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1.  Thrombosed prosthetic mitral valve 
BMJ Case Reports  2012;2012:bcr1020115002.
PMCID: PMC3316824  PMID: 22605815
2.  Reconstruction of the chin using an expanded deltopectoral flap following multiple recurrences of oral cancer 
An important alternative to free tissue transfer in patients requiring correction of soft tissue chin defects are local and regional flaps, such as the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap and deltopectoral flap. With predictable vascular supply, potential for large size, and good aesthetic match for facial and cervical skin, the deltopectoral flap can offer the reconstructive surgeon additional options in patients who lack vessels suitable for free tissue transfer. The use of an expanded deltopectoral flap for a staged reconstruction of the chin in a patient with cancer recurrences, concomitant resections, radiation and multiple reconstructions is reported.
PMCID: PMC3433825  PMID: 23997595
Chin reconstruction; Deltopectoral
3.  Giant lipomas of the upper extremity: Case reports and a literature review 
Giant fibrolipomas involving the upper extremities are rare tumours. These large masses grow slowly and produce symptoms due to their size, location and compression of adjacent structures. Surgical excision usually leads to complete recovery from symptoms.
PMCID: PMC3433826  PMID: 23997596
Giant lipoma
4.  Intraneural lipoma of the ulnar nerve at the elbow: A case report and literature review 
Intraneural lipomas of the ulnar nerve or its branches are rare benign tumours. Although most intraneural lipomas present as asymptomatic tumours, some may present as compression neuropathies due to their location. In the majority of cases these tumours can be enucleated without damage to the nerve fibres.
PMCID: PMC3433827  PMID: 23997597
Intraneural lipoma; Ulnar nerve
5.  Acute carpal tunnel syndrome from burns of the hand and wrist 
Acute median nerve compression usually occurs from increased pressure within the carpal tunnel and forearm compartments. Although the hyperesthesia from burns may mimic symptoms of acute compression neuropathy, clinical diagnosis should be made from history, clinical signs and symptoms. Early recognition and decompression of the carpal tunnel either as part of the burn excision or along with escharotomy usually leads to full recovery.
PMCID: PMC2827286  PMID: 21119830
Burns of hands and wrist; Median nerve compression neuropathy
6.  Intraneural lipoma of the radial nerve presenting as Wartenberg syndrome: A case report and review of literature 
The superficial branch of the radial nerve is highly vulnerable to trauma, irritation and compression due to its anatomical location. Intraneural lipomas and fibrolipomas arising from the supporting tissues of this peripheral nerve can cause compression of the adjacent nerve leading to symptoms of neuritis of the radial nerve or Wartenberg syndrome.
PMCID: PMC2827289  PMID: 21119833
Intraneural lipoma; Wartenberg syndrome
7.  Faecal bifidobacteria in Indian neonates & the effect of asymptomatic rotavirus infection during the first month of life 
Background & Objectives:
Bifidobacteria colonize the gut after the first week of life and remain an important component of the gut microbiota in infancy. This study was carried out to characterize the diversity and number of bifidobacteria colonizing the gut in Indian neonates and to investigate whether asymptomatic infection with rotavirus in the first month of life affected gut colonization by bidifobacteria.
DNA was isolated from faeces of 14 term-born neonates who were under surveillance for rotavirus infection. Bacterial and bifidobacterial diversity was evaluated by temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis (TTGE) of 16S rDNA amplified using total bacteria and bifidobacteria-specific primers. Real time PCR, targeting 16S rDNA, was used to quantitate faecal bifidobacteria and enterobacteria.
TTGE of conserved bacterial 16S rDNA showed 3 dominant bands of which Escherichia coli (family Enterobacteriaceae) and Bifidobacterium (family Bifidobacteriaceae) were constant. TTGE of Bifidobacterium genus-specific DNA showed a single band in all neonates identified by sequencing as Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis. Faecal bifidobacterial counts (log10 cfu/g faeces) ranged from 6.1 to 9.3 and enterobacterial counts from 6.3 to 9.5. Neonates without and with rotavirus infection in the first week of life did not show significant differences in the median count of bifidobacteria (log10 count 7.48 vs. 7.41) or enterobacteria (log10 count 8.79 vs. 7.92).
Interpretation & Conclusions:
B. longum subsp. infantis was the sole bifidobacterial species colonizing the gut of Indian neonates. Asymptomatic rotavirus infection in the first month of life was not associated with alteration in faecal bifidobacteria or enterobacteria.
