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1.  Rare association of fetal posterior urethral valve with ureteric stricture 
Background
Amongst the various causes of obstructive uropathies, pelviureteric junction obstruction, bilateral ureterovesical junction obstruction and vesicoureteral reflux are common. The association of posterior urethral valve and ureteric stricture has not been reported so far.
Case
We report a rare case of fetal obstructive uropathy presenting as combination of ureteric stricture with posterior urethral valve and its consequences like cystic dysplastic kidneys and urinoma.
Conclusion
Combination of urinary malformation may be due to basic primary pathology and its secondary consequence at a distant site.
PMCID: PMC3414242  PMID: 22905302
ureteric stricture; posterior urethral valve; urinoma
2.  Comparative evaluation of micronutrient status in the serum of diabetes mellitus patients and healthy individuals with periodontitis 
Background:
Periodontal diseases are microbial induced chronic inflammatory conditions characterized by infiltration of leukocytes, loss of connective tissue, alveolar bone resorption, and formation of periodontal pockets. In response to periodontal pathogens, the leukocytes (PMN) elaborate destructive oxidants, proteinases and other factors. The balance between these factors, the antioxidants and endogenously synthesized antiproteinases determine the extent of periodontal damage. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder. Most of the complications of diabetes are due to hyperglycemia. Persons with diabetes are at a greater risk for periodontal disease Malnutrition is characterized by marked tissue depletion of antioxidant nutrients and impaired acute phase protein response to infections resulting in impaired healing. Diabetes mellitus also alters the micronutrient levels. Malnutrition is characterized by marked tissue depletion of antioxidant nutrients and impaired acute phase protein response to infections resulting in impaired healing. Malnutrition, which usually involves concomitant deficiencies of several essential macro and micro nutrients, therefore, has the potential to adversely influence the prognosis of periodontal infections. Objectives:This study has been conducted to evaluate and compare the serum levels of vitamin C, zinc and copper in diabetic and healthy individuals with periodontitis.
Materials and Methods:
In this case control study 60 subjects inclusive of both sexes were selected and divided into 3 groups of 20 each. Group 1 comprised of 20 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease, Group 2 comprised of 20 healthy subjects with periodontal disease. And Group 3 comprised of 20 healthy subjects without periodontal disease. Venous blood samples were collected and centrifuged at 3000rpm for 15 minutes and the superanatant serum is collected to measure the vitamin C, zinc and copper levels. The vitamin C levels of clinical samples were measured using spectrophotometric quantitation (dinitrophenyl hydrazine method) and zinc and copper levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
Results:
The results showed that the levels of vitamin C and zinc decreased and copper levels increased in diabetic patients with periodontits compared to healthy individuals with periodontitis.
Conclusion:
It may be reasonable to suggest vitamin and/or mineral supplements for patients whose nutrition might be inadequate. Future research should focus on an evaluation of which nutrients may help to prevent the onset and progression of periodontal disease
doi:10.4103/0972-124X.65439
PMCID: PMC2933529  PMID: 20922079
Diabetes mellitus; micro nutrients; nutrition; periodontitis
3.  From bacterial genomics to metagenomics: concept, tools and recent advances 
Indian Journal of Microbiology  2008;48(2):173-194.
In the last 20 years, the applications of genomics tools have completely transformed the field of microbial research. This has primarily happened due to revolution in sequencing technologies that have become available today. This review therefore, first describes the discoveries, upgradation and automation of sequencing techniques in a chronological order, followed by a brief discussion on microbial genomics. Some of the recently sequenced bacterial genomes are described to explain how complete genome data is now being used to derive interesting findings. Apart from the genomics of individual microbes, the study of unculturable microbiota from different environments is increasingly gaining importance. The second section is thus dedicated to the concept of metagenomics describing environmental DNA isolation, metagenomic library construction and screening methods to look for novel and potentially important genes, enzymes and biomolecules. It also deals with the pioneering studies in the area of metagenomics that are offering new insights into the previously unappreciated microbial world.
doi:10.1007/s12088-008-0031-4
PMCID: PMC3450186  PMID: 23100712
Genomics; Metagenomics
4.  Pseudomonas sp. to Sphingobium indicum: a journey of microbial degradation and bioremediation of Hexachlorocyclohexane 
The unusual process of production of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and extensive use of technical HCH and lindane has created a very serious problem of HCH contamination. While the use of technical HCH and lindane has been banned all over the world, India still continues producing lindane. Bacteria, especially Sphingomonads have been isolated that can degrade HCH isomers. Among all the bacterial strains isolated so far, Sphingobium indicum B90A that was isolated from HCH treated rhizosphere soil appears to have a better potential for HCH degradation. This conclusion is based on studies on the organization of lin genes and degradation ability of B90A. This strain perhaps can be used for HCH decontamination through bioaugmentation.
doi:10.1007/s12088-008-0002-9
PMCID: PMC3450212  PMID: 23100696
HCH; Sphingobium indicum B90A; Bioremediation
5.  An experience of community mental health program in rural areas of Jharkhand 
Industrial Psychiatry Journal  2009;18(1):47-50.
Background:
In the present era, mental disability is a major public health problem in the society. Many of the mental disabilities are correctable if detected early.
Objectives:
To assess the prevalence and pattern of mental disability.
Materials and Methods:
Community-based cross-sectional study. Patients of all age groups in the age range of 0-60 years were randomly selected from 10 blocks of 2 districts, viz., Ranchi and Hazaribagh. Thirty villages from each block were taken for the study. The study was conducted by making house-to-house visits, interviewing and examining all the individuals in the families selected using pre-tested questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: It was done by the proportions.
