaine hydrochloride solution containing 10 µg/mL epinephrine (LE) was taken as the baseline. TOF ratio was observed for 20 minutes, with 1-minute intervals following the start of injection. Mean epinephrine dose was 85.6 ± 18.6 µg and mean infusion rate of rocuronium bromide was 6.3 ± 1.6 µg/kg/min. TOF ratio began to decrease 2 minutes after the injection of LE, reached the minimum value at 3.1 ± 3.6% 12 minutes after the injection, and then began to recover. We conclude that oral mucosal injection of LE enhances the muscle relaxant effects of rocuronium bromide.
doi:10.2344/10-17.1
PMCID: PMC3309297  PMID: 22428970
Rocuronium; Lidocaine with epinephrine; Muscle relaxant effects
2.  Pain Management for Nerve Injury following Dental Implant Surgery at Tokyo Dental College Hospital 
By allowing reconstruction of compromised occlusion, dental implants contribute to an improvement in quality of life (QOL) and diet. Injury to a nerve during such treatment, however, can result in a sudden decline in QOL. And once a nerve has been injured, the chances of a full recovery are slim unless the damage is only slight. If such damage causes neuropathic pain severe enough to prevent sleep, the patient's QOL will deteriorate dramatically. While damage to skin tissue or bone invariably heals over time, damage to nerves does not, indicating the need to avoid such injury while performing implant insertion, for example. This means not relying solely on X-ray images, which can be rather unclear, but also using computed tomography to allow preoperative planning and intraoperative execution to be performed as accurately as possible. Moreover, if sensory damage does occur it is essential to avoid breaking the bond of trust between dentist and patient by giving false assurances of recovery. In such cases, appropriate measures must be taken promptly. This paper describes pain management for nerve injury following dental implant surgery at the Orofacial Pain Center of Tokyo Dental College Suidoubashi Hospital.
doi:10.1155/2012/209474
PMCID: PMC3413988  PMID: 22899928
4.  Diversity of Opioid Requirements for Postoperative Pain Control Following Oral Surgery—Is It Affected by Polymorphism of the μ-Opioid Receptor? 
Anesthesia Progress  2010;57(4):145-149.
We experience individual differences in pain and sensitivity to analgesics clinically. Genetic factors are known to influence individual difference. Polymorphisms in the human OPRM1 gene, which encodes the μ-opioid receptors, may be associated with the clinical effects of opioid analgesics. The purpose of this study was to determine whether any of the 5 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the OPRM1 gene could affect the antinociceptive effect of fentanyl. Fentanyl was less effective in subjects with the G allele of the OPRM1 A118G SNP than in those with the A allele, and subjects with the G allele required more fentanyl for adequate postoperative pain control than those with the A allele. In the future, identifying SNPs might give us information to modulate the analgesic dosage of opioid individually for better pain control. Factors underlying individual differences in sensitivity to pain other than genetic factors may include environmental and psychological factors. We therefore examined the effects of preoperative anxiety on the analgesic efficacy of fentanyl in patients undergoing sagittal split mandibular osteotomy (SSMO). From among the patients enrolled in the study, 60 patients (male/female: 18/42, age: 24.6 ± 6.7 years) who gave informed consent were examined for correlations between preoperative trait/state anxiety, as measured by the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) on the day before surgery, and postoperative consumption of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) fentanyl and visual analog scale (VAS) assessment by patients. Levels of trait and state anxieties measured by the STAI were correlated with neither the consumption of PCA fentanyl nor postoperative VAS assessment. These findings suggest that psychological factors are unlikely to affect postoperative pain or the use of analgesics.
doi:10.2344/0003-3006-57.4.145
PMCID: PMC3006662  PMID: 21174568
Polymorphism; μ-Opioid receptor; Postoperative pain; Patient-controlled analgesia; Preoperative anxiety
5.  Negative Pressure Pulmonary Edema After Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 
Anesthesia Progress  2009;56(2):49-52.
Negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) following upper airway obstruction (UAO) has been reported in several clinical situations. The main cause of NPPE is reported to be increased negative intrathoracic pressure. We present a case of NPPE that occurred after general anesthesia for plate removal after jaw deformity surgery. After completion of the surgery, administration of inhaled anesthetics was stopped and the patient opened his eyes on verbal command. Immediately after extubation, the patient stopped breathing and became cyanotic. Acute UAO following laryngospasm was suspected. Soon after reintubation, pink, frothy fluid came out of the endotracheal tube, and a tentative diagnosis of NPPE was made. Continuous positive airway pressure was applied. In addition, furosemide and dexamethasone were administered. By the next day, the symptoms had almost disappeared.
doi:10.2344/0003-3006-56.2.49
PMCID: PMC2699692  PMID: 19642719
Negative pressure pulmonary edema; Upper airway obstruction; Continuous positive airway pressure
8.  Lack of Pain Reduction by a Vibrating Local Anesthetic Attachment: A Pilot Study 
Anesthesia Progress  2005;52(2):62-64.
A vibrating dental local anesthesia attachment (Vibraject, LLC, Calif) based on the concept of the gate-control theory has been used in clinical practice. The theoretical advantage of the vibrating needle is that it reduces the injection pain. We evaluated the effectiveness of Vibraject in combination with an electrical injection device. Injections were given into the alveolar mucosa adjacent to the root apex of the maxillary lateral incisor in 10 volunteers. Vibraject was randomly applied to either the left or right side of the injection. No statistically significant decrease in pain scores was found at needle insertion or anesthetic injection. The clinical efficacy of Vibraject remains controversial.
doi:10.2344/0003-3006(2005)52[62:LOPRBA]2.0.CO;2
PMCID: PMC2527045  PMID: 16048153
Local anesthesia; Injection; Pain; Vibrating needle

Results 1-8 (8)