Amongst the various causes of obstructive uropathies, pelviureteric junction obstruction, bilateral ureterovesical junction obstruction and vesicoureteral reflux are common. The association of posterior urethral valve and ureteric stricture has not been reported so far.
We report a rare case of fetal obstructive uropathy presenting as combination of ureteric stricture with posterior urethral valve and its consequences like cystic dysplastic kidneys and urinoma.
Combination of urinary malformation may be due to basic primary pathology and its secondary consequence at a distant site.
ureteric stricture; posterior urethral valve; urinoma
Periodontal diseases are microbial induced chronic inflammatory conditions characterized by infiltration of leukocytes, loss of connective tissue, alveolar bone resorption, and formation of periodontal pockets. In response to periodontal pathogens, the leukocytes (PMN) elaborate destructive oxidants, proteinases and other factors. The balance between these factors, the antioxidants and endogenously synthesized antiproteinases determine the extent of periodontal damage. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder. Most of the complications of diabetes are due to hyperglycemia. Persons with diabetes are at a greater risk for periodontal disease Malnutrition is characterized by marked tissue depletion of antioxidant nutrients and impaired acute phase protein response to infections resulting in impaired healing. Diabetes mellitus also alters the micronutrient levels. Malnutrition is characterized by marked tissue depletion of antioxidant nutrients and impaired acute phase protein response to infections resulting in impaired healing. Malnutrition, which usually involves concomitant deficiencies of several essential macro and micro nutrients, therefore, has the potential to adversely influence the prognosis of periodontal infections. Objectives:This study has been conducted to evaluate and compare the serum levels of vitamin C, zinc and copper in diabetic and healthy individuals with periodontitis.
Materials and Methods:
In this case control study 60 subjects inclusive of both sexes were selected and divided into 3 groups of 20 each. Group 1 comprised of 20 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease, Group 2 comprised of 20 healthy subjects with periodontal disease. And Group 3 comprised of 20 healthy subjects without periodontal disease. Venous blood samples were collected and centrifuged at 3000rpm for 15 minutes and the superanatant serum is collected to measure the vitamin C, zinc and copper levels. The vitamin C levels of clinical samples were measured using spectrophotometric quantitation (dinitrophenyl hydrazine method) and zinc and copper levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
The results showed that the levels of vitamin C and zinc decreased and copper levels increased in diabetic patients with periodontits compared to healthy individuals with periodontitis.
It may be reasonable to suggest vitamin and/or mineral supplements for patients whose nutrition might be inadequate. Future research should focus on an evaluation of which nutrients may help to prevent the onset and progression of periodontal disease
Diabetes mellitus; micro nutrients; nutrition; periodontitis
In the last 20 years, the applications of genomics tools have completely transformed the field of microbial research. This has primarily happened due to revolution in sequencing technologies that have become available today. This review therefore, first describes the discoveries, upgradation and automation of sequencing techniques in a chronological order, followed by a brief discussion on microbial genomics. Some of the recently sequenced bacterial genomes are described to explain how complete genome data is now being used to derive interesting findings. Apart from the genomics of individual microbes, the study of unculturable microbiota from different environments is increasingly gaining importance. The second section is thus dedicated to the concept of metagenomics describing environmental DNA isolation, metagenomic library construction and screening methods to look for novel and potentially important genes, enzymes and biomolecules. It also deals with the pioneering studies in the area of metagenomics that are offering new insights into the previously unappreciated microbial world.
The unusual process of production of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and extensive use of technical HCH and lindane has created a very serious problem of HCH contamination. While the use of technical HCH and lindane has been banned all over the world, India still continues producing lindane. Bacteria, especially Sphingomonads have been isolated that can degrade HCH isomers. Among all the bacterial strains isolated so far, Sphingobium indicum B90A that was isolated from HCH treated rhizosphere soil appears to have a better potential for HCH degradation. This conclusion is based on studies on the organization of lin genes and degradation ability of B90A. This strain perhaps can be used for HCH decontamination through bioaugmentation.