Results and Conclusion:
The prevalence of mental disability was found higher among males (67.9%) than among females (32.1%). The prevalence rate was higher among the productive groups and among individuals with low socioeconomic status. There is scope of community-based rehabilitation of the mentally disabled.
doi:10.4103/0972-6748.57860
PMCID: PMC3016700  PMID: 21234163
Community-based rehabilitation; Mental illness; Prevalence; Rural community
6.  Maternal Footprints of Southeast Asians in North India 
Human heredity  2008;66(1):1-9.
We have analyzed 7137 samples from 125 different caste, tribal and religious groups of India and 99 samples from three populations of Nepal for the length variation in the COII/tRNALys region of mtDNA. Samples showing length variation were subjected to detailed phylogenetic analysis based on HVS-I and informative coding region sequence variation. The overall frequencies of the 9-bp deletion and insertion variants in South Asia were 1.8% and 0.5%, respectively. We have also defined a novel deep-rooting haplogroup M43 and identified the rare haplogroup H14 in Indian populations carrying the 9bp-deletion by complete mtDNA sequencing. Moreover, we redefined haplogroup M6 and dissected it into two well-defined subclades. The presence of haplogroups F1 and B5a in Uttar Pradesh suggests minor maternal contribution from Southeast Asia to Northern India. The occurrence of haplogroup F1 in the Nepalese sample implies that Nepal might have served as a bridge for the flow of eastern lineages to India. The presence of R6 in the Nepalese, on the other hand, suggests that the gene flow between India and Nepal has been reciprocal.
doi:10.1159/000114160
PMCID: PMC2588665  PMID: 18223312
South Asia; 9bp indel; mtDNA; Haplogroup
7.  Polyphasic approach of bacterial classification — An overview of recent advances 
Indian Journal of Microbiology  2007;47(2):98-108.
Classification of microorganisms on the basis of traditional microbiological methods (morphological, physiological and biochemical) creates a blurred image about their taxonomic status and thus needs further clarification. It should be based on a more pragmatic approach of deploying a number of methods for the complete characterization of microbes. Hence, the methods now employed for bacterial systematics include, the complete 16S rRNA gene sequencing and its comparative analysis by phylogenetic trees, DNA-DNA hybridization studies with related organisms, analyses of molecular markers and signature pattern(s), biochemical assays, physiological and morphological tests. Collectively these genotypic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic methods for determining taxonomic position of microbes constitute what is known as the ‘polyphasic approach’ for bacterial systematics. This approach is currently the most popular choice for classifying bacteria and several microbes, which were previously placed under invalid taxa have now been resolved into new genera and species. This has been possible owing to rapid development in molecular biological techniques, automation of DNA sequencing coupled with advances in bioinformatic tools and access to sequence databases. Several DNA-based typing methods are known; these provide information for delineating bacteria into different genera and species and have the potential to resolve differences among the strains of a species. Therefore, newly isolated strains must be classified on the basis of the polyphasic approach. Also previously classified organisms, as and when required, can be reclassified on this ground in order to obtain information about their accurate position in the microbial world. Thus, current techniques enable microbiologists to decipher the natural phylogenetic relationships between microbes.
doi:10.1007/s12088-007-0022-x
PMCID: PMC3450112  PMID: 23100651
Polyphasic; Bacterial classification
8.  Maternal Footprints of Southeast Asians in North India 
Human Heredity  2008;66(1):1-9.
We have analyzed 7,137 samples from 125 different caste, tribal and religious groups of India and 99 samples from three populations of Nepal for the length variation in the COII/tRNALys region of mtDNA. Samples showing length variation were subjected to detailed phylogenetic analysis based on HVS-I and informative coding region sequence variation. The overall frequencies of the 9-bp deletion and insertion variants in South Asia were 1.9 and 0.6%, respectively. We have also defined a novel deep-rooting haplogroup M43 and identified the rare haplogroup H14 in Indian populations carrying the 9-bp deletion by complete mtDNA sequencing. Moreover, we redefined haplogroup M6 and dissected it into two well-defined subclades. The presence of haplogroups F1 and B5a in Uttar Pradesh suggests minor maternal contribution from Southeast Asia to Northern India. The occurrence of haplogroup F1 in the Nepalese sample implies that Nepal might have served as a bridge for the flow of eastern lineages to India. The presence of R6 in the Nepalese, on the other hand, suggests that the gene flow between India and Nepal has been reciprocal.
doi:10.1159/000114160
PMCID: PMC2588665  PMID: 18223312
South Asia; 9bp indel; mtDNA; Haplogroup
9.  Haloalkane Dehalogenase LinB Is Responsible for β- and δ-Hexachlorocyclohexane Transformation in Sphingobium indicum B90A 
Incubation of resting cells of Sphingobium indicum B90A, Sphingobium japonicum UT26, and Sphingobium francense Sp+ showed that they were able to transform β- and δ-hexachlorocyclohexane (β- and δ-HCH, respectively), the most recalcitrant hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, to pentachlorocyclohexanols, but only resting cells of strain B90A could further transform the pentachlorocyclohexanol intermediates to the corresponding tetrachlorocyclohexanediols. Moreover, experiments with resting cells of Escherichia coli expressing the LinB proteins of strains B90A, UT26, and Sp+ indicated that LinB was responsible for these transformations. Purified LinB proteins from all three strains also effected the formation of the respective pentachlorocyclohexanols. Although the three LinB enzymes differ only marginally with respect to amino acid sequence, they showed interesting differences with respect to substrate specificity. When LinB from strain B90A was incubated with β- and δ-HCH, the pentachlorocyclohexanol products were further transformed and eventually disappeared from the incubation mixtures. In contrast, the LinB proteins from strains UT26 and Sp+ could not catalyze transformation of the pentachlorocyclohexanols, and these products accumulated in the incubation mixture. A mutant of strain Sp+ lacking linA and linB did not degrade any of the HCH isomers, including β-HCH, and complementation of this mutant by linB from strain B90A restored the ability to degrade β- and δ-HCH.
doi:10.1128/AEM.00192-06
PMCID: PMC1563659  PMID: 16957186
10.  Nitric Oxide (NO) Releasing Poly ADP-ribose Polymerase 1 (PARP-1) Inhibitors Targeted to Glutathione S-Transferase P1-Overexpressing Cancer Cells 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2014;57(6):2292-2302.