PMCID: PMC3102461  PMID: 21245621
Bifidobacterium; colonization; gut; neonates; rotavirus
8.  Reconstruction of sacral defects following necrosis of buttocks due to embolization of internal iliac artery using a transverse lumbar flap 
Fractures of the pelvis associated with uncontrollable hypotension are managed by stabilization of fractures and arteriographic embolization of the bleeding vessels. Embolization of these arteries may result in necrosis of the buttocks. The use of a transverse lumbar artery-based flap can be used for repair of these defects.
PMCID: PMC2740608  PMID: 20808748
Transverse lumbar flap
9.  Reversed dorsal metatarsal artery flap for reconstruction of a soft tissue defect of the big toe 
Soft tissue defects of the great toe that include exposed tendon and bone present a reconstructive challenge for plastic surgeons. A distally based dorsalis pedis island flap based on the first dorsal metatarsal artery, which has been successfully used to cover the soft tissue defect following wide excision of melanoma of the big toe, is reported
PMCID: PMC2740609  PMID: 20808742
Dorsal metatarsal artery flap
10.  Acute carpal tunnel syndrome as a result of spontaneous bleeding 
Acute carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common compression neuropathy of the upper extremity following trauma. A rare occurence of spontaneous bleeding into the carpal tunnel, presenting as acute carpal tunnel syndrome, is presented.
PMCID: PMC2691013  PMID: 19721797
Carpal tunnel syndrome; Spontaneous bleeding
11.  Midazolam and Atropine Alter Theta Oscillations in the Hippocampal CA1 Region by Modulating Both the Somatic and Distal Dendritic Dipoles 
Hippocampus  2014;24(10):1212-1231.
Theta (4-12 Hz) oscillations in the hippocampus play an important role in learning and memory. They are altered by a wide variety of drugs that impair memory, and these effects may underlie or contribute to drug-induced amnesia. However, the network mechanisms linking drug actions with changes in memory formation remain poorly defined. Here, we used a multisite linear electrode array to measure local field potentials simultaneously across the CA1 layers of the hippocampus during active exploration, and employed current source density analysis and computational modeling to investigate how midazolam and atropine – two amnestic drugs that are used clinically and experimentally – change the relative timing and strength of the drivers of θ-oscillations. We found that two dipoles are present, with active inputs that are centered at the soma and the distal apical dendrite and passive return pathways that overlap in the mid-apical dendrite. Both drugs shifted the position of the phase reversal in the local field potential that occurred in the mid-apical dendritic region, but in opposite directions, by changing the strength of the dendritic pole, without altering the somatic pole or relative timing. Computational modeling showed that this constellation of changes, as well as an additional effect on a variably present mid-apical pole, could be produced by simultaneous changes in the active somatic and distal dendritic inputs. These network-level changes, produced by two amnestic drugs that target different types of receptors, may thus serve as a common basis for impaired memory encoding.
PMCID: PMC4159413  PMID: 24862458
In vivo recording; electrophysiology; local field potential; current source density analysis; compartmental modeling
12.  2-Phenylindole and Arylsulphonamide: Novel Scaffolds Bactericidal against Mycobacterium tuberculosis 
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters  2014;5(9):1005-1009.
A cellular activity-based screen on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) H37Rv using a focused library from the AstraZeneca corporate collection led to the identification of 2-phenylindoles and arylsulphonamides, novel antimycobacterial scaffolds. Both the series were bactericidal in vitro and in an intracellular macrophage infection model, active against drug sensitive and drug resistant Mtb clinical isolates, and specific to mycobacteria. The scaffolds showed promising structure–activity relationships; compounds with submicromolar cellular potency were identified during the hit to lead exploration. Furthermore, compounds from both scaffolds were tested for inhibition of known target enzymes or pathways of antimycobacterial drugs including InhA, RNA polymerase, DprE1, topoisomerases, protein synthesis, and oxidative-phosphorylation. Compounds did not inhibit any of the targets suggesting the potential of a possible novel mode of action(s). Hence, both scaffolds provide the opportunity to be developed further as leads and tool compounds to uncover novel mechanisms for tuberculosis drug discovery.
PMCID: PMC4160756  PMID: 25221657
Tuberculosis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; 2-phenylindoles; arylsulphonamides
13.  The Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase (PI3K)-Delta and Gamma Inhibitor, IPI-145, Overcomes Signals from the PI3K/AKT/S6 Pathway and Promotes Apoptosis in CLL 
Leukemia  2015;29(9):1811-1822.