HCH; Sphingobium indicum B90A; Bioremediation
In the present era, mental disability is a major public health problem in the society. Many of the mental disabilities are correctable if detected early.
To assess the prevalence and pattern of mental disability.
Materials and Methods:
Community-based cross-sectional study. Patients of all age groups in the age range of 0-60 years were randomly selected from 10 blocks of 2 districts, viz., Ranchi and Hazaribagh. Thirty villages from each block were taken for the study. The study was conducted by making house-to-house visits, interviewing and examining all the individuals in the families selected using pre-tested questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: It was done by the proportions.
Results and Conclusion:
The prevalence of mental disability was found higher among males (67.9%) than among females (32.1%). The prevalence rate was higher among the productive groups and among individuals with low socioeconomic status. There is scope of community-based rehabilitation of the mentally disabled.
Community-based rehabilitation; Mental illness; Prevalence; Rural community
We have analyzed 7137 samples from 125 different caste, tribal and religious groups of India and 99 samples from three populations of Nepal for the length variation in the COII/tRNALys region of mtDNA. Samples showing length variation were subjected to detailed phylogenetic analysis based on HVS-I and informative coding region sequence variation. The overall frequencies of the 9-bp deletion and insertion variants in South Asia were 1.8% and 0.5%, respectively. We have also defined a novel deep-rooting haplogroup M43 and identified the rare haplogroup H14 in Indian populations carrying the 9bp-deletion by complete mtDNA sequencing. Moreover, we redefined haplogroup M6 and dissected it into two well-defined subclades. The presence of haplogroups F1 and B5a in Uttar Pradesh suggests minor maternal contribution from Southeast Asia to Northern India. The occurrence of haplogroup F1 in the Nepalese sample implies that Nepal might have served as a bridge for the flow of eastern lineages to India. The presence of R6 in the Nepalese, on the other hand, suggests that the gene flow between India and Nepal has been reciprocal.
South Asia; 9bp indel; mtDNA; Haplogroup
Classification of microorganisms on the basis of traditional microbiological methods (morphological, physiological and biochemical) creates a blurred image about their taxonomic status and thus needs further clarification. It should be based on a more pragmatic approach of deploying a number of methods for the complete characterization of microbes. Hence, the methods now employed for bacterial systematics include, the complete 16S rRNA gene sequencing and its comparative analysis by phylogenetic trees, DNA-DNA hybridization studies with related organisms, analyses of molecular markers and signature pattern(s), biochemical assays, physiological and morphological tests. Collectively these genotypic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic methods for determining taxonomic position of microbes constitute what is known as the ‘polyphasic approach’ for bacterial systematics. This approach is currently the most popular choice for classifying bacteria and several microbes, which were previously placed under invalid taxa have now been resolved into new genera and species. This has been possible owing to rapid development in molecular biological techniques, automation of DNA sequencing coupled with advances in bioinformatic tools and access to sequence databases. Several DNA-based typing methods are known; these provide information for delineating bacteria into different genera and species and have the potential to resolve differences among the strains of a species. Therefore, newly isolated strains must be classified on the basis of the polyphasic approach. Also previously classified organisms, as and when required, can be reclassified on this ground in order to obtain information about their accurate position in the microbial world. Thus, current techniques enable microbiologists to decipher the natural phylogenetic relationships between microbes.
Polyphasic; Bacterial classification
We have analyzed 7,137 samples from 125 different caste, tribal and religious groups of India and 99 samples from three populations of Nepal for the length variation in the COII/tRNALys region of mtDNA. Samples showing length variation were subjected to detailed phylogenetic analysis based on HVS-I and informative coding region sequence variation. The overall frequencies of the 9-bp deletion and insertion variants in South Asia were 1.9 and 0.6%, respectively. We have also defined a novel deep-rooting haplogroup M43 and identified the rare haplogroup H14 in Indian populations carrying the 9-bp deletion by complete mtDNA sequencing. Moreover, we redefined haplogroup M6 and dissected it into two well-defined subclades. The presence of haplogroups F1 and B5a in Uttar Pradesh suggests minor maternal contribution from Southeast Asia to Northern India. The occurrence of haplogroup F1 in the Nepalese sample implies that Nepal might have served as a bridge for the flow of eastern lineages to India. The presence of R6 in the Nepalese, on the other hand, suggests that the gene flow between India and Nepal has been reciprocal.