We report the antitumor effects of nitric oxide (NO) releasing derivatives of the PARP-1 inhibitor olaparib (1). Compound 5b was prepared by coupling the carboxyl group of 3b and the free amino group of arylated diazeniumdiolated piperazine 4. Analogue 5a has the same structure except that the F is replaced by H. Compound 13 is the same as 5b except that a Me2N–N(O)=NO– group was added para and ortho to the nitro groups of the dinitrophenyl ring. The resulting prodrugs are activated by glutathione in a reaction accelerated by glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1), an enzyme frequently overexpressed in cancers. This metabolism generates NO plus a PARP-1 inhibitor simultaneously, consuming reducing equivalents, leading to DNA damage concomitant with inhibition of DNA repair, and in the case of 13 inducing cross-linking glutathionylation of proteins. Compounds 5b and 13 reduced the growth rates of A549 human lung adenocarcinoma xenografts with no evidence of systemic toxicity.
doi:10.1021/jm401550d
PMCID: PMC3983374  PMID: 24521039
11.  Genetic association study of QT interval highlights role for calcium signaling pathways in myocardial repolarization 
Arking, Dan E. | Pulit, Sara L. | Crotti, Lia | van der Harst, Pim | Munroe, Patricia B. | Koopmann, Tamara T. | Sotoodehnia, Nona | Rossin, Elizabeth J. | Morley, Michael | Wang, Xinchen | Johnson, Andrew D. | Lundby, Alicia | Gudbjartsson, Daníel F. | Noseworthy, Peter A. | Eijgelsheim, Mark | Bradford, Yuki | Tarasov, Kirill V. | Dörr, Marcus | Müller-Nurasyid, Martina | Lahtinen, Annukka M. | Nolte, Ilja M. | Smith, Albert Vernon | Bis, Joshua C. | Isaacs, Aaron | Newhouse, Stephen J. | Evans, Daniel S. | Post, Wendy S. | Waggott, Daryl | Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka | Hicks, Andrew A. | Eisele, Lewin | Ellinghaus, David | Hayward, Caroline | Navarro, Pau | Ulivi, Sheila | Tanaka, Toshiko | Tester, David J. | Chatel, Stéphanie | Gustafsson, Stefan | Kumari, Meena | Morris, Richard W. | Naluai, Åsa T. | Padmanabhan, Sandosh | Kluttig, Alexander | Strohmer, Bernhard | Panayiotou, Andrie G. | Torres, Maria | Knoflach, Michael | Hubacek, Jaroslav A. | Slowikowski, Kamil | Raychaudhuri, Soumya | Kumar, Runjun D. | Harris, Tamara B. | Launer, Lenore J. | Shuldiner, Alan R. | Alonso, Alvaro | Bader, Joel S. | Ehret, Georg | Huang, Hailiang | Kao, W.H. Linda | Strait, James B. | Macfarlane, Peter W. | Brown, Morris | Caulfield, Mark J. | Samani, Nilesh J. | Kronenberg, Florian | Willeit, Johann | Smith, J. Gustav | Greiser, Karin H. | zu Schwabedissen, Henriette Meyer | Werdan, Karl | Carella, Massimo | Zelante, Leopoldo | Heckbert, Susan R. | Psaty, Bruce M. | Rotter, Jerome I. | Kolcic, Ivana | Polašek, Ozren | Wright, Alan F. | Griffin, Maura | Daly, Mark J. | Arnar, David O. | Hólm, Hilma | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | Denny, Joshua C. | Roden, Dan M. | Zuvich, Rebecca L. | Emilsson, Valur | Plump, Andrew S. | Larson, Martin G. | O'Donnell, Christopher J. | Yin, Xiaoyan | Bobbo, Marco | D'Adamo, Adamo P. | Iorio, Annamaria | Sinagra, Gianfranco | Carracedo, Angel | Cummings, Steven R. | Nalls, Michael A. | Jula, Antti | Kontula, Kimmo K. | Marjamaa, Annukka | Oikarinen, Lasse | Perola, Markus | Porthan, Kimmo | Erbel, Raimund | Hoffmann, Per | Jöckel, Karl-Heinz | Kälsch, Hagen | Nöthen, Markus M. | consortium, HRGEN | den Hoed, Marcel | Loos, Ruth J.F. | Thelle, Dag S. | Gieger, Christian | Meitinger, Thomas | Perz, Siegfried | Peters, Annette | Prucha, Hanna | Sinner, Moritz F. | Waldenberger, Melanie | de Boer, Rudolf A. | Franke, Lude | van der Vleuten, Pieter A. | Beckmann, Britt Maria | Martens, Eimo | Bardai, Abdennasser | Hofman, Nynke | Wilde, Arthur A.M. | Behr, Elijah R. | Dalageorgou, Chrysoula | Giudicessi, John R. | Medeiros-Domingo, Argelia | Barc, Julien | Kyndt, Florence | Probst, Vincent | Ghidoni, Alice | Insolia, Roberto | Hamilton, Robert M. | Scherer, Stephen W. | Brandimarto, Jeffrey | Margulies, Kenneth | Moravec, Christine E. | Fabiola Del, Greco M. | Fuchsberger, Christian | O'Connell, Jeffrey R. | Lee, Wai K. | Watt, Graham C.M. | Campbell, Harry | Wild, Sarah H. | El Mokhtari, Nour E. | Frey, Norbert | Asselbergs, Folkert W. | Leach, Irene Mateo | Navis, Gerjan | van den Berg, Maarten P. | van Veldhuisen, Dirk J. | Kellis, Manolis | Krijthe, Bouwe P. | Franco, Oscar H. | Hofman, Albert | Kors, Jan A. | Uitterlinden, André G. | Witteman, Jacqueline C.M. | Kedenko, Lyudmyla | Lamina, Claudia | Oostra, Ben A. | Abecasis, Gonçalo R. | Lakatta, Edward G. | Mulas, Antonella | Orrú, Marco | Schlessinger, David | Uda, Manuela | Markus, Marcello R.P. | Völker, Uwe | Snieder, Harold | Spector, Timothy D. | Ärnlöv, Johan | Lind, Lars | Sundström, Johan | Syvänen, Ann-Christine | Kivimaki, Mika | Kähönen, Mika | Mononen, Nina | Raitakari, Olli T. | Viikari, Jorma S. | Adamkova, Vera | Kiechl, Stefan | Brion, Maria | Nicolaides, Andrew N. | Paulweber, Bernhard | Haerting, Johannes | Dominiczak, Anna F. | Nyberg, Fredrik | Whincup, Peter H. | Hingorani, Aroon | Schott, Jean-Jacques | Bezzina, Connie R. | Ingelsson, Erik | Ferrucci, Luigi | Gasparini, Paolo | Wilson, James F. | Rudan, Igor | Franke, Andre | Mühleisen, Thomas W. | Pramstaller, Peter P. | Lehtimäki, Terho J. | Paterson, Andrew D. | Parsa, Afshin | Liu, Yongmei | van Duijn, Cornelia | Siscovick, David S. | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Jamshidi, Yalda | Salomaa, Veikko | Felix, Stephan B. | Sanna, Serena | Ritchie, Marylyn D. | Stricker, Bruno H. | Stefansson, Kari | Boyer, Laurie A. | Cappola, Thomas P. | Olsen, Jesper V. | Lage, Kasper | Schwartz, Peter J. | Kääb, Stefan | Chakravarti, Aravinda | Ackerman, Michael J. | Pfeufer, Arne | de Bakker, Paul I.W. | Newton-Cheh, Christopher
