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1.  The Indian and Nepalese programmes of indoor residual spraying for the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis: performance and effectiveness 
Although, when applied under controlled conditions in India and Nepal, indoor residual spraying (IRS) has been found to reduce sandfly densities significantly, it is not known if IRS will be as effective when applied generally in these countries, via the national programmes for the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis. The potential benefits and limitations of national IRS programmes for the control of sandflies were therefore evaluated in the districts of Vaishali (in the Indian state of Bihar), Sarlahi (in Nepal) and Sunsari (also in Nepal). The use of technical guidelines, levels of knowledge and skills related to spraying operations, insecticide bio-availability on the sprayed surfaces, concentrations of the insecticide on the walls of sprayed houses, insecticide resistance, and the effectiveness of spraying, in terms of reducing sandfly densities within sprayed houses (compared with those found in unsprayed sentinel houses or control villages) were all explored. It was observed that IRS programme managers, at district and subdistrict levels in India and Nepal, used the relevant technical guidelines and were familiar with the procedures for IRS operation. The performance of the spraying activities, however, showed important deficiencies. The results of bio-assays and the chemical analysis of samples from sprayed walls indicated substandard spraying and suboptimal concentrations of insecticide on sprayed surfaces. This was particularly obvious at one of the Nepali study sites (Sunsari district), where no significant vector reduction was achieved. Sandfly resistance to the insecticide used in India (DDT) was widespread but the potential vectors in Nepal remained very susceptible towards a pyrethroid similar to the one used there. The overall short-term effectiveness of IRS was found to be satisfactory in two of the three study sites (in terms of reduction in the densities of the sandfly vectors). Unfortunately, the medium-term evaluation, conducted 5 months after spraying, was probably made invalid by flooding or lime plastering in the study areas. Preparation for, and the monitoring of, the IRS operations against sandfly populations in India and Nepal need to be improved.
doi:10.1179/136485911X12899838683124
PMCID: PMC4089790  PMID: 21294947
2.  Ameliorative potential of Coccinia grandis extract on serum and liver marker enzymes and lipid profile in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats 
Ancient Science of Life  2011;31(1):26-30.
Diabetes mellitus is the most severe metabolic pandemic of the 21st century, affecting essential biochemical activities in almost every cell in the body. Indian literatures have already mentioned herbal remediation for a number of human ailments. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of Coccinia grandis extract on serum and liver marker enzymes (ALP, AST, ALT and LDH) and lipid profile (total cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides and free fatty acids in serum and liver) in streptozotocin induced diabetic animals. The experimental animals were treated with methanolic extract of Coccinia grandis and the levels of marker enzymes and lipid profile were estimated. The ALP, AST, ALT and LDH levels were increased in diabetic rats and restored to near normal levels after administration of plant extract. The lipid profile increased in diabetic group and after the treatment with the plant extract the levels were reverted to near normal. Thus the methanolic extract of Coccinia grandis has a potent ability to restore the marker enzymes and the lipid profile was reverted to near normal levels.
PMCID: PMC3377039  PMID: 22736887
streptozotocin; marker enzymes; lipid profile
3.  Antifungal Activities of Human Beta-Defensins HBD-1 to HBD-3 and Their C-Terminal Analogs Phd1 to Phd3▿  
The activities of defensins HBD-1, HBD-2, and HBD-3 and their C-terminal analogs Phd1, Phd2, and Phd3 against Candida albicans were investigated. Phd1 to Phd3 showed lower-level activities than HBD-1 to HBD-3, although metabolic inhibitors did not render Phd1 to Phd3 inactive. Their activities were also less salt sensitive than those of HBD-1 to HBD-3. Confocal microscope images indicated that the initial site of action was the fungal membrane.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00470-08
PMCID: PMC2612179  PMID: 18809937
4.  A neo-clerodane diterpene from Teucrium tomentosum. Corrigendum 
Corrigendum to Acta Cryst. (2004), E60, o117–o119.