South Asia; 9bp indel; mtDNA; Haplogroup
Incubation of resting cells of Sphingobium indicum B90A, Sphingobium japonicum UT26, and Sphingobium francense Sp+ showed that they were able to transform β- and δ-hexachlorocyclohexane (β- and δ-HCH, respectively), the most recalcitrant hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, to pentachlorocyclohexanols, but only resting cells of strain B90A could further transform the pentachlorocyclohexanol intermediates to the corresponding tetrachlorocyclohexanediols. Moreover, experiments with resting cells of Escherichia coli expressing the LinB proteins of strains B90A, UT26, and Sp+ indicated that LinB was responsible for these transformations. Purified LinB proteins from all three strains also effected the formation of the respective pentachlorocyclohexanols. Although the three LinB enzymes differ only marginally with respect to amino acid sequence, they showed interesting differences with respect to substrate specificity. When LinB from strain B90A was incubated with β- and δ-HCH, the pentachlorocyclohexanol products were further transformed and eventually disappeared from the incubation mixtures. In contrast, the LinB proteins from strains UT26 and Sp+ could not catalyze transformation of the pentachlorocyclohexanols, and these products accumulated in the incubation mixture. A mutant of strain Sp+ lacking linA and linB did not degrade any of the HCH isomers, including β-HCH, and complementation of this mutant by linB from strain B90A restored the ability to degrade β- and δ-HCH.
Uterine myxoid leiomyosarcoma is an exceptionally unusual variant of leiomyosarcoma with only 34 cases having been reported in the literature. The authors describe a case of myxoid leiomyosaroma with an underlying haematological profile that has not been described previously. A 38-year-old Caucasian woman with a known uterine fibroid discovered during pregnancy presented to the emergency department with heavy per vaginal bleeding. On examination, she had a large abdominal mass. She had a haemoglobin level of 5.2, platelets of 16 and a low white cell count. She received multiple blood and platelet transfusions, despite which her haemoglobin and platelet count levels remained low. She underwent two bone marrow biopsies, which were inconclusive. She underwent laparotomy for abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salphingo-oohphorectomy, omentectomy and appendicectomy. Histological examination showed uterine myxoid leiomyosarcoma (International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics stage IIIA). Her haematological profile improved significantly following surgical resection of the tumour, reappearing with the recurrence of the disease. The authors hence, consider that pancytopaenia in this patient was a manifestation of paraneoplastic syndrome.
Naringin has antioxidant properties that could improve redox-sensitive myocardial ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury. This study was designed to investigate whether naringin restores the myocardial damage and dysfunction in vivo after IR and the mechanisms underlying its cardioprotective effects. Naringin (20–80 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or saline were administered to rats for 14 days and the myocardial IR injury was induced on 15th day by occluding the left anterior descending coronary artery for 45 min and subsequent reperfusion for 60 min. Post-IR rats exhibited pronounced cardiac dysfunction as evidenced by significantly decreased mean arterial pressure, heart rate, +LVdP/dtmax (inotropic state), -LVdP/dtmax (lusitropic state) and increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure as compared to sham group, which was improved by naringin. Further, on histopathological and ultrastructural assessments myocardium and myocytes appeared more normal in structure and the infarct size was reduced significantly in naringin 40 and 80 mg/kg/day group. This amelioration of post-IR-associated cardiac injury by naringin was accompanied by increased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, decreased NO inactivation to nitrotyrosine, amplified protein expressions of Hsp27, Hsp70, β-catenin and increased p-eNOS/eNOS, p-Akt/Akt, and p-ERK/ERK ratio. In addition, IR-induced TNF-α/IKK-β/NF-κB upregulation and JNK phosphorylation were significantly attenuated by naringin. Moreover, western blotting and immunohistochemistry analysis of apoptotic signaling pathway further established naringin cardioprotective potential as it upregulated Bcl-2 expression and downregulated Bax and Caspase-3 expression with reduced TUNEL positivity. Naringin also normalized the cardiac injury markers (lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase-MB), endogenous antioxidant activities (superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase) and lipid peroxidation levels. Thus, naringin restored IR injury by preserving myocardial structural integrity and regulating Hsp27, Hsp70, p-eNOS/p-Akt/p-ERK signaling and inflammatory response.