Nature genetics  2014;46(8):826-836.
The QT interval, an electrocardiographic measure reflecting myocardial repolarization, is a heritable trait. QT prolongation is a risk factor for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD) and could indicate the presence of the potentially lethal Mendelian Long QT Syndrome (LQTS). Using a genome-wide association and replication study in up to 100,000 individuals we identified 35 common variant QT interval loci, that collectively explain ∼8-10% of QT variation and highlight the importance of calcium regulation in myocardial repolarization. Rare variant analysis of 6 novel QT loci in 298 unrelated LQTS probands identified coding variants not found in controls but of uncertain causality and therefore requiring validation. Several newly identified loci encode for proteins that physically interact with other recognized repolarization proteins. Our integration of common variant association, expression and orthogonal protein-protein interaction screens provides new insights into cardiac electrophysiology and identifies novel candidate genes for ventricular arrhythmias, LQTS,and SCD.
doi:10.1038/ng.3014
PMCID: PMC4124521  PMID: 24952745
genome-wide association study; QT interval; Long QT Syndrome; sudden cardiac death; myocardial repolarization; arrhythmias
12.  Benign Triton Tumour of Upper Lip- A Rare Neoplasm at an Extremely Uncommon Site 
Benign Triton tumours are exceedingly rare tumours occurring predominantly in young children. Fewer than 20 cases have been reported in literature. The tumours develop as masses in various large nerve trunks, the most common of them being the brachial and the sciatic. They are very rarely encountered in the head and neck region. Neurological symptoms may manifest due to their strategic locations. Various case studies in literature support their benign nature. Early diagnosis and complete excision avoids deformities and other associated complications. We present one such rare case of benign triton tumour of the head and neck region in a 10 year old female child who presented with a diffuse nodular swelling in the upper lip involving the philtrum and extending upto the left ala of the nose along with a brief review of literature.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/10289.5295
PMCID: PMC4316265  PMID: 25653959
Choristoma; Head and neck; Neuroskeletal
13.  Comparative Study of Renal Protective Effects of Allopurinol and N-Acetyl-Cysteine on Contrast Induced Nephropathy in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Catheterization 
Objectives : To evaluate the difference in the renal protective effects of allopurinol and n-acetyl cysteine along with saline hydration in patients of contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) post cardiac interventions.
Background: CIN remains a common complication of cardiac procedures. Radio contrast agents can cause a reduction in renal function that may be related to oxidative stress underlining various patho- physiologies. Conflicting evidence suggests that administration of allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor can prevent CIN.
Materials and Methods: This is a study of 500 patients undergoing angiography and coronary revascularisation in patients showing significant coronary block. The angiography positive patients (275) were prospectively randomised to different treatment protocol to study for their reno-protective effect. The patients received either of the three drugs saline hydration (SH, 1ml/kg/hr), n-acetylcysteine (SH+NAC, 600 mg bd) or Allopurinol (SH+ALLP, 300 mg/day) 12 hours before and after administration of radio contrast agent. Levels of serum creatinine and blood urea of the 275 patients recorded at 24 hour interval were noted post angioplasty over a course of 5 days in patients receiving either omnipaque (125) or visipaque (150) contrast media. All the 500 patients were also assessed for development of any kind of adverse drug effects/reactions with the two contrast media.
Results: CIN occurred in 56 of 500 the patients (10.6%) who underwent angiography and 49 of 275 patients (17.8%) who underwent angioplasty. In the omnipaque group CIN occurred in 16/40, 8/40, nil/45 in patients receiving SH, NAC plus SH and SH plus ALLP respectively. In the visipaque group CIN occurred in 15/50, 10/50, nil/50 in the three treatments groups respectively. Allopurinol maintained a consistent fall in the serum creatinine & blood urea levels from the baseline values from the end of the 1st day (p < .01 & .001) in both the category. Visipaque proved to be better dye than omnipaque with less adverse drug effects/ reactions.
