Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an extremely attractive source of stem cells for the treatment of various benign and malignant hematological and non-hematological disorders. To facilitate the preservation of these stem cells, 10 % dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) is widely used as cryoprotectant in cord blood banks. But it is found to be toxic at this concentration with the result of serious side effects in recipients after infusion of DMSO-cryopreserved cells. Evaluation of viability and functionality of cryopreserved hematopoietic stem cells is needed with either inclusion of nontoxic additives alone or with reduced DMSO concentration. We assessed the post thawing viability of UCB stem cells in the freezing medium containing disaccharides (sucrose or trehalose) alone and in combination with reduced amount i.e. 2 % DMSO by trypan blue staining. The functionally active progenitor cells content of the optimized media was then evaluated and compared with 5% DMSO by a colony forming unit assay using methylcellulose based media. The freezing solution containing 0.2 M trehalose with 2 % DMSO came out to be superior in the evaluation of viability and generation of hematopoietic colonies of erythroid and myeloid lineage than 5 % DMSO alone. While the percentage of viability was lower than 2 % DMSO, as observed in the medium containing 0.2 M trehalose or sucrose alone, with poor outcome of generation of myeloid lineage based colonies. Our study results suggest that trehalose (0.2M) with the inclusion of reduced concentration of DMSO(2%) can better replace 5%DMSO rather than complete removal of DMSO from the freezing medium.
Sucrose; Trehalose; Cryoprotective medium; Viability; Hematopoietic colonies
Some people in Northeast India prepare rice-based alcoholic drinks in the household. People use these drinks in religious and social functions, and these are taken even in the presence of parents and elders. Easy access to illicit substances in industrial towns and lack of social inhibition for intake of homemade alcohol might increase the vulnerability of youth to these habits.
To estimate the prevalence of alcoholic drink user among school-going adolescent students in an industrial town of Assam.
Materials and Methods:
A cross-sectional survey was designed to collect the data using a predesigned questionnaire. Personal interview was conducted to collect the data about pattern of alcohol use, type of alcoholic drinks they use, duration, and information about parents and peer. Data were analyzed using Epi-info 17 and Statistical Package for Social Sciences-17.0 (Chicago, USA, SPSS Inc.).
About 36% out of 1285 students have tasted/used homemade alcoholic drinks (HADs) and 12.3% used commercially available alcoholic drinks (CADs). Significantly higher numbers (P < 0.001) of adolescent students (≥15 years) used CAD in comparison to children (<15 years). However, the number of younger students was higher in using HAD. Minimum age at first experience of CAD was 7 years and that of HAD was 4 years; the duration varied from 1 to 8 years and 1–15 years, respectively. Parent's behavior of taking tobacco and/or alcohol influenced the habit of their children. Father's habit was found to be associated with male offspring's habit of taking CAD. About 16% of the students used one or more substances along with alcohol.
High percentage of adolescents in the industrial town of Assam use alcoholic drinks with a male preponderance. They taste alcoholic drinks at a very young age. Parent's indulgence in taking tobacco, alcohol, or both was found to influence higher intake by their offspring.
Adolescent behavior; homemade alcohol; industrial town; substance use
We investigated the prognostic role of TNF-alpha, IL-4 and IL-12 in a clinically well defined group of Plasmodium falciparum infected patients (n = 32) sequentially from Day 0 to Day 10 with a 2 day interval along with a control group of 16 healthy volunteers of same range of age and sex. Infection with malaria is often fatal because mitochondria are unable to generate enough ATP to maintain normal cellular function. ATP deficiency arises in malaria due to an inability of mitochondria through the effects of inflammatory cytokines on their function, to utilize available oxygen. In our study TNF-alpha and IL-12 levels were significantly elevated but IL-4 level showed persistent decline in Day 0, but subsequent measurement in Day 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 showed persistent decline in levels of TNF-alpha and IL-12, an elevation in IL-4 levels which were associated with disease prognosis of the infected patients. These results again provide evidence that cytokines are very much a dominant partner in malaria pathogenesis with a specific prognostic role.