The functional relevance of the B-cell receptor (BCR) and the evolution of protein kinases as therapeutic targets have recently shifted the paradigm for treatment of B-cell malignancies. Inhibition of p110δ with idelalisib has shown clinical activity in CLL. The dynamic interplay of isoforms p110δ and p110γ in leukocytes support the hypothesis that dual blockade may provide a therapeutic benefit. IPI-145, an oral inhibitor of p110δ and p110γ isoforms, sensitizes BCR- stimulated and/or stromal co-cultured primary CLL cells to apoptosis (median 20%, n=57; p<0.0001) including samples with poor prognostic markers, unmutated IgVH (n=28) and prior treatment (n=15) (p<0.0001). IPI-145 potently inhibits the CD40L/IL-2/IL-10 induced proliferation of CLL cells with an IC50 in sub-nanomolar range. A corresponding dose responsive inhibition of pAKTSer473 is observed with an IC50 of 0.36 nM. IPI-145 diminishes the BCR- induced chemokines CCL3 and CCL4 secretion to 17% and 37% respectively. Pre-treatment with 1 μM IPI-145 inhibits the chemotaxis towards CXCL12; reduces pseudoemperipolesis to median 50%, inferring its ability to interfere with homing capabilities of CLL cells. BCR- activated signaling proteins AKTSer473, BADSer112, ERKThr202/Tyr204 and S6Ser235/236 are mitigated by IPI-145. Importantly, for clinical development in hematological malignancies, IPI-145 is selective to CLL B-cells, sparing normal B- and T-lymphocytes.
PMCID: PMC4558374  PMID: 25917267
CLL; PI3Kinase; Duvelisib; apoptosis; BCR; microenvironment; IPI-145; p110δ; p110γ
14.  A knowledgebase resource for interleukin-17 family mediated signaling 
Interleukin-17 (IL-17) belongs to a relatively new family of cytokines that has garnered attention as the signature cytokine of Th17 cells. This cytokine family consists of 6 ligands, which bind to 5 receptor subtypes and induce downstream signaling. Although the receptors are ubiquitously expressed, cellular responses to ligands vary across tissues. The cytokine family is associated with various autoimmune disorders including rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, asthma and psoriasis in addition to being implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer. In addition, this family plays a role in host defense against bacterial and fungal infections. The signaling mechanisms of the IL-17 family of proinflammatory cytokines are not well explored. In this study, we present a resource of literature-annotated reactions induced by IL-17. The reactions are catalogued under 5 categories, namely; molecular association, catalysis, transport, activation/inhibition and gene regulation. A total of 93 molecules and 122 reactions have been annotated. The IL-17 pathway is freely available through NetPath, a resource of signal transduction pathways previously developed by our group.
PMCID: PMC4580681  PMID: 26077014
Activation; Differential expression; Inhibition; NetPath; Post-translational modifications; Protein-protein interaction; Translocation
15.  Diagnostic challenges in movement disorders: Sensory Ataxia Neuropathy Dysarthria and Ophthalmoplegia (SANDO) syndrome 
BMJ Case Reports  2013;2013:bcr2013010343.
A woman in her early 60s presented to our Movement Disorders Centre with a 5-year history of progressive peripheral neuropathy, gait instability with falls, blurred vision, cognitive impairment and tremors. The patient was found to have profound sensory ataxia, chronic ophthalmoplegia, dementia with significant deficits in registration and construction and bilateral resting tremor of the hands. Investigations revealed an unremarkable MRI of the brain, negative cerebrospinal fluid studies, and unremarkable chemistries. Nerve conduction studies found a severe sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy. Genetic testing revealed a compound heterozygous mutation in the POLG1 gene consistent with the diagnosis of Sensory Ataxia Neuropathy Dysarthria and Ophthalmoplegia (SANDO) syndrome.
PMCID: PMC3761684  PMID: 23997076
16.  Microretroreflector-Sedimentation Immunoassays for Pathogen Detection 
Analytical Chemistry  2014;86(18):9029-9035.
Point-of-care detection of pathogens is medically valuable but poses challenging trade-offs between instrument complexity and clinical and analytical sensitivity. Here we introduce a diagnostic platform utilizing lithographically fabricated micron-scale forms of cubic retroreflectors, arguably one of the most optically detectable human artifacts, as reporter labels for use in sensitive immunoassays. We demonstrate the applicability of this novel optical label in a simple assay format in which retroreflector cubes are first mixed with the sample. The cubes are then allowed to settle onto an immuno-capture surface, followed by inversion for gravity-driven removal of nonspecifically bound cubes. Cubes bridged to the capture surface by the analyte are detected using inexpensive, low-numerical aperture optics. For model bacterial and viral pathogens, sensitivity in 10% human serum was found to be 104 bacterial cells/mL and 104 virus particles/mL, consistent with clinical utility.