Conclusion: Prophylactic oral administration of allopurinol (300 mg/day) along with hydration is better than n-acetylcysteine and saline hydration alone for protection against CIN in patients undergoing coronary procedures.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/9638.5255
PMCID: PMC4316271  PMID: 25653965
Allopurinol; Contrast nephropathy; Omnipaque; Percutaneous coronary interventions; Visipaque
14.  A dPIP5K Dependent Pool of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5 Bisphosphate (PIP2) Is Required for G-Protein Coupled Signal Transduction in Drosophila Photoreceptors 
PLoS Genetics  2015;11(1):e1004948.
Multiple PIP2 dependent molecular processes including receptor activated phospholipase C activity occur at the neuronal plasma membranes, yet levels of this lipid at the plasma membrane are remarkably stable. Although the existence of unique pools of PIP2 supporting these events has been proposed, the mechanism by which they are generated is unclear. In Drosophila photoreceptors, the hydrolysis of PIP2 by G-protein coupled phospholipase C activity is essential for sensory transduction of photons. We identify dPIP5K as an enzyme essential for PIP2 re-synthesis in photoreceptors. Loss of dPIP5K causes profound defects in the electrical response to light and light-induced PIP2 dynamics at the photoreceptor membrane. Overexpression of dPIP5K was able to accelerate the rate of PIP2 synthesis following light induced PIP2 depletion. Other PIP2 dependent processes such as endocytosis and cytoskeletal function were unaffected in photoreceptors lacking dPIP5K function. These results provide evidence for the existence of a unique dPIP5K dependent pool of PIP2 required for normal Drosophila phototransduction. Our results define the existence of multiple pools of PIP2 in photoreceptors generated by distinct lipid kinases and supporting specific molecular processes at neuronal membranes.
Author Summary
PIP2 has been implicated in multiple functions at the plasma membrane. Some of these require its hydrolysis by receptor-activated phospholipase C, whereas others, such as membrane transport and cytoskeletal function, involve the interaction of the intact lipid with cellular proteins. The mechanistic basis underlying the segregation of these two classes of PIP2 dependent functions is unknown; it has been postulated that this might involve unique pools of PIP2 generated by distinct phosphoinsoitide kinases. We have studied this question in Drosophila photoreceptors, a model system where sensory transduction requires robust phospholipase C mediated PIP2 hydrolysis. We find that the activity of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5 kinase encoded by dPIP5K is required to support normal sensory transduction and PIP2 dynamics in photoreceptors. Remarkably, non-PLC dependent functions of PIP2, such as vesicular transport and the actin cytoskeleton, were unaffected in dPIP5K mutants. Thus, dPIP5K supports a pool of PIP2 that is readily available to PLC, but has no role in sustaining other non-PLC mediated PIP2 dependent processes. These findings support the existence of at least two non-overlapping pools of PIP2 at the plasma membrane, and provide a platform for future studies of PIP2 regulation at the plasma membrane.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004948
PMCID: PMC4310717  PMID: 25633995
15.  HMG-coenzyme A reductase inhibition, type 2 diabetes, and bodyweight: evidence from genetic analysis and randomised trials 
Swerdlow, Daniel I | Preiss, David | Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B | Holmes, Michael V | Engmann, Jorgen E L | Shah, Tina | Sofat, Reecha | Stender, Stefan | Johnson, Paul C D | Scott, Robert A | Leusink, Maarten | Verweij, Niek | Sharp, Stephen J | Guo, Yiran | Giambartolomei, Claudia | Chung, Christina | Peasey, Anne | Amuzu, Antoinette | Li, KaWah | Palmen, Jutta | Howard, Philip | Cooper, Jackie A | Drenos, Fotios | Li, Yun R | Lowe, Gordon | Gallacher, John | Stewart, Marlene C W | Tzoulaki, Ioanna | Buxbaum, Sarah G | van der A, Daphne L | Forouhi, Nita G | Onland-Moret, N Charlotte | van der Schouw, Yvonne T | Schnabel, Renate B | Hubacek, Jaroslav A | Kubinova, Ruzena | Baceviciene, Migle | Tamosiunas, Abdonas | Pajak, Andrzej | Topor-Madry, Romanvan | Stepaniak, Urszula | Malyutina, Sofia | Baldassarre, Damiano | Sennblad, Bengt | Tremoli, Elena | de Faire, Ulf | Veglia, Fabrizio | Ford, Ian | Jukema, J Wouter | Westendorp, Rudi G J | de Borst, Gert Jan | de Jong, Pim A | Algra, Ale | Spiering, Wilko | der Zee, Anke H Maitland-van | Klungel, Olaf H | de Boer, Anthonius | Doevendans, Pieter A | Eaton, Charles B | Robinson, Jennifer G | Duggan, David | Kjekshus, John | Downs, John R | Gotto, Antonio M | Keech, Anthony C | Marchioli, Roberto | Tognoni, Gianni | Sever, Peter S | Poulter, Neil R | Waters, David D | Pedersen, Terje R | Amarenco, Pierre | Nakamura, Haruo | McMurray, John J V | Lewsey, James D | Chasman, Daniel I | Ridker, Paul M | Maggioni, Aldo P | Tavazzi, Luigi | Ray, Kausik K | Seshasai, Sreenivasa Rao Kondapally | Manson, JoAnn E | Price, Jackie F | Whincup, Peter H | Morris, Richard W | Lawlor, Debbie A | Smith, George Davey | Ben-Shlomo, Yoav | Schreiner, Pamela J | Fornage, Myriam | Siscovick, David S | Cushman, Mary | Kumari, Meena | Wareham, Nick J | Verschuren, W M Monique | Redline, Susan | Patel, Sanjay R | Whittaker, John C | Hamsten, Anders | Delaney, Joseph A | Dale, Caroline | Gaunt, Tom R | Wong, Andrew | Kuh, Diana | Hardy, Rebecca | Kathiresan, Sekar | Castillo, Berta A | van der Harst, Pim | Brunner, Eric J | Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne | Marmot, Michael G | Krauss, Ronald M | Tsai, Michael | Coresh, Josef | Hoogeveen, Ronald C | Psaty, Bruce M | Lange, Leslie A | Hakonarson, Hakon | Dudbridge, Frank | Humphries, Steve E | Talmud, Philippa J | Kivimäki, Mika | Timpson, Nicholas J | Langenberg, Claudia | Asselbergs, Folkert W | Voevoda, Mikhail | Bobak, Martin | Pikhart, Hynek | Wilson, James G | Reiner, Alex P | Keating, Brendan J | Hingorani, Aroon D | Sattar, Naveed
Lancet  2015;385(9965):351-361.