Cytokines; TNF-alpha; IL-12; IL-4; Pf malaria; Day 0–10
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are subsets of sleep-disordered breathing. Awareness about OSA and its consequences among the general public as well as the majority of primary care physicians across India is poor. This necessitated the development of the Indian initiative on obstructive sleep apnea (INOSA) guidelines under the auspices of Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. OSA is the occurrence of an average five or more episodes of obstructive respiratory events per hour of sleep with either sleep-related symptoms or co-morbidities or ≥15 such episodes without any sleep-related symptoms or co-morbidities. OSAS is defined as OSA associated with daytime symptoms, most often excessive sleepiness. Patients undergoing routine health check-up with snoring, daytime sleepiness, obesity, hypertension, motor vehicular accidents, and high-risk cases should undergo a comprehensive sleep evaluation. Medical examiners evaluating drivers, air pilots, railway drivers, and heavy machinery workers should be educated about OSA and should comprehensively evaluate applicants for OSA. Those suspected to have OSA on comprehensive sleep evaluation should be referred for a sleep study. Supervised overnight polysomnography is the “gold standard” for evaluation of OSA. Positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy is the mainstay of treatment of OSA. Oral appliances (OA) are indicated for use in patients with mild to moderate OSA who prefer OA to PAP, or who do not respond to PAP or who fail treatment attempts with PAP or behavioral measures. Surgical treatment is recommended in patients who have failed or are intolerant to PAP therapy.
Bariatric surgery; continuous positive airway pressure; Indian guidelines; obstructive sleep apnea; obstructive sleep apnea syndrome; polysomnography; sleep apnea; sleep study; syndrome Z
We investigated the role of IL-4, IL-12 and TNF-alpha in clinically well-defined groups of Plasmodium falciparum and vivax (Pf & Pv) infected patients belonging to Group I (++), Group II (+++) and Group III (++++). On the basis of hematological parameters, hyperparasitaemia, and evidence of neurological involvement, three different levels of severity were selected attributing a score from Group I (++) to Group III (++++). In each group 16 patients each of P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria were studied. As a control group for cytokine determination 30 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Serum samples were analyzed for IL-12, IL-4 and TNF-alpha using (ELISA) obtained commercially (Ray Biotech). Hb levels of Pf and Pv patients were 8 ± 1.94, 7.6 ± 1.64 g/dl and 3.6 ± 1.23 and 10.1 ± 1.21, 9.4 ± 1.43 and 7.1 ± 0.98 g/dl. Serum iron levels of Pf and Pv patients were 85.86 ± 0.86, 81.10 ± 0.70 and 70.1 ± 0.73 and 99.47 ± 0.85, 96.67 ± 1.13 and 91.7 ± 2.65 mg/dl. TNF-alpha levels of Pf and Pv patients were 155 ± 23.66, 307.5 ± 111.87 and 955 ± 261.32 and 72 ± 9.93, 140.88 ± 23.11 and 469.37 ± 416.99 pg/ml. IL-12 levels of Pf and Pv patients were 117.5 ± 8.16, 160.63 ± 20.81 and 293.13 ± 94.64 and 75.7 ± 9.25, 112.9 ± 12.05 and 200 ± 53.78 pg/ml. IL-4 levels of Pf and Pv patients were 3.7 ± 0.11, 3.2 ± 0.13 and 2.3 ± 0.63 and 5.33 ± 1.08, 4.8 ± 0.16 and 3.9 ± 0.48 pg/ml. In the control group the values of TNF-alpha, IL-12 and IL-4 were 42.9 ± 13.5, 49.8 ± 11.59 and 6.06 ± 1.32 pg/ml respectively. Cytokines and poor oxygen delivery should not be viewed as alternative theories of malarial disease pathophysiology instead poor oxygen delivery is one of the consequences of excessive release of inflammatory cytokines which is further augmented by the present work.
Cytokines; Malaria; TNF-alpha; IL-12; IL-4; Clinical severity
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) are subsets of sleep-disordered breathing. Awareness about OSA and its consequences amongst the general public as well as the majority of primary care physcians across India is poor. This necessiated the development of the INdian initiative on Obstructive sleep apnoea (INOSA) guidelines under the auspices of Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India. OSA is the occurrence of an average five or more episodes of obstructive respiratory events per hour of sleep with either sleep related symptoms or co-morbidities or ≥ 15 such episodes without any sleep related symptoms or co-morbidities. OSAS is defined as OSA associated with daytime symptoms, most often excessive sleepiness. Patients undergoing routine health check-up with snoring, daytime sleepiness, obesity, hypertension, motor vehicular accidents and high risk cases should undergo a comprehensive sleep evaluation. Medical examiners evaluating drivers, air pilots, railway drivers and heavy machinery workers should be educated about OSA and should comprehensively evaluate applicants for OSA. Those suspected to have OSA on comprehensive sleep evaluation should be referred for a sleep study. Supervised overnight polysomnography (PSG) is the “gold standard” for evaluation of OSA. Positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy is the mainstay of treatment of OSA. Oral appliances are indicated for use in patients with mild to moderate OSA who prefer oral appliances to PAP, or who do not respond to PAP or who fail treatment attempts with PAP or behavioural measures. Surgical treatment is recommended in patients who have failed or are intolerant to PAP therapy.