The evidence on whether there is work stress related dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is equivocal. This study assessed the relation between work stress and diurnal cortisol rhythm in a large-scale occupational cohort, the Whitehall II study.
Work stress was assessed in two ways, using the job-demand-control (JDC) and the effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) models. Salivary cortisol samples were collected six times over a normal day in 2002–2004. The cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal cortisol decline (slope) were calculated.
In this large occupational cohort (N = 2,126, mean age 57.1), modest differences in cortisol patterns were found for ERI models only, showing lower reward (β = −0.001, P-value = 0.04) and higher ERI (β = 0.002, P-value = 0.05) were related to a flatter slope in cortisol across the day. Meanwhile, moderate gender interactions were observed regarding CAR and JDC model.
We conclude that the associations of work stress with cortisol are modest, with associations apparent for ERI model rather than JDC model.
Objectives: (1) The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytology (TBSRTC) in accurate prediction of thyroid lesions on fine needle aspiration (FNA). (2) To appraise the surgeon with guidelines for adequacy of samples, and interpretation of FNA reports with TBSRTC and hence aiding them in surgical decision making. Five hundred and sixty four FNAs were done on patients with thyroid swellings in the department of Pathology and reported using TBSRTC guidelines. In cases where surgery was done, histopathological report was correlated. Using TBSRTC the commonest cytological diagnosis was benign-Hashimotos thyroiditis followed by benign follicular nodule. TBSTRC reduces inter-observer variability in reporting thyroid FNAs and provides good communication between the surgeon and pathologist. It also implicates guidelines for cancer risk and clinical management to the surgeons, thus avoiding unnecessary surgery.
Thyroid; Cytology; Fine-needle aspiration; Terminology
The authors review the biometrics-based user authentication scheme proposed by An in 2012. The authors show that there exist loopholes in the scheme which are detrimental for its security. Therefore the authors propose an improved scheme eradicating the flaws of An's scheme. Then a detailed security analysis of the proposed scheme is presented followed by its efficiency comparison. The proposed scheme not only withstands security problems found in An's scheme but also provides some extra features with mere addition of only two hash operations. The proposed scheme allows user to freely change his password and also provides user anonymity with untraceability.
This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-IIA in cardiovascular disease.
Higher circulating levels of sPLA2-IIA mass or sPLA2 enzyme activity have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, it is not clear if this association is causal. A recent phase III clinical trial of an sPLA2 inhibitor (varespladib) was stopped prematurely for lack of efficacy.
We conducted a Mendelian randomization meta-analysis of 19 general population studies (8,021 incident, 7,513 prevalent major vascular events [MVE] in 74,683 individuals) and 10 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) cohorts (2,520 recurrent MVE in 18,355 individuals) using rs11573156, a variant in PLA2G2A encoding the sPLA2-IIA isoenzyme, as an instrumental variable.
PLA2G2A rs11573156 C allele associated with lower circulating sPLA2-IIA mass (38% to 44%) and sPLA2 enzyme activity (3% to 23%) per C allele. The odds ratio (OR) for MVE per rs11573156 C allele was 1.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98 to 1.06) in general populations and 0.96 (95% CI: 0.90 to 1.03) in ACS cohorts. In the general population studies, the OR derived from the genetic instrumental variable analysis for MVE for a 1-log unit lower sPLA2-IIA mass was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.96 to 1.13), and differed from the non-genetic observational estimate (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.61 to 0.79). In the ACS cohorts, both the genetic instrumental variable and observational ORs showed a null association with MVE. Instrumental variable analysis failed to show associations between sPLA2 enzyme activity and MVE.