Summary
Background
Statins increase the risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus. We aimed to assess whether this increase in risk is a consequence of inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), the intended drug target.
Methods
We used single nucleotide polymorphisms in the HMGCR gene, rs17238484 (for the main analysis) and rs12916 (for a subsidiary analysis) as proxies for HMGCR inhibition by statins. We examined associations of these variants with plasma lipid, glucose, and insulin concentrations; bodyweight; waist circumference; and prevalent and incident type 2 diabetes. Study-specific effect estimates per copy of each LDL-lowering allele were pooled by meta-analysis. These findings were compared with a meta-analysis of new-onset type 2 diabetes and bodyweight change data from randomised trials of statin drugs. The effects of statins in each randomised trial were assessed using meta-analysis.
Findings
Data were available for up to 223 463 individuals from 43 genetic studies. Each additional rs17238484-G allele was associated with a mean 0·06 mmol/L (95% CI 0·05–0·07) lower LDL cholesterol and higher body weight (0·30 kg, 0·18–0·43), waist circumference (0·32 cm, 0·16–0·47), plasma insulin concentration (1·62%, 0·53–2·72), and plasma glucose concentration (0·23%, 0·02–0·44). The rs12916 SNP had similar effects on LDL cholesterol, bodyweight, and waist circumference. The rs17238484-G allele seemed to be associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio [OR] per allele 1·02, 95% CI 1·00–1·05); the rs12916-T allele association was consistent (1·06, 1·03–1·09). In 129 170 individuals in randomised trials, statins lowered LDL cholesterol by 0·92 mmol/L (95% CI 0·18–1·67) at 1-year of follow-up, increased bodyweight by 0·24 kg (95% CI 0·10–0·38 in all trials; 0·33 kg, 95% CI 0·24–0·42 in placebo or standard care controlled trials and −0·15 kg, 95% CI −0·39 to 0·08 in intensive-dose vs moderate-dose trials) at a mean of 4·2 years (range 1·9–6·7) of follow-up, and increased the odds of new-onset type 2 diabetes (OR 1·12, 95% CI 1·06–1·18 in all trials; 1·11, 95% CI 1·03–1·20 in placebo or standard care controlled trials and 1·12, 95% CI 1·04–1·22 in intensive-dose vs moderate dose trials).
Interpretation
The increased risk of type 2 diabetes noted with statins is at least partially explained by HMGCR inhibition.
Funding
The funding sources are cited at the end of the paper.
doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61183-1
PMCID: PMC4322187  PMID: 25262344
16.  Symptomatic sclerosing haemangioma: a rare case of solitary pulmonary nodule in a young girl 
BMJ Case Reports  2013;2013:bcr2012007072.
Sclerosing haemangioma (SH) is a rare benign lung tumour with distinctive variety of histological patterns. SH typically presents as asymptomatic peripheral, solitary well-circumscribed lesion in women with median age at diagnosis in the fifth decade. Preoperative diagnosis of this tumour is difficult, and sometimes even intraoperative frozen sections cannot differentiate it from malignant tumours. Here, we present our experiences in investigating its characteristics. We report a case of a 19-year-old girl who presented with chest pain, cough and sputum and off and on haemoptysis for 6 months. Anti-tubercular treatment was given but provided no relief. CT chest showed a well-defined hypodense solid mass lesion with a soft tissue alternation. Lobectomy was performed. Microscopy revealed a tumour comprising of two distinct populations of cells surface and stromal cells which disposed in papillary, solid, sclerotic and haemorrhagic growth patterns. Histology and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of SH of the lung.
doi:10.1136/bcr-2012-007072
PMCID: PMC3604535  PMID: 23345472
17.  Heme oxygenase-1-mediated host cell response inhibits the susceptibility of prostate cancer cells to retroviral infection and retards their proliferation 
Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) resembles endogenous murine leukemia virus and was used in this study as a model for a new retrovirus infecting human cells. We demonstrate that induction of an HO-1-mediated host cell response inhibited the susceptibility of LNCaP prostate cancer cells to XMRV infection and efficiently retarded the growth of these prostate cancer cells. Our studies delineate a role of HO-1 in the host defense against retroviral infections and may provide novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of HO-1-sensitive prostate cancer.