Bariatric surgery; CPAP; Indian guidelines; OSA; OSAS; polysomnography; sleep apnoea; sleep study; Syndrome Z
Quality assurance of herbal products may be ensured by proper quality control of the herbal ingredients and by means of good manufacturing practice. We have developed a simple scheme for the standardization and authentication of Sulaharan Yoga a poly herbal formulation. Sulaharan Yoga was prepared as per Ayurvedic Formulary of India. In-house and marketed preparation has been standardized on the basis of organoleptic characters, physical characteristics and physico-chemical properties. The set parameters were found to be sufficient to standardize the Sulaharan Yoga and can be used as reference standards for the quality control/ quality assurance study.
Organoleptic characters; physicochemical parameters; standardization; traditional medicine
This paper reports the ethno-medicinal uses of 30 plants by the Paroja tribes of Koraput, Odisha. All the plants were enumerated with botanical name, family name, local name, short description of the plant and information on ethnic use.
Pleural fluid malondialdehyde (PMDA) and serum effusion albumin gradient(SEAG) were estimated in 60 patients of pleural effusion of diverse etiologies. The results were compared with Light’s criteria to distinguish between transudates and exudates. The mean PMDA level was 0.68±0.24nmol/ml and 1.17±0.25nmol/ml in transudates and exudates respectively showing a statistically significant (p<0.05) rise in exudates in comparison to transudates. SEAG registered a significant fall in exudates (P<0.001) when compared with transudates. PMDA revealed a positive correlation with pleural protein(r=+0.30) and a significant negative association with SEAG (r= −0.33).Sensitivity and specificity of PMDA were better than the parameters of Light’s criteria. Whereas SEAG documented approximately equal sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) with Light’s criteria. Therefore PMDA and SEAG can be taken together in addition to Light’s criteria to strengthen the discrimination between transudates and exudates in borderline cases of pleural effusion.
Pleural Fluid; Exudates; Transudates
This work was undertaken to investigate correlation between oxidative stress and initiation of pathogenesis of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). Fifty primigravidae in age group of 20–35 years and gestational age 28–42 weeks with PIH were taken as cases. Twenty healthy primigravidae with no medical and surgical complications of pregnancy and with blood pressure ≤140/90 mm Hg served as controls. The cases were again subgrouped as severe preeclampsia (12 in number) and mild pre-eclampsia (38 in number). All of them were evaluated for serum malondialdehyde (MDA), Serum vitamin E and plasma vitamin C levels. The serum MDA levels were raised significantly in women with mild preeclampsia (P<0.01) and in women with severe preeclampsia (P<0.01) in comparison to normal primi gravida. The serum vitamin E levels were decreased in primi gravida with mild preeclampsia (p<0.1) and in primi with severe pre eclampsia (P<0.1) in comparison to normal primi gravida but the fall was not statistically significant. There was a significant fall (P<0.05) in the vitamin C levels in primi with mild preeclampsia than in the normal primi. The vitamin C levels in severe preeclamptic patients were lower than the normal primi but the fall was not statistically significant (P=0.10). The serum MDA and vitamin E showed a negative correlation in all the cases. The serum MDA and plasma vitamin C also showed a negative correlation in the control and study group. This observation suggests that in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy there is an imbalance between lipid peroxidation and antioxidant vitamin status because of oxidative stress. The decreased serum concentrations of the antioxidant vitamins supports the hypothesis that lipid peroxidation is an important causative factor in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. The rise in antioxidants is probably to compensate the increased peroxide load in severe preeclampsia.
Lipid peroxides; vitamin E; ascorbic acid
Serum malondialdehyde was measured in sixty-one falciparum malaria cases, which include thirty uncomplicated, and thirty-one complicated with acute renal failure. Twenty-six healthy individuals were also studied as controls. Serum malondialdehyde level was found to be significantly elevated in falciparum malaria induced acute renal failure cases when compared with uncomplicated falciparum malaria (p<0.001) and healthy controls (p<0.001). A positive correlation with the raised urea, creatinine and bilirubin levels were significant (r=0.62, p<0.025; r=0.65, p<0.05 and r=0.72, p<0.001 respectively) indicating the severity of complication with rise of lipid peroxides in falciparum malaria induced acute renal failure cases.
Acute renal failure; Falciparum malaria; Reactive oxygen species; Malondialdehyde
Very rarely Stevens Johnson Syndrome develops following drug therapy particularly Lithium and Valproate. Worldwide, the reports regarding Lithium and Valproate induced Stevens Johnson Syndrome are very few. Here, we present two cases of Stevens Johnson Syndrome following treatment with Lithium and Valproate for Mood Disorder.
Stevens Johnson Syndrome; Lithium; Valproate
A case of concurrent preputial calculi and carcinoma of the penis is reported. The causal relationship of both the lesions is still controversial and the possible common aetiopathogenesis of the entity is discussed.