Reducing sPLA2-IIA mass is unlikely to be a useful therapeutic goal for preventing cardiovascular events.
cardiovascular diseases; drug development; epidemiology; genetics; Mendelian randomization; ACS, acute coronary syndrome(s); CI, confidence interval; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; MI, myocardial infarction; MVE, major vascular events; OR, odds ratio; RCT, randomized clinical trial; SNP, single-nucleotide polymorphism; sPLA2, secretory phospholipase A2
Consumption of bamboo species with high level of total cyanogenic content (TCC) in Asia by many ethnic groups is significantly associated with food poisoning and occasionally Konzo (a neurological disorder). Adequate characterization of edible bamboo species with low level of TCC and high nutritious attributes is required for consumer's safety as well as for the conservation of the gene pool. Here, we employed morphological descriptors, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, RAPD, and trnL-F intergenic spacer to characterize 15 indigenous edible bamboo species of north-east India. The study indicates that morphologically and genetically evolved edible bamboo species having large and robust bamboo-shoot texture and growing at low altitude contain high level of TCC, low antioxidant properties, and low levels of beneficial macronutrients and micronutrients. Importantly, Dendrocalamus species are shown to be rich in TCC irrespective of the growing altitude while Bambusa species are found to have moderate level of TCC. The findings clearly demonstrated that Chimonobambusa callosa growing at high altitude represents safe edible bamboo species with nutritious attributes.
Keratinase producing microorganisms are being increasingly utilized for degradation and recycling of poultry feather waste. Two native strains BF11 (Bacillus subtilis) and BF21 (Bacillus cereus) degrading keratin completely were characterized. The native strains produced more than 10 KU/mL of enzyme. Strain improvement resulted in isolation of MBF11 and MBF21 from BF11 and BF21 isolates, respectively. Optimization of nutritional and physical parameters of these MBF isolates at laboratory scale increased the overall keratinase activity by 50-fold resulting in a yield of 518–520 KU/mL. Fermentation media designed with starch as carbon source and soya bean meal as nitrogen source supported high levels of enzyme production. The optimum conditions for enzyme production were determined to be pH 8.5 and temperatures of 45–55°C for MBF11 and 37°C for MBF21, respectively. Culture filtrate showed a significant increase in the amounts of cysteine, cystine, methionine, and total free amino acids during the fermentation period. The ratio of organic sulphur concentration was also considerably higher than that of the inorganic sulphate in the culture filtrate suggesting the hydrolysis of disulphide by the isolates.
Social isolation may operate as a psychosocial stressor which disrupts functioning of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical axis.
Using data from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, we tested whether living alone, not being married and social network size were associated with diurnal cortisol patterns at 60–64 years. We hypothesised that recent onset compared with long-term isolation would be more strongly associated with cortisol awakening response, cortisol decline over the day and evening cortisol. Models were adjusted for sex, smoking, body mass index, alcohol intake, psychological distress and financial difficulties.
Those widowed within the last three years had a 36% (95%CI 6%, 73%) higher night time cortisol than those who were currently married. Those newly living alone also had a higher night time cortisol and flatter diurnal slope than those living with others.
Independently of multiple behavioural and psychosocial correlates, recent onset of social isolation is related to diurnal cortisol patterns that increase the risk of morbidity and mortality.
NSHD; Psychosocial; HPA axis; Bereavement; Social isolation
The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the cleaning efficacy of NaviTip, Max-i-Probe and Endovac in removal of debris from the root canal at 1.5 and 3.5 mm from the apex.
Materials and Methods:
Forty single-rooted teeth were divided into four groups according to the root canal irrigation system (EndoVac, NaviTip, Max-i-Probe, and control). Instrumentation was done using ProFile 0.06 taper series to MAF #40. Root canals were irrigated after each file size with 1 ml of 5% NaOCl. For final irrigation 5 ml of 5% NaOCl and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used. Each group was irrigated with a different irrigation device. Four micron thick serial sections were prepared at 1.5 and 3.5 mm from the apical level and photographs were taken for the analysis. The influence of the irrigation system was evaluated using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and unpaired t-test (P < 0.05).
Endovac showed significantly least amount of mean percentage debris followed by Max-i-probe and NaviTip at both levels (P < 0.05). In all the experimental groups, significantly less amount of mean percentage debris was seen at 3.5 mm level than at 1.5 mm level (P < 0.05). However, the difference was statistically insignificant in case of Endovac irrigation system group.
Amongst all the experimental groups, Endovac removed significantly more debris followed by Max-i-probe and NaviTip at both levels.
Debris removal; Endovac; irrigation system; light microscope; Max-i-Probe; NaviTip
We report an unusual case of a 6-year-old male child who presented with fever and a cough of one month’s duration. A bone marrow aspiration and cytogenetics were suggestive of acute myeloid leukaemia with t(8;21)(q22;q22). A chest x-ray and computed tomography of the thorax showed a soft tissue lesion in the right lung. The fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of this lesion was suggestive of pulmonary granulocytic sarcoma. The patient was successfully treated with induction chemotherapy (cytosine arabinoside + daunomycin), followed by consolidation with high-dose cytosine arabinoside. In view of the persistent lesion in the right lung, the patient was given external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), which resulted in near total resolution of the lung granulocytic sarcoma. We report this case in view of its rarity and clinical importance, and to highlight the treatment options in this scenario.
granulocytic sarcoma; pulmonary; chemotherapy; radiation
Transcription initiation, essential to gene expression regulation, involves recruitment of basal transcription factors to the core promoter elements (CPEs). The distribution of currently known CPEs across plant genomes is largely unknown. This is the first large scale genome-wide report on the computational prediction of CPEs across eight plant genomes to help better understand the transcription initiation complex assembly. The distribution of thirteen known CPEs across four monocots (Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa ssp. japonica, Sorghum bicolor, Zea mays) and four dicots (Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, Vitis vinifera, Glycine max) reveals the structural organization of the core promoter in relation to the TATA-box as well as with respect to other CPEs. The distribution of known CPE motifs with respect to transcription start site (TSS) exhibited positional conservation within monocots and dicots with slight differences across all eight genomes. Further, a more refined subset of annotated genes based on orthologs of the model monocot (O. sativa ssp. japonica) and dicot (A. thaliana) genomes supported the positional distribution of these thirteen known CPEs. DNA free energy profiles provided evidence that the structural properties of promoter regions are distinctly different from that of the non-regulatory genome sequence. It also showed that monocot core promoters have lower DNA free energy than dicot core promoters. The comparison of monocot and dicot promoter sequences highlights both the similarities and differences in the core promoter architecture irrespective of the species-specific nucleotide bias. This study will be useful for future work related to genome annotation projects and can inspire research efforts aimed to better understand regulatory mechanisms of transcription.
Background. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are storage materials that accumulate by various bacteria as energy and carbon reserve materials. They are biodegradable, environmentally friendly, and also biocompatible bioplastics. Unlike petrochemical-based plastics that take several decades to fully degrade, PHAs can be completely degraded within a year by variety of microorganisms into CO2 and water. In the present study, we aim to utilize pulp, paper, and cardboard industry sludge and waste water for the isolation and screening of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) accumulating bacteria and production of cost-effective PHB using cardboard industry waste water. Results. A total of 42 isolates showed black-blue coloration when stained with Sudan black B, a preliminary screening agent for lipophilic compounds, and a total of 15 isolates showed positive result with Nile blue A staining, a more specific dye for PHA granules. The isolates NAP11 and NAC1 showed maximum PHA production 79.27% and 77.63% with polymer concentration of 5.236 g/L and 4.042 g/L with cardboard industry waste water. Both of the selected isolates, NAP11 and NAC1, were classified up to genus level by studying their morphological and biochemical characteristics and were found to be Enterococcus sp., Brevundimonas sp. and, respectively. Conclusion. The isolates Enterococcus sp. NAP11 and Brevundimonas sp. NAC1 can be considered as good candidates for industrial production of PHB from cardboard industry waste water. We are reporting for the first time the use of cardboard industry waste water as a cultivation medium for the PHB production.