PMCID: PMC4302767  PMID: 25620854
XMRV infection; heme oxygenase-1; gene expression; host factors
18.  Gαz regulates BDNF-induction of axon growth in cortical neurons 
The disruption of neurotransmitter and neurotrophic factor signaling in the central nervous system (CNS) is implicated as the root cause of neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, epilepsy, chronic pain, and depression. Therefore, identifying the underlying molecular mechanisms by which neurotransmitter and neurotrophic factor signaling regulates neuronal survival or growth may facilitate identification of more effective therapies for these disorders. Previously, our lab found that the heterotrimeric G protein, Gz, mediates crosstalk between G protein-coupled receptors and neurotrophin signaling in the neural cell line PC12. These data, combined with Gαz expression profiles - predominantly in neuronal cells with higher expression levels corresponding to developmental times of target tissue innervation - suggested that Gαz may play an important role in neurotrophin signaling and neuronal development. Here, we provide evidence in cortical neurons, both manipulated ex vivo and those cultured from Gz knockout mice, that Gαz is localized to axonal growth cones and plays a significant role in the development of axons of cortical neurons in the CNS. Our findings indicate that Gαz inhibits BDNF-stimulated axon growth in cortical neurons, establishing an endogenous role for Gαz in regulating neurotrophin signaling in the CNS.
doi:10.1016/j.mcn.2013.12.004
PMCID: PMC4096435  PMID: 24321455
BDNF; GNAZ; G proteins; Neurotrophin
19.  Novel MntR-Independent Mechanism of Manganese Homeostasis in Escherichia coli by the Ribosome-Associated Protein HflX 
Journal of Bacteriology  2014;196(14):2587-2597.
Manganese is a micronutrient required for activities of several important enzymes under conditions of oxidative stress and iron starvation. In Escherichia coli, the manganese homeostasis network primarily constitutes a manganese importer (MntH) and an exporter (MntP), which are regulated by the MntR dual regulator. In this study, we find that deletion of E. coli hflX, which encodes a ribosome-associated GTPase with unknown function, renders extreme manganese sensitivity characterized by arrested cell growth, filamentation, lower rate of replication, and DNA damage. We demonstrate that perturbation by manganese induces unprecedented influx of manganese in ΔhflX cells compared to that in the wild-type E. coli strain. Interestingly, our study indicates that the imbalance in manganese homeostasis in the ΔhflX strain is independent of the MntR regulon. Moreover, the influx of manganese leads to a simultaneous influx of zinc and inhibition of iron import in ΔhflX cells. In order to review a possible link of HflX with the λ phage life cycle, we performed a lysis-lysogeny assay to show that the Mn-perturbed ΔhflX strain reduces the frequency of lysogenization of the phage. This observation raises the possibility that the induced zinc influx in the manganese-perturbed ΔhflX strain stimulates the activity of the zinc-metalloprotease HflB, the key determinant of the lysis-lysogeny switch. Finally, we propose that manganese-mediated autophosphorylation of HflX plays a central role in manganese, zinc, and iron homeostasis in E. coli cells.
doi:10.1128/JB.01717-14
PMCID: PMC4097593  PMID: 24794564
20.  Effect of Resveratrol and Nicotine on PON1 Gene Expression: In Vitro Study 
Dietary and lifestyle factors have been shown to have a profound effect on paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity. Cigarette smoke has been shown to inhibit its mass and activity where as resveratrol has been shown to enhance it. We exposed hepatoma derived cell line (HepG2) to resveratrol and nicotine in varying doses and measured PON1 enzymatic activity and PON1 gene expression. In addition, total protein content of HepG2 cells was also measured. Resveratrol in a dose of 15 μmol/l or above significantly increased the PON1 enzyme activity (p > 0.001) where as nicotine in a dose of 1 μmol/l or higher significantly reduced it (p < 0.05). The resveratrol in this dose also enhanced the PON1 gene expression whereas nicotine decreased it as compared to controls. However, the protein conent of cells was not changed suggesting that they were not cytotoxic in the doses used. Till date the antioxidant vitamins have shown disappointing results against LDL oxidation and cardiovascular protection. However, the effect of resveratrol on PON1 gene expression and activity was significant, suggesting increase in PON1 activity and enhanced gene expression may be its alternative mechanism for offering protection against cardiovascular disease and may be an potential pharmacological agent which can be used for this.
doi:10.1007/s12291-013-0300-9
PMCID: PMC3903941  PMID: 24478552
Paraoxonase1; PON1 gene expression; HepG2 cell line; Resveratrol; Nicotine
21.  Analysis of Jatropha curcas transcriptome for oil enhancement and genic markers 
Oil-rich seeds of Jatropha curcas are being focussed as a source of bio-diesel. However, prior to its industrial use, a lot of crop improvement efforts are required in Jatropha. Availability of a large number of EST sequences of Jatropha in public domain allow identification of candidate genes for several agronomic characters including oil content in seeds. Here, we have analysed 42,477 ESTs of Jatropha spanning 22.9 Mbp for microsatellites and fatty acid metabolism related sequences. Unigene sequences were built using CAP 3 programme resulted in 12,358 contigs and 5,730 singlets. Nearly, 8 % unigenes showed presence of microsatellites, slightly over-represented compared to their occurrence in ESTs. Most of the microsatellites were either di- or tri-nucleotide repeats, while other categories of tetra-, penta- and hexa-nucleotide repeats together constituted ~4 % of total microsatellites. Assessment of functional relevance of unigenes was carried out using Blast2GO using its default settings. The overall sequence similarity level against sequences in ‘nr’ database was >80 %. A total of 931 sequences that participated in any of the pathways related to fatty acid or lipid metabolism were found at GO level 6. Among these, GO terms “Fatty acid metabolic process” and “Fatty acid biosynthetic process” were most over-represented. Overall, our work has due relevance in identifying molecular markers for the candidate genes for oil content in Jatropha seeds, and will prove to be an important reference for further studies for identification of trait specific markers in Jatropha.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12298-013-0204-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s12298-013-0204-4
PMCID: PMC3925477  PMID: 24554848
Jatropha curcas; ESTs; Unigenes; Microsatellites; Gene ontology; Fatty acids
22.  Primary hyperparathyroidism presenting as hypercalcemic crisis: Twenty-year experience 
Context:
To study hyperparathyroid-induced hypercalcemic crisis (HIHC).
Aims:
We see very advanced cases of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and therefore, we sought to determine the incidence of HIHC in our surgically-treated PHPT patients, clinical presentation, and short- and long-term results with the use of bisphosphonate therapy and expeditious parathyroidectomy over a 20-year period at a single institution.