PMCID: PMC4165457  PMID: 25133758
17.  Voucher Incentives Improve Linkage to and Retention in Care Among HIV-Infected Drug Users in Chennai, India 
Modest voucher incentives were associated with significantly better linkage to and retention in care but not with virologic suppression among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected drug users in Chennai, India, a population with high HIV disease burden and low access to antiretroviral therapy.
Background. Drug users (DUs), a population that accounts for some of the fastest-growing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics globally, lag behind other populations with regard to HIV-related outcomes. We evaluated the role of voucher incentives on linkage and retention in care among DUs in India.
Methods. In this randomized clinical trial, 120 DUs who were aged ≥18 years, HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy (ART) naive, and ART eligible and who reported drug use in the prior month were randomized to incentive (INC) or control (CTL) conditions for 12 months. Participants randomized to the INC arm received incentives (redeemable for food/household goods) ranging in value from USD4 to USD8 for achieving prespecified targets (eg, ART initiation, visits to ART center). Subjects in the CTL group could win vouchers in prize-bowl drawings, but HIV care behaviors were not incentivized. The primary endpoint was time to ART initiation.
Results. Sixty participants each were randomized to the INC and CTL arms between December 2009 and September 2010. Participants in the INC arm were more likely to visit the government ART center (49 vs 33; P = .002); 27 participants in the INC and 16 participants in the CTL arm initiated ART (P = .04; hazard ratio for ART = 2.33 [95% confidence interval, 1.15–4.73]). Participants in the INC arm also had significantly more visits to the ART center (median number of visits, 8 vs 3.5; P = .005). However, no difference in viral suppression was observed.
Conclusions. Modest voucher incentives improved linkage to and retention in HIV care, but did not significantly impact viral suppression among DUs in India, a disenfranchised and difficult-to-treat population.
Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01031745.
PMCID: PMC4334837  PMID: 24803381
HIV; drug users; linkage to care; contingency management; India
18.  Prebiotic effects of diet supplemented with the cultivated red seaweed Chondrus crispus or with fructo-oligo-saccharide on host immunity, colonic microbiota and gut microbial metabolites 
Gastrointestinal microbial communities are diverse and are composed of both beneficial and pathogenic groups. Prebiotics, such as digestion-resistant fibers, influence the composition of gut microbiota, and can contribute to the improvement of host health. The red seaweed Chondrus crispus is rich in dietary fiber and oligosaccharides, however its prebiotic potential has not been studied to date.
Prebiotic effects were investigated with weaning rats fed a cultivated C. crispus-supplemented diet. Comparison standards included a fructo-oligo-saccharide (FOS) diet and a basal diet. The colonic microbiome was profiled with a 16S rRNA sequencing-based Phylochip array. Concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the feacal samples were determined by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) analysis. Immunoglobulin levels in the blood plasma were analyzed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Histo-morphological parameters of the proximal colon tissue were characterized by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining.
Phylochip array analysis indicated differing microbiome composition among the diet-supplemented and the control groups, with the C. crispus group (2.5 % supplementation) showing larger separation from the control than other treatment groups. In the 2.5 % C. crispus group, the population of beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacterium breve increased (4.9-fold, p = 0.001), and the abundance of pathogenic species such as Clostridium septicum and Streptococcus pneumonia decreased. Higher concentrations of short chain fatty acids (i.e., gut microbial metabolites), including acetic, propionic and butyric acids, were found in faecal samples of the C. crispus-fed rats. Furthermore, both C. crispus and FOS supplemented rats showed significant improvements in proximal colon histo-morphology . Higher faecal moisture was noted in the 2.5 % C. crispus group, and elevated plasma immunoglobulin (IgA and IgG) levels were observed in the 0.5 % C. crispus group, as compared to the basal feed group.
The results suggest multiple prebiotic effects, such as influencing the composition of gut microbial communities, improvement of gut health and immune modulation in rats supplemented with cultivated C. crispus.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12906-015-0802-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4535385  PMID: 26271359
19.  The geometric phase controls ultracold chemistry 
Nature Communications  2015;6:7918.
