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1.  Nestin expressing progenitor cells during establishment of the neural retina and its vasculature 
Anatomy & Cell Biology  2012;45(1):38-46.
In order to test if nestin is a useful marker for various types of progenitor cells, we explored nestin expression in the retina during development. Nestin expression was co-evaluated with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling and Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 (GSIB4) histochemistry. Nestin immunoreactivity appears in cell soma of dividing neural progenitor cells and their leading processes in retinas from embryonic day (E) 13 to E20, in accordance with a BrdU-labeled pattern. At postnatal day (P) 5, it is restricted to the end feet of Müller cells. BrdU-labeled nuclei were mainly in the inner part of the inner nuclear layer in postnatal neonates. The retinal vessels demarcated with GSIB4-positive endothelial cells were first distributed in the nerve fiber layer from P3. Afterward the vascular branches sprouted and penetrated deeply into the retina. The endothelial cells positive for GSIB4 and the pericytes in the microvessels were additionally immunoreactive for nestin. Interestingly, the presumed migrating microglial cells showing only GSIB4 reactivity preceded the microvessels throughout the neuroblast layer during vascular sprouting and extension. These findings may suggest that nestin expression represents the proliferation and movement potential of the neural progenitor cells as well as the progenitor cells of the endothelial cell and the pericyte during retinal development. Thus, Müller glial cells might be potential neural progenitor cells of the retina, and the retinal microvasculature established by both the endothelial and the pericyte progenitor cells via vasculogenesis along microglia migrating routes sustains its angiogenic potential.
PMCID: PMC3328739  PMID: 22536550
Neurogenesis; Vasculogenesis; Retina; Nestin; Proliferation; Migration
2.  Immunochemical changes of calbindin, calretinin and SMI32 in ischemic retinas induced by increase of intraocular pressure and by middle cerebral artery occlusion 
Anatomy & Cell Biology  2011;44(1):25-34.
The reaction of neuroactive substances to ischemic conditions in the rat retina evoked by different methods was immunochemically evaluated in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Ocular ischemic conditions were unilaterally produced by elevating intraocular pressure (EIOP) or by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Two EF-hand calcium binding proteins, calbindin D28K (CB) and calretinin (CR), in the normal retina showed similar immunolocalization, such as the amacrine and displaced amacrine cells, the ganglion cells, and their processes, particularly CB in horizontal cells. CB immunoreactive neurons in the ganglion cell layer in both types of ischemic retinas were more reduced in number than CR neurons compared to those in a normal retina. The CB protein level in both ischemic retinas was reduced to 60-80% of normal. The CR protein level in MCAO retinas was reduced to about 80% of normal but increased gradually to the normal value, whereas that in the EIOP showed a gradual reduction and a slight recovery. SMI32 immunoreactivity, which detects a dephosphorylated epitope of neurofilaments-M and -H, appeared in the axon bundles of ganglion cells in the innermost nerve fiber layer of normal retinas. The reactivity in the nerve fiber bundles appeared to only increase slightly in EIOP retinas, whereas a moderate increase occurred in MCAO retinas. The SMI32 protein level in MCAO retinas showed a gradual increasing tendency, whereas that in the EIOP showed a slight fluctuation. Interestingly, the MCAO retinas showed additional SMI32 immunoreactivity in the cell soma of presumed ganglion cells, whereas that of EIOP appeared in the Müller proximal radial fibers. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity appeared in the astrocytes located in the nerve fiber layer of normal retinas. Additional GFAP immunoreactivity appeared in the Müller glial fibers deep in EIOP retinas and at the proximal end in MCAO retinas. These findings suggest that the neurons in the ganglion cell layer undergo degenerative changes in response to ischemia, although EIOP retinas represented a remarkable Müller glial reaction, whereas MCAO retinas had only a small-scaled axonal transport disturbance.
PMCID: PMC3080005  PMID: 21519546
Elevation of intraocular pressure; Middle cerebral artery occlusion; Calcium-binding protein; SMI32; Retina
3.  Localization of Neuropeptide Y1 Receptor Immunoreactivity in the Rat Retina and the Synaptic Connectivity of Y1 Immunoreactive Cells 
Neuropeptide Y (NPY), an inhibitory neuropeptide expressed by a moderately dense population of wide-field amacrine cells in the rat retina, acts through multiple (Y1–y6) G-protein–coupled receptors. This study determined the cellular localization of Y1 receptors and the synaptic connectivity of Y1 processes in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the rat retina. Specific Y1 immunoreactivity was localized to horizontal cell bodies in the distal inner nuclear layer and their processes in the outer plexiform layer. Immunoreactivity was also prominent in cell processes located in strata 2 and 4, and puncta in strata 4 and 5 of the IPL. Double-label immunohistochemical experiments with calbindin, a horizontal cell marker, confirmed Y1 immunostaining in all horizontal cells. Double-label immunohistochemical experiments, using antibodies to choline acetyltransferase and vesicular acetylcholine transporter to label cholinergic amacrine cell processes, demonstrated that Y1 immunoreactivity in strata 2 and 4 of the IPL was localized to cholinergic amacrine cell processes. Electron microscopic studies of the inner retina showed that Y1-immunostained amacrine cell processes and puncta received synaptic inputs from unlabeled amacrine cell processes (65.2%) and bipolar cell axon terminals (34.8%). Y1-immunoreactive amacrine cell processes most frequently formed synaptic outputs onto unlabeled amacrine cell processes (34.0%) and ganglion cell dendrites (54.1%). NPY immunoreactivity in the rat retina is distributed primarily to strata 1 and 5 of the IPL, and the present findings, thus, suggest that NPY acts in a paracrine manner on Y1 receptors to influence both horizontal and amacrine cells.
PMCID: PMC3696015  PMID: 12455004
amacrine cells; choline acetyltransferase; calcium binding protein; horizontal cells; neuropeptides

Results 1-3 (3)