Blepharispermum subsessile DC. is a folklore medicinal herb, found in Odisha, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra. It is locally known as Rasnajhadi in Odisha and its roots are being used as Rasna in treating rheumatic, gynecological, nervous disorders. In spite of its high medicinal as well as market values, the pharmacognostical characters of its root is not reported till date.
To evaluate pharmacognostical and preliminary physico-chemical profiles of B. subsessile root.
Materials and Methods:
Roots of B. subsessile were collected from Odisha; its macroscopic, microscopic, powder characters and preliminary physico-chemical characters were studied following standard procedures.
Microscopically, outer multilayered lignified cork cells, cortex, border pitted xylem vessels, tracheids, isolated or groups of thick-walled xylem fibees were seen. Physico-chemical parameters showed that water soluble extractive value (31.3%) is more than alcohol soluble extractive value (23.2%) and 5.5 pH value, etc.
The findings of the study will be useful in the identification and standardization of the B. subsessile root.
Asteraceae; Blepharispermum subsessile DC.; ethnomedicine; pharmacognosy; Rasna; root
Ethno-medical claims indicate that leaf of Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch is being used in pain, inflammatory conditions by the Koya tribes.
To evaluate and compare the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of leaves of H. integrifolia in powder and decoction forms.
Materials and Methods:
The leaves of H. integrifolia were made into powder and decoction form using guidelines mentioned in Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India. The anti-inflammatory activity of test drug was evaluated against carrageenan and formalin induced paw edema and analgesic activity with formalin induced paw licking and tail flick response using Wistar albino rats.
Administration of leaf powder showed insignificant inhibition of carrageenan induced paw edema at 1 h (21.62%) compared to the control group. Administration of decoction of leaves showed insignificant inhibition of carrageenan induced paw edema at 1 h (18.12%) and 3 h (9.78%). Administration of leaf powder decreased the paw edema at 24 h (37.65%) and 48 h (66.30%) while treatment with leaf decoction showed apparent decrease in paw edema at 24 h (13.68%) and 48 h (52.42%) but failed to reach at significant level of formalin induced paw edema in rats. The test drugs did not produce any effect on radiant heat induced pain in rats and formalin induced paw licking response.
Leaf decoction of H. integrifolia has better anti-inflammatory activity than leaf powder while they have not shown significant analgesic effects in both the experimental models.
Analgesic; anti-inflammatory; Chirabilva; Holoptelea integrifolia
Palatability is an important factor for choice of food by an individual. Amlarasa (sour taste) is one of the main organoleptic entities in foods of present day, which always tempts the consumer to take it now and then. According to classical Ayurvedic texts, balanced intake of Amlarasa in diet helps to maintain physiological health, but its excessive intake produces some signs and symptoms such as dentine hypersensitivity, stomatitis, halitosis, heartburn, urticaria, papule and joint inflammation.
To establish the relationship between excessive use of sour predominant diets and signs/symptoms produced by it.
Materials and Methods:
A case-control survey study was designed wherein total of 178 volunteers were interviewed personally. Subjects with particular symptoms consider as a cases while healthy volunteers as controls. To measure the excessive intake of Amlarasa, quantity and frequency of common food articles such as mango, tomato, lime, butter milk, tamarind, curd, fermented items etc., are taken into consideration. Data was arranged in to 2 × 2 table and odd ratio was calculated for each symptom.
Odds ratio for dentine hypersensitivity, stomatitis, halitosis, heartburn, urticaria, papule and joint inflammation with 95% confidence interval were found 1.95 (0.97-3.93), 2.45 (1.12-5.40), 2.76 (0.96-7.98), 2.21 (1.09-4.53), 0.86 (0.32-2.32), 2.28 (1.02-5.05) and 4.85 (1.09-10.24) respectively.
Study reveals that Amlarasa is a risk factor for joint inflammation, dentine hypersensitivity, stomatitis, halitosis, heartburn and papules. Study supports the Ayurvedic classical claim regarding Atiyoga of Amlarasa.
Amlarasa; Atiyoga; excessive intake; sour taste; survey
Pharmacodynamics, in Ayurveda has been described in terms of Rasadipanchaka. Rasa, on one side indicates the Bhautika composition of the drug and on the other side predicts the action. Different analytical techniques, pharmaceutical processes are being used in Ayurveda for the purpose of standardization of raw drugs.