The chemical name of the title compound in the paper by Devi, Malathi, Rajan, Aravind, Krishnakumari & Ravikumar [Acta Cryst. (2004), E60, o117–o119] is corrected and the structural diagram is updated.
doi:10.1107/S1600536809016146
PMCID: PMC2969727  PMID: 21582975
5.  Antidiabetic effect ofT. arjuna bark extract in alloxan induced diabetic rats 
The present study was carried out to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of T. arjuna stembark extract and to study the activities of hexokinase, aldolase and phosphoglucoisomerase, and gluconeogenic enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-diphosphatase in liver and kidney of normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of ethanolic extract of bark (250 and 500mg/kg body weight) for 30 days, resulted in significant decrease of blood glucose from 302.67±22.35 to 82.50±04.72 and in a decrease in the activities of glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-disphosphatase, aldolase and an increase in the activity of phosphoglucoisomerase and hexokinase in tissues. However, in the case of 250 mg/kg body weight of extract, less activity was observed. The study clearly shows that the bark extract ofT. arjuna possesses potent antidiabetic activity.
doi:10.1007/BF02912926
PMCID: PMC3453977  PMID: 23105628
Terminalia arjuna; gluconeogenic; alloxan; aldolase; antidiabetic
6.  Phytochemical analysis of Achyranthes aspera and its activity on sesame oil induced lipid peroxidation 
Ancient Science of Life  2007;27(1):6-10.
The effect of Achyranthes aspera on lipid peroxidation were studied in rats fed with Sesame Oil. Increase in the levels of LPO in sesame oil treated groups returned towards normalcy in the plant extract treated groups revealing the antioxidant potential of the plant. Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of secondary metabolites. According to the results obtained Achyranthes aspera inhibited Ferrous Ascorbate stimulated LPO.
PMCID: PMC3330842  PMID: 22557252
Achyranthes aspera; Sesame oil; LPO; Ferrous; Ascorbate; Secondary metabolites
7.  Hypolipidemic Efficacy of Achyranthes aspera on Lipid Profile in Sesame oil fed Rats 
Ancient Science of Life  2006;25(3-4):49-56.
The present study was designed to evaluate the antihyperlipidemic effect of aqueous extract of Achyranthes aspera a in experimental rats fed with diet containing sesame oil. Hyperlipidemia and the effect of Achyranthes aspera in experimental rats were studied by assessing parameters such as cholesterol, phospholipids, freefattyacids and triglycerides in serum, liver, and heart and kidney tissues. The levels of HDL, LDL, VLDL and atherogenic index were assessed. Hyperlipidemia in experimental rats were evidenced by a significant enhancement in the levels of cholesterol phospholipids, freefattyacids and triglycerides in serum, liver heart and kidney tissues by atherogenic diet feeding. A significant fall in HDL in both Anjali and Idhayam oil treated groups were observed in serum. These values retrieved towards normalcy in Achyranthes aspera treated groups. This study unveiled the antihyperlipidemic activity of Achyranthes aspera.
PMCID: PMC3335223  PMID: 22557207
Achyranthes aspera; Atherogenic; Hyperlipidemia; Phospholipids; Sesame Oil
8.  ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTIOXIDANT COMPOUND, RUTIN IN CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM LEAVES 
Ancient Science of Life  2005;25(2):47-49.
C.halicacabum is wide spread in tropical and sub-tropical Asia and Africa. Our laboratory results showed crude ethanolic extract of this plant exerted anti-inflammatory activity in chronic inflammatory models. In this present study, we tried to investigate the presence of anti-inflammatory compound in this extract.
PMCID: PMC3330907  PMID: 22557189
9.  EFFECT OF TERMINALIA ARJUNA STEM BARK EXTRACT ON THE ACTIVITIES OF MARKER ENZYMES IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS 
Ancient Science of Life  2005;25(1):8-15.
Insight of evidence that some complications of diabetes mellitus due to hyperglycemia, we investigated the effect of T. arjuna bark extract on serum, liver and kidney marker enzymes in alloxan - induced diabetic rats. T. arjuna was administered orally at a doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 30 days, after which serum liver and kidney tissues were assayed for the degree of pathological changes by means of markers such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) resulted in a significant reduction in serum and tissue of liver and kidney marker enzymes when compared with control rats T. arjuna at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight exhibited higher efficacy.
PMCID: PMC3330897  PMID: 22557182
Terminalia arjuna; hyperglycemia; alloxan diabetes; marker enzymes

Results 1-9 (9)