The geometric phase is shown to control the outcome of an ultracold chemical reaction. The control is a direct consequence of the sign change on the interference term between two scattering pathways (direct and looping), which contribute to the reactive collision process in the presence of a conical intersection (point of degeneracy between two Born–Oppenheimer electronic potential energy surfaces). The unique properties of the ultracold energy regime lead to an effective quantization of the scattering phase shift enabling maximum constructive or destructive interference between the two pathways. By taking the O+OH→H+O2 reaction as an illustrative example, it is shown that inclusion of the geometric phase modifies ultracold reaction rates by nearly two orders of magnitude. Interesting experimental control possibilities include the application of external electric and magnetic fields that might be used to exploit the geometric phase effect reported here and experimentally switch on or off the reactivity.
Ultracold reactions can give insights into reactions dynamics in the quantum regime. Here, the authors show that the geometric phase can have a dramatic effect on ultracold reactions, enhancing or suppressing rates by nearly two orders of magnitude in the reaction studied.
PMCID: PMC4532881  PMID: 26224326
20.  Pancreatic Cancer Database 
Cancer Biology & Therapy  2014;15(8):963-967.
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. The etiology of pancreatic cancer is heterogeneous with a wide range of alterations that have already been reported at the level of the genome, transcriptome, and proteome. The past decade has witnessed a large number of experimental studies using high-throughput technology platforms to identify genes whose expression at the transcript or protein levels is altered in pancreatic cancer. Based on expression studies, a number of molecules have also been proposed as potential biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of this deadly cancer. Currently, there are no repositories which provide an integrative view of multiple Omics data sets from published research on pancreatic cancer. Here, we describe the development of a web-based resource, Pancreatic Cancer Database (, as a unified platform for pancreatic cancer research. PCD contains manually curated information pertaining to quantitative alterations in miRNA, mRNA, and proteins obtained from small-scale as well as high-throughput studies of pancreatic cancer tissues and cell lines. We believe that PCD will serve as an integrative platform for scientific community involved in pancreatic cancer research.
PMCID: PMC4119079  PMID: 24839966
biomarker; body fluids; chronic pancreatitis; secreted
21.  A Scalable Perfusion Culture System with Miniature Peristaltic Pumps for Live-Cell Imaging Assays with Provision for Microfabricated Scaffolds 
BioResearch Open Access  2015;4(1):343-357.
We present a perfusion culture system with miniature bioreactors and peristaltic pumps. The bioreactors are designed for perfusion, live-cell imaging studies, easy incorporation of microfabricated scaffolds, and convenience of operation in standard cell culture techniques. By combining with miniature peristaltic pumps—one for each bioreactor to avoid cross-contamination and to maintain desired flow rate in each—we have made a culture system that facilitates perfusion culture inside standard incubators. This scalable system can support multiple parallel perfusion experiments. The major components are fabricated by three-dimensional printing using VeroWhite, which we show to be amenable to ex vivo cell culture. Furthermore, the components of the system can be reused, thus making it economical. We validate the system and illustrate its versatility by culturing primary rat hepatocytes, live imaging the growth of mouse fibroblasts (NIH 3T3) on microfabricated ring-scaffolds inserted into the bioreactor, performing perfusion culture of breast cancer cells (MCF7), and high-magnification imaging of hepatocarcinoma cells (HuH7).
PMCID: PMC4534047  PMID: 26309810
3D printing; bioreactor; live imaging; microfabricated scaffolds; perfusion culture; peristaltic pump; VeroWhite
22.  Primary Intracranial Melanoma with Early Leptomeningeal Spread: A Case Report and Treatment Options Available 
Primary CNS melanomas are rare and they constitute about 1% of all cases of melanomas and 0.07% of all brain tumors. These tumors are aggressive in nature and may metastasise to other organs. Till date less than 25 cases have been reported in the literature. The primary treatment for local intraparenchymal tumours is complete resection and/or radiotherapy and it is associated with good survival. However once there is disease spread to leptomeninges the overall median survival is around 10 weeks. In this case report we describe a primary intracranial melanoma without any dural attachment in 16-year-old boy who had radical excision of the tumor followed by radiotherapy who eventually had rapidly developed leptomeningeal disease and review the literature with a focus on the clinic pathological, radiological, and treatment options.
PMCID: PMC4532938  PMID: 26294993
23.  l-Asparaginase from Streptomyces griseus NIOT-VKMA29: optimization of process variables using factorial designs and molecular characterization of l-asparaginase gene 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:12404.