In this study an attempt has been made to apply chromatographic technique in determination of Kashaya (astringent) Rasa (taste).
Materials and Methods:
Two important Kashaya dominant drugs Kulattha (Dolichos biflorus Linn.) and Kanchanara (Bauhinia variegata Linn.), falling under Vichitra and Samana Pratyayarabdha category respectively, were subjected to physicochemical parameters and qualitative tests followed by High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography (HPTLC). In light of chromatographic fingerprinting; sample preparation protocol is modified to incorporate taste threshold in correlation. Column chromatography is used for first-level discrimination technique followed by HPTLC. Kashaya Rasa Dominant Zone (KsRDZ) was separated and subjected to TLC fingerprinting. The KsRDZ fraction was designated as Botanical Reference Material (BRM) in further analysis.
Ash value, Alcohol and water soluble extract value were more in B variegata as compared to D biflorus. Presence of tannin in both the samples was confirmed through qualitative test. The KsRDZ fraction separated at Rf 0.46 and 0.48 for Kulattha and Kanchanara respectively.
The results showed that the planner chromatography technique seems very useful when BRM hypothesis was adjunct to method that explains the categorization according to traditional Rasa domain classification method.
Column chromatography; high-performance thin-layer chromatography; Rasa; spectral comparison; taste threshold
Limphonia rugosa Roth. (Merr.), family-Scrophulariaceae is considered as a botanical source of classical Ayurvedic drug Bhringaraja by the traditional practitioners of Odisha and is being used for the management of various disorders.
To study the antimicrobial activity of leaf of L. rugosa.
Materials and Methods:
Methanol extract of L. rugosa leaf (LRLM) has been studied, at various (5, 25, 50, 100, 250 μg/ml) dilutions, against medically important human pathogenic bacteria (two Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and two Gram-negative-Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two fungal strains (Aspergillus niger, A. clavatus, Candida albicans) by using the agar disc diffusion method. A zone of inhibition of extract was compared with that of different standards such as ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and chloramphenicol for antibacterial activity and nystatin and griseofulvin for antifungal activity.
The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the LRLM increased linear with the increase in concentration of extracts. When compared with standard drugs, the results revealed that, for bacterial activity S. pyogenes and S. aureus were more sensitive and in fungal activity C. albicans was more inhibited. The range of growth inhibition zone for all the sensitive bacteria was 11-20 mm and 13-19 mm for fungal strains.
Methanolic extract of L. rugosa leaf is having antibacterial and antifungal activities.
Antifungal activity; Bhringaraja; Gandhamardan hills; in vitro antibacterial activity; Limnophila rugosa leaf; microbial load
Gunja (Abrus precatorius Linn.), known as Indian liquorice, is reputed as one of the world's most deadly but most beautiful seed belonging to the family Fabaceae, characterised under the Upavisha (semi-poisonous drugs) and used extensively in various Ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommended the administration of Gunja only after proper Shodhana (purification procedures) in different media such as Godugdha (cow's milk), Kanji (sour gruel), etc., Apart from the classical methods, some traditional practitioners use Nimbu Swarasa for the Shodhana of Gunja seeds. In this study, an attempt has been made to carry out Shodhana of Gunja seeds using Nimbu Swarasa and water. This study revealed differences in physico-chemical parameters of purified samples, in comparison to raw drugs.
Abrin; Abrus precatorius; Gunja; Nimbu Swarasa; Shodhana
In Ayurveda, the roots of Eranda (Ricinus communis Linn.) are used in the treatment Amavata (rheumatism), Sotha (inflammation), Katisula (backache), Udararoga (disease of abdomen), Jwara (fever), etc, Due to high demand, root of the cultivated variety is mainly used in place of wild. But, a comparative phytochemical profile of both varieties is not available till date. Considering this, a preliminary study has been done to ensure basic phytochemical profile of both the varieties. Preliminary physicochemical parameters, phytochemical screening, quantitative estimation of alkaloid, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and heavy metal analysis were carried-out in the study. Analysis of physicochemical data reveals no significant difference in between both varieties of roots, while alkaloid was found to be more in cultivated variety (0.34%) than wild one (0.15%). Though, the analytical profiles are almost identical, except the quantity of alkaloid; inferences should be made through well designed pharmacological and clinical studies.