Childhood obesity increases the risk of obesity in adulthood and is associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors. Our aim was to assess the early life risk factors associated with overweight and obesity among preschool children.
In this case–control study, from the 1087 preschool children measured, age, sex and ethnicity matched 71 cases and 71 controls were recruited. Cases and controls were defined according to the WHO 2006 growth standards. The birth and growth characteristics were extracted from the child health development records. Infant feeding practices and maternal factors were obtained from the mother. Rapid weight gain was defined as an increase in weight-for-age Z score (WHO standards) above 0.67 SD from birth to 2 years. The magnitude and significant difference in mean values of the variables associated with overweight and obesity were evaluated using logistic regressions and paired t-test, respectively.
Cases had significantly shorter duration (months) of breastfeeding (19.4, 24.6, p = 0.003), and smaller duration (months) of exclusive breastfeeding (3.7, 5.1, p = 0.001) compared to controls. Rapid weight gain (OR = 6.3, 95% CI = 2.04–19.49), first born status (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.17-10.91) and pre-pregnancy obesity (OR = 4.0, 95% CI = 1.46-10.76) were positively associated with overweight and obesity. Breastfeeding more than 2 years (OR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.06-0.57) was negatively associated with overweight and obesity.
Rapid weight gain within first two years, first–born status and pre-pregnancy obesity of the mother contributed for preschool obesity. Our results suggest that intervention may be indicated earlier in infancy and during the toddler and preschool years to tackle the increasing prevalence of obesity.
Preschool; Overweight; Obesity; Rapid weight gain
Many vertebrates distinguish between short and long day lengths using suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). In birds particular, the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) is suggested to be involved in the timing of seasonal reproduction. This study investigated the response of SCN and MBH to a single long day, and the role of MBH in induction of the migratory phenotype in night-migratory blackheaded buntings.
Experiment 1 immunocytochemically measured c-fos in the SCN, and c-fos, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the MBH of buntings exposed to a 20 h light period. Long light period induced significantly stronger c-fos expression, measured as number of c-fos-like immunoreactive (c-fos-lir) cells, in MBH, but not in the SCN. Within the MBH, c-fos-lir cells were significantly denser in the inferior hypothalamic nucleus (IH) and infundibular nucleus (IN), but not in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH). IH and IN also had significantly increased number of VIP and NPY labeled cells. DMH had significantly increased number of VIP labeled cells only. Experiment 2 assayed c-fos, VIP and NPY immunoreactivities in the middle of day and night in the MBH of buntings, after seven long days (day active, non-migratory state) and after seven days of Zugunruhe (night active, migratory state) in long days. In the migratory state, the number of c-fos-lir cells was significantly greater only in DMH; VIP-lir cells were denser in all three MBH regions suggesting enhanced light sensitivity at night. The denser NPY-lir cells only in IN in the non-migratory state were probably due to premigratory hyperphagia.
In buntings, SCN may not be involved in the photoperiod-induced seasonal responses. MBH contains the seasonal clock sensitive to day length. VIP and NPY are parts of the neuroendocrine mechanism(s) involved, respectively, in sensing and translating the photoperiodic message in a seasonal response.
The demand for interdisciplinary research is increasing in the new millennium to help us understand complex problems and find solutions by integrating the knowledge from different disciplines. The present review is an excellent example of this and shows how unique combination of physics, chemistry, and biological techniques can be used for the evaluation of Indian medicinal herbs used for treating diabetes mellitus. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a sensitive optical technique that is widely used for its simplicity and versatility. This review presents the most recent application of LIBS for detection of glycemic elements in medicinal plants. The characteristics of matrices, object analysis, use of laser system, and analytical performances with respect to Indian herbs are discussed.