Marine actinobacteria are known to be a rich source for novel metabolites with diverse biological activities. In this study, a potential extracellular L-asparaginase was characterised from the Streptomyces griseus NIOT-VKMA29. Box-Behnken based optimization was used to determine the culture medium components to enhance the L-asparaginase production. pH, starch, yeast extract and L-asparagine has a direct correlation for enzyme production with a maximum yield of 56.78 IU mL−1. A verification experiment was performed to validate the experiment and more than 99% validity was established. L-Asparaginase biosynthesis gene (ansA) from Streptomyces griseus NIOT-VKMA29 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli M15 and the enzyme production was increased threefold (123 IU mL−1) over the native strain. The ansA gene sequences reported in this study encloses several base substitutions with that of reported sequences in GenBank, resulting in altered amino acid sequences of the translated protein.
PMCID: PMC4513294  PMID: 26206135
24.  The Hidden Burden of Dengue and Chikungunya in Chennai, India 
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases  2015;9(7):e0003906.
Dengue and chikungunya are rapidly expanding viruses transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. Few epidemiological studies have examined the extent of transmission of these infections in South India despite an increase in the number of reported cases, and a high suitability for transmission.
Methods and findings
We conducted a household-based seroprevalence survey among 1010 individuals aged 5-40 years living in fifty randomly selected spatial locations in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Participants were asked to provide a venous blood sample and to complete a brief questionnaire with basic demographic and daily activity information. Previous exposure to dengue and chikungunya was determined using IgG indirect ELISA (Panbio) and IgG ELISA (Novatec), respectively. We used this data to estimate key transmission parameters (force of infection and basic reproductive number) and to explore factors associated with seropositivity. While only 1% of participants reported history of dengue and 20% of chikungunya, we found that 93% (95%CI 89-95%) of participants were seropositive to dengue virus, and 44% (95%CI 37-50%) to chikungunya. Age-specific seroprevalence was consistent with long-tem, endemic circulation of dengue and suggestive of epidemic chikungunya transmission. Seropositivity to dengue and chikungunya were significantly correlated, even after adjusting for individual and household factors. We estimate that 23% of the susceptible population gets infected by dengue each year, corresponding to approximately 228,000 infections. This transmission intensity is significantly higher than that estimated in known hyperendemic settings in Southeast Asia and the Americas.
These results provide unprecedented insight into the very high transmission potential of dengue and chikungunya in Chennai and underscore the need for enhanced surveillance and control methods.
Author Summary
Despite a recent increase in the number of cases, little data exist on the extent of dengue and chikungunya transmission in Indian cities. We conducted a household-based serosurvey conducted in randomly selected spatial locations across the metropolis of Chennai. We tested samples for evidence of previous infection by dengue and chikungunya viruses and used this data to estimate key transmission parameters (force of infection and basic reproductive number) and to explore factors associated with seropositivity. We found that 93% of participants had been exposed to dengue virus, and 44% to chikungunya. We estimate that 23% of the susceptible population gets infected by dengue virus each year, corresponding to approximately 228,000 infections per year. This transmission intensity is almost three times larger than that in traditionally hyperendemic district in Thailand, and suggests an extremely large proportion of asymptomatic/sub-clinical disease, a lack of recognition of the disease and/or under-reporting.
PMCID: PMC4504702  PMID: 26181441
25.  ‘Spotted Nanoflowers’: Gold-seeded Zinc Oxide Nanohybrid for Selective Bio-capture 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:12231.
Hybrid gold nanostructures seeded into nanotextured zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoflowers (NFs) were created for novel biosensing applications. The selected ‘spotted NFs’ had a 30-nm-thick gold nanoparticle (AuNP) layer, chosen from a range of AuNP thicknesses, sputtered onto the surface. The generated nanohybrids, characterized by morphological, physical and structural analyses, were uniformly AuNP-seeded onto the ZnO NFs with an average length of 2–3 μm. Selective capture of molecular probes onto the seeded AuNPs was evidence for the specific interaction with DNA from pathogenic Leptospirosis-causing strains via hybridization and mis-match analyses. The attained detection limit was 100 fM as determined via impedance spectroscopy. High levels of stability, reproducibility and regeneration of the sensor were obtained. Selective DNA immobilization and hybridization were confirmed by nitrogen and phosphorus peaks in an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The created nanostructure hybrids illuminate the mechanism of generating multiple-target, high-performance detection on a single NF platform, which opens a new avenue for array-based medical diagnostics.
PMCID: PMC4503952  PMID: 26178973

Results 1-25 (694)