Alkaloid; Eranda; high-performance thin layer chromatography; Ricinus communis
Present study was undertaken to evaluate analgesic activity of root of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng, a folklore medicinal plant used as the one of the source plant of Rasna. Study was carried out at two dose levels (270 mg/kg and 540 mg/kg) in albino rats. Analgesic activity was evaluated in formalin induced paw licking, and tail flick methods whereas indomethacin and pentazocine were used as standard analgesic drugs, respectively. At both the dose levels, test drug non-significantly decreased paw licking response at both time intervals. In tail flick model, the administration of the test drug increased pain threshold response in a dose dependent manner. In therapeutically equivalent dose level, analgesic activity was observed only after 180 min while in TED ×2 treated group analgesia was observed at 30 min and lasted even up to 240 min. The results suggested that N.canescens root possess moderate analgesic activity.
Analgesic; folklore; gandhamardana hills; Nelsonia canescens; Rasna
Cordia dichotoma Forst. f. bark, identified as botanical source of Shleshmataka in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Present investigation was undertaken to evaluate possible antioxidant potential of methanolic and butanol extract of C. dichotoma bark. In vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic and butanol extract was determined by 1,1, diphenyl–2, picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. The extracts were also evaluated for their phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. Phenolic content was measured using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as Gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of methanolic extract was measured by DPPH assay and was compared to ascorbic acid and ferric reducing power of the extract was evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study three in vitro models were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. The first two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and remaining one method evaluated the reducing power. The present study revealed that the C. dichotoma bark has significant radical scavenging activity.
Antioxidant; anti–radical; Cordia dichotoma; diphenyl–2; picrylhydrazyl; reducing power; Shleshmataka
Launaea sarmentosa (Willd) Schultz-Bip.ex Kuntze (Asteraceae), locally known as Kulhafila in the Maldives, is a creeping herb, native to tropical Indian coastlines. According to anecdotal evidence from locals in the Maldives, the roots of this plant are used as an ingredient of a popular medicinal preparation (Hilibeys) taken by mothers after childbirth. It is also used in various other ailments in different parts of the Maldives, as well as in India. So far, there has been no scientific documentation of this plant. The only source of information available is held by natives and traditional medical practitioners. The present study was conducted on the root of L. sarmentosa for its pharmacognostical and phytochemical characteristics as per Ayurvedic Pharmacopoea of India (API) parameters. The microscopic characteristics of the root show prismatic crystals, multiseriate medullary rays, laticiferous cells, and pitted parenchyma. Qualitative analyses, such as loss on drying, ash value, pH, etc., were conducted. Preliminary phytochemical screening shows the presence of alkaloids, tannin, steroids, etc.
Asteraceae; Kulhafila; Launaea sarmentosa; pharmacognosy; phytochemistry
Strychnos nux vomica Linn.(Loganaceae) commonly known as Nux vomica (Kupeelu), is a poisonous plant and its seeds are used widely in Ayurvedic system of medicine since time immemorial. Ayurveda advocates that nux vomica seeds are to be administered in therapeutics only after going through certain purificatory measures (Shodhana). There are more than six media: cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel), castor oil (Eranda taila) and fresh ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa) etc., which have been reported in different classical texts of Ayurveda for proper processing of nux vomica seeds. In this study, an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by using three different methods as described in ancient treatise by using cow's urine and cow's milk as media alone and together. This study revealed that all the methods studied reduced the toxicity of strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by HPTLC. Out of these three methods maximum reduction in strychnine and brucine contents was found when the seeds were purified by keeping them in cow's urine for seven days followed by boiling in cow's milk for three hrs.
Kupeelu; Strychnos nuxvomica; Shodhana; strychnine; Ayurveda; brucine; Cow's milk; Cow's urine
Shyonaka (Oroxylum indicum Vent.; Bignoniaceae) root bark is one of the ingredients of dashamoola (a group of 10 roots), and is used for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic action in a number of compound formulations in Ayurveda.
Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (API) recommends using the stem bark instead of root bark.
Material and Methods:
An attempt has been made to study the anti-inflammatory activity of both root bark and stem bark kashaya (decoction) experimentally.
Results showed significant anti-inflammatory activity of root bark and stem bark decoction.