Settings and Design:
Retrospective review of PHPT patients at Department of Endocrine Surgery, a tertiary care referral center.
Materials and Methods:
Retrospective review of 177 patients of advanced PHPT who underwent parathyroidectomy at a single institution from 1989 to 2010. All patients with serum calcium ≥14 mg/dl (≥3.5 mmol/l) were included in HIHC group.
Statistical Analysis:
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine differences between groups. Data is expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM); P values less than 0.05 were considered significant.
Results:
We observed a higher incidence of HIHC (n = 37, 21%) with higher incidence of pancreatitis (n = 5, 13.5%). Crisis patients had heavier (6,717 mg) glands. Use of bisphosphonate therapy in seven crisis patients resulted in quicker lowering of serum calcium (mean: 4.5 vs 14.6 days in other crisis patients, P = 0.027) permitting early surgery. The incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia was not higher in these patients. Although the parathyroid adenoma was common pathology in both the groups, the incidence of parathyroid carcinoma was higher in crisis group (10.8%). Outcome with regards to postoperative eucalcemia was similar in both groups.
Conclusions:
Crisis patients are at risk of developing pancreatitis. Bisphosphonate therapy has the potential to quickly lower the serum calcium permitting early surgery without added risk of postoperative hypocalcemia. Successful and sustained eucalcemia with excellent long-term survival is possible with use of bisphosphonates and semi-emergent, focused parathyroidectmy.
doi:10.4103/2230-8210.131763
PMCID: PMC4287752  PMID: 25593835
Bisphosphonate; hypercalcemic crisis; parathyroidectomy; primary hyperparathyroidism
23.  Unusual case of focal neck swelling: Phlebectasia of internal jugular vein with intracranial extension 
Internal jugular vein (IJV) phlebectasia is rare in occurrence and is frequently misdiagnosed and managed inappropriately. It commonly presents as a unilateral neck swelling which typically increases in size with valsalva maneuver. Although, the most common cause of a focal neck swelling, which increases in size with valsalva maneuver is laryngocele, the possibility of phlebectasia of IJV should always be borne in mind, especially in child. Owing to the rarity of this condition, a high index of suspicion is required to recognize the same and managed appropriately. We present a case of phlebectasia of the right IJV with intracranial extension and discuss its management. The case is being reported in view of its clinical rarity (the intracranial extension being extremely rare) and to highlight the available management strategies.
doi:10.4103/2229-516X.149247
PMCID: PMC4318104  PMID: 25664271
Intracranial extension; internal jugular vein; phlebectasia
24.  Transcriptional regulation of crystallin, redox, and apoptotic genes by C-Phycocyanin in the selenite-induced cataractogenic rat model 
Molecular Vision  2015;21:26-39.
Purpose
This study was designed to examine the constrictive potential of C-Phycocyanin (C-PC) in regulating changes imposed on gene expression in the selenite-induced cataract model.
Methods
Wistar rat pups were divided into three groups of eight each. On P10, Group I received an intraperitoneal injection of normal saline. Groups II and III received a subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (19 μmol/kg bodyweight); Group III also received an intraperitoneal injection of C-PC (200 mg/kg bodyweight) on P9–14. Total RNA was isolated on P16, and the relative abundance of mRNA of the crystallin structural genes, redox components, and apoptotic cascade were ascertained with real-time PCR with reference to the internal control β-actin.
Results
Real-time PCR analysis showed the crystallin genes (αA-, βB1-, γD-) and redox cycle components (Cat, SOD-1, Gpx) were downregulated, the apoptotic components were upregulated, and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 was downregulated in Group II. Treatment with 200 mg/kg bodyweight C-PC (Group III) transcriptionally regulated the instability of the expression of these genes, thus ensuring C-PC is a prospective anticataractogenic agent that probably delays the onset and progression of cataractogenesis induced by sodium selenite.
Conclusions
C-PC treatment possibly prevented cataractogenesis triggered by sodium selenite, by regulating the lens crystallin, redox genes, and apoptotic cascade mRNA expression and thus maintains lens transparency. C-PC may be developed as a potential antioxidant compound applied in the future to prevent and treat age-related cataract.
PMCID: PMC4301595
25.  Development and Characterization of Somatic Hybrids of Ulva reticulata Forsskål (×) Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz.)Doty 
Ulvophycean species with diverse trait characteristics provide an opportunity to create novel allelic recombinant variants. The present study reports the development of seaweed variants with improved agronomic traits through protoplast fusion between Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz.) Doty and Ulva reticulata Forsskål. A total of 12 putative hybrids were screened based on the variations in morphology and total DNA content over the fusion partners. DNA-fingerprinting by inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis confirmed genomic introgression in the hybrids. The DNA fingerprint revealed sharing of parental alleles in regenerated hybrids and a few alleles that were unique to hybrids. The epigenetic variations in hybrids estimated in terms of DNA methylation polymorphism also revealed sharing of methylation loci with both the fusion partners. The functional trait analysis for growth showed a hybrid with heterotic trait (DGR% = 36.7 ± 1.55%) over the fusion partners U. reticulata (33.2 ± 2.6%) and M. oxyspermum (17.8 ± 1.77%), while others were superior to the mid-parental value (25.2 ± 2.2%) (p < 0.05). The fatty acid (FA) analysis of hybrids showed notable variations over fusion partners. Most hybrids showed increased polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) compared to saturated FAs (SFAs) and mainly includes the nutritionally important linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, oleic acid, stearidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid. The other differences observed include superior cellulose content and antioxidative potential in hybrids over fusion partners. The hybrid varieties with superior traits developed in this study unequivocally demonstrate the significance of protoplast fusion technique in developing improved varients of macroalgae.
doi:10.3389/fpls.2015.00003
PMCID: PMC4310296
heterosis; hybrid; Monostroma; protoplast; Ulva

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