Anti-inflammatory; Ayurveda; dashamoola; Oroxylum indicum; shyonaka
Linaria ramosissima (Wall.) Janch., Scrophulariaceae, a folklore plant, has been claimed for its diuretic activities by traditional practitioners. The present study was undertaken to investigate the diuretic activity of L. ramosissima leaves in albino rats. Suspension of leaf powder in 2% gum acacia was administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 450 mg/kg. The diuretic effect was evaluated by measuring the urine volume, pH of urine, and urinary electrolyte excretion. Administration of the test drug increased the urine volume in a non-significant manner, while it enhanced the urinary excretion of sodium, chloride, and potassium significantly, in comparison to the control group. From the present study it can be concluded that the leaves of L. ramosissima have a significant diuretic activity.
Diuretic activity; electrolyte excretion; folklore plant; Linaria ramosissima
Jivanti (Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wt. et Arn) is a well known climber used for its innumerable therapeutic properties like antioxidant, antibacterial, vasodilator, galactogogue, Jivaniya, etc., Its use in veterinary practice is tremendous due to its lactogenic effect. The Ghana (dried aqueous extract) of the whole plant was prepared and evaluated phyto-chemically by subjecting it to various tests like physico-chemical, qualitative analysis; TLC and HPTLC. Qualitative tests revealed the presence of flavonoids and TLC also inferred positive Rf value (0.30), indicating the presence of quercetin in the Ghana.
Dried extract; Ghana; Jivanti; Leptadenia reticulata; quercetin
Kusha (Imperata cylindrica Beauv.) and Darbha (Desmostachya bipinnata Stapf.) are enlisted among Trinapanchamoola, which is a well-known diuretic and are individually enumerated in the Mootravirechaneeya Dashemani. The article deals with the evaluation and comparison of the individual Mootrala (diuretic) action of the two drugs in healthy volunteers. In this study, 29 healthy volunteers were divided into three groups administered with Darbha Moola Churna, Kusha Moola Churna, and placebo in each group for 14 days. The volunteers were subjected to evaluation of diuretic activity by maintaining the daily total input–output charts during the course of the study. The volunteers were advised to consume a minimum 2 l of water daily. Results show that Darbha and Kusha leaded to a percentage increase in urine volume as compared to placebo group, but the result was statistically insignificant.
Darbha; Desmostachya bipinnata; diuretic; Imperata cylindrica; Kusha; Mootrala
Seed of Guñjā (Abrus precatorius Linn.), a known poisonous drug, is used extensively in various ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommends the administration of Guñjā in diseases like Indralupta (alopecia), Śotha (edema), Kṛmi (helminthes), Kuṣṭha (skin diseases), Kaṇḍu (itching), Prameha (urinary disorders) etc., after being treated with specific Śodhana (purification) procedures.
To assess the antimicrobial action of of raw and Śhodhita (Processed) Guñjā seeds
Guñjā seeds after being processed with Godugdha (cow's milk), Nimbu swarasa (Lemon juice), Kāñjī (Sour gruel) and water, as the media, were evaluated for its antibacterial effect against clinically important bacterial strains using agar well diffusion method.
Aqueous extracts of raw seeds of Guñjā exert its antibacterial effect on both Gram positive, as well as Gram negative bacteria but none of the Śodhita Guñjā seeds showed any bactericidal effect on any bacterial strains. Chloroform extracts of all the Śodhita Guñjā seed extracts could inhibit bacterial growth but with variations
The study displayed that chloroform extracts of raw and śodhita samples for bacterial study were much sensitive than the aqueous extracts.
Abrin; Abrus precatorius Linn; anti-bacterial; Guñjā; Śhodhana
Cissus repanda Vahl. belongs to the family Vitaceae, commonly known in Hindi as “Panivel,” is a large climber distributed all over India. The crushed or powder of root is prescribed by tribal people and traditional medical practitioners of Orissa for its healing properties in cases of bone fracture, cuts and wounds, swellings, and so on. In spite of its reputation, its leaves have not been investigated scientifically. The present study deals with pharmacognostical and molecular characterization by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and their role in laying down standardization and pharmacopoeial parameters. Genomic isolation of DNA from fresh leaves was amplified by RAPD markers. The diagnostic characters are mucilage, calcium oxalate rosette crystals, spiral vessels, and fibers. The unique bands obtained in Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification clearly discriminated having, many bright and light bands indicating the genuinity of the plant. RAPD may serve as a complementary tool in quality control of many herbal sources.
Cissus repanda; pharmacognosy; RAPD
The present study has beenundertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of two varieties of Pippali in acute and sub-acute experimental models of inflammation in albino rats. Four different market samples of each variety of Pippali were procured from different regions of India. The samples collected from South India which have given more extractive values were selected for screening of anti-inflammatory activity. Randomly selected animals were divided into four groups of six animals each. The test drugs were administered orally at a dose of 200 mg/kg and the activity was compared with standard anti-inflammatory drugs in both models. Among the two different test samples studied, it was found that Chhoti variety of Pippali suppressed inflammation of both acute and sub acute phase, while Badi variety of Pippali only of acute phase. Thus for the therapeutic utility, Chhoti variety of Pippali may be considered over the Badi variety.
Anti-inflammatory; carrageenan; Chhoti Pippali; Pippali; plethysmograph
Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng. (Acanthaceae), a well-known plant in traditional systems of medicine, known as “Bada Rasna” by the traditional practitioners of Odisha, is being used as Rasna for managing pain and inflammation. The detailed macroscopic and microscopic characters of the plant, except its root, are lacking. Hence, it was thought worth to study the leaves of the plant for its detailed morphological and microscopical characters, by following the standard pharmacognostical procedures. The study shows the presence of diacytic stomata in the lower epidermis of lamina, microsphenoidal and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in the mesophyll cells, simple and glandular trichomes. The observed major diagnostic characters of the leaf may find useful for its standardization.
Anti-inflammatory; Gandhamardana Hills; Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng. Leaf; pharmacognosy; Rasna
Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) commonly known as nux vomica is a poisonous plant used extensively in various ayurvedic formulations, with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommended the administration of Kupeelu only after purification in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (sour gruel), and so on. Apart from the classical methods some other methods are also adopted by the traditional practitioners using castor oil (Eranda taila), ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa), in the purification of Kupeelu seeds. In the present study an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by performing two different methods (one classical and another traditional) using Kanji and Ardraka
swarasa as Shodhana media. This study reveals that both the methods studied reduce the strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). After purification in Kanji and Ardraka swarasa, the strychnine content was reduced by 39.25% and 67.82%, respectively, and the brucine content in the purified seeds was also found to have decreased by 17.60% and 40.06%, in comparison to the raw seeds.
Ardraka swarasa; brucine; kanji; kupeelu; shodhana; strychnine
In Ayurveda, a series of pharmaceutical procedures which converts a poisonous drug into a therapeutically very effective medicine for various ailments is termed as Shodhana. Various medias are being used for processing the herbal poisonous drugs, are quite interesting to understand with modern scientific technology. The analysis of media before and after Shodhana (purification /processing) will give clear rationale behind the selection of the particular media for the particular drug. The change that takes place during the Shodhana process can be explored by modern analytical methods. Researchers have proved the presence of strychnine and brucine in milk after Shodhana of Nux-vomica highlighting the role media for Shodhana. Importance of Shodhana, the role of media used for Shodhana process of few poisonous drugs is dealt briefly with scientific view.
Shodhana; Purification; Processing; Poisonous herbs; Media
Ayurveda has given prime importance to Mutravaha srotas (urinary system) and Srotogata Vikaras (urinary disorders). Being a system responsible for homeostasis of fluids in the body it also detoxifies the body by eliminating certain waste products through urine. When diseased, people produce symptoms such as, increased or decreased urine production, painful maturition, formation of stones, and thereby obstructed micturition, increased frequency of micturition, and so on. There are many herbs with varied actions specifically aimed at mitigating urinary system disorders. Drugs such as Jambu, Amrasthi, and the like, reduce the increased flow of urine, and hence, are considered as Mutrasangrahaneeya, whereas, drugs like Ikshu, Kustha, and so on, increase the flow of urine, and hence, are considered as Mutravirechaneeya. There are drugs like Padma, Utpala, and so on, which impart normal color to the urine and are known as Mutravirajaneeya dravyas. Asmarighna dravyas break down the calculi and remove them through the urine. These dravyas, when used under proper direction, help in relieving the pain and apathy caused by the disease.
Ashmarighna dravya; Mutrasangrahaneeya dravya; Mutravirajaneeya dravya; Mutravirechaneeya dravya; urinary